ResearchPad - papillary-carcinomas https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Pathological and genetic aspects of spontaneous mammary gland tumor in <i>Tupaia belangeri</i> (tree shrew)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_15738 Mammary gland cancer is the most common cancer occurring in women globally. Incidences of this cancer in Japan are on the increase. Annually, more than 70,000 new cases are recorded in Japan and about 1.7 million in the world. Many cases are still difficult to cure completely, and animal models are required for the characterization of the biology, therapeutic strategy, and preventive measures for spontaneous mammary tumor. The mouse model used currently has some limitations owing to structural differences between mouse and human mammary glands. Tupaia belangeri (tree shrew), which belongs to the Tupaiidae family, shows relatively high genetic homology and structural similarity to human mammary glands. Here, we characterized the spontaneous mammary tumors in 61 female tree shrews of different ages. The incidence rate was 24.6% (15/61), and the rate of simultaneous or metachronous multiplex tumors was 60% (9/15). From the incidence pattern, some cases seemed to be of familial mammary gland tumor, as the offspring of female tree shrews No. 3 and 9 and male tree shrew No. 11 showed a high incidence rate, of 73.3% (11/15). Average incidence age for tumor development was 2 years and 3 months, and the earliest was 10 months. Histochemical analysis indicated that spontaneous mammary gland tumors in the tree shrew show the features of intraductal papillary adenomas (22 cases), except 2 tubulopapillary carcinoma cases (No. 75 and 131). All the cases were positive for the progesterone receptor, whereas 91.3% were positive for the estrogen receptor, and 4.3% were HER-2 positive. We have also confirmed the expression of nectin-4 in some mammary tumor cells. Additionally, we subjected tree shrews to cytodiagnosis or X-ray CT. Thus, the findings of this study highlight the potential of the tree shrew as a valuable new animal model for mammary gland tumor study.

]]>
<![CDATA[SPOCK1 Is a Novel Transforming Growth Factor-β–Induced Myoepithelial Marker That Enhances Invasion and Correlates with Poor Prognosis in Breast Cancer]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da36ab0ee8fa60b864fa

In addition to contraction, myoepithelia have diverse paracrine effects, including a tumor suppression effect. However, certain myoepithelial markers have been shown to contribute to tumor progression. Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) is involved in the transdifferentiation of fibroblasts to contractile myofibroblasts. We investigated whether TGF-β can upregulate potential myoepithelial markers, which may have functional and clinicopathological significance in breast cancer. We found that TGF-β induced SPOCK1 expression in MCF10A, MCF12A, and M10 breast cells and demonstrated SPOCK1 as a novel myoepithelial marker that was immunolocalized within or beneath myoepithelia lining ductolobular units. A functional study showed that overexpression of SPOCK1 enhanced invasiveness in mammary immortalized and cancer cells. To further determine the biological significance of SPOCK1 in breast cancer, we investigated the expression of SPOCK1 in 478 invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) cases through immunohistochemistry and correlated the expression with clinicopathological characteristics. SPOCK1 expression was significantly correlated with high pathological tumor size (P = 0.012), high histological grade (P = 0.013), the triple-negative phenotype (P = 0.022), and the basal-like phenotype (P = 0.026) and was correlated with a significantly poorer overall survival on univariate analysis (P = 0.001, log-rank test). Multivariate Cox regression analysis demonstrated that SPOCK1 expression maintained an independent poor prognostic factor of overall survival. Analysis of SPOCK1 expression on various non-IDC carcinoma subtypes showed an enrichment of SPOCK1 expression in metaplastic carcinoma, which is pathogenetically closely related to epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). In conclusion, we identified SPOCK1 as a novel TGF-β–induced myoepithelial marker and further demonstrated that SPOCK1 enhanced invasion in breast cancer cells and correlated with poor prognosis in breast cancer clinical samples. The enrichment of SPOCK1 expression in metaplastic carcinoma and the correlation between SPOCK1 expression and high histological grading and basal-like phenotypes in IDC evidence an association between SPOCK1 and EMT.

]]>
<![CDATA[A Novel Role for Niemann-Pick Disease Type 2C Protein in Papillae Formation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da6fab0ee8fa60b9446d

Background

Despite the presence of papillary structures and papillary tumors in humans, the mechanism of papillae formation is unknown. We describe herein a novel role for Niemann-Pick disease type 2C (NPC2) protein, a cholesterol binding protein in the lysosome, in papillae formation.

Methodology/Principal Finding

We examined NPC2 protein expression in surgical samples of papillary tissues by immunohistochemical stain, and all papillary tissues expressed NPC2 protein in the epithelium. To examine our hypothesis of NPC2 protein-mediated papillae formation, we carried out xenograft experiments using wild H460 cells (large cell lung carcinoma cell line) that constitutively expressed abundant NPC2 protein and NPC2 protein-depleted H460 cells by NPC2 shRNA. The xenografts of wild H460 cells and empty shRNA vector cells showed distinct papillae formation, whereas NPC2 protein-depleted H460 cells displayed markedly reduced or no papillae. Since all papillary tissues have open spaces we examined whether NPC2 protein might also contribute to the creation of open spaces. The TUNEL assay in the xenografts of wild and empty shRNA vector H460 cells showed massive cell death, and NPC2 protein-depleted cells displayed minimal cell death. Measurement of caspase 3/7 activities in cultured H460 cells supported NPC2 protein-mediated apoptotic cell death. The presence of excess NPC2 protein, however, did not always produce papillae as seen in the xenografts of CHO cells that were stably transfected with NPC2.

Conclusions/Significance

The NPC2 protein of certain cells forms papillae coupled with apoptosis that creates open space. This protein may have future applications to modulate papillae formation and papillary growth in tumor tissues.

]]>
<![CDATA[Lack of an Association between Two BER Gene Polymorphisms and Breast Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db2cab0ee8fa60bd1917

Background

The base excision repair (BER) pathway removes DNA damage caused by ionizing radiation, reactive oxidative species and methylating agents. ADPRT and APE1 are two important genes in the BER pathway. Several studies have evaluated the association between polymorphisms in the two BER genes (ADPRT Val762Ala and APE1 Asp148Glu) and breast cancer risk. However, the results are inconsistent.

Methodology/Principal Findings

In this study, we conducted a meta-analysis to derive a more precise estimation. A total of 8 studies were included in the meta-analysis (6 studies with 2,521 cases and 2,652 controls for ADPRT Val762Ala polymorphism and 5 studies with 2,539 cases and 2,572 controls for APE1 Asp148Glu polymorphism). For ADPRT Val762Ala polymorphism, no obvious associations were found for all genetic models (Val/Ala vs. Val/Val: OR = 0.960, 95% CI = 0.845–1.090; Ala/Ala vs. Val/Val: OR = 0.897, 95% CI = 0.683–1.178; dominant model: OR = 0.953, 95% CI = 0.843–1.077; and recessive model: OR = 1.084, 95% CI = 0.838–1.403). For APE1 Asp148Glu polymorphism, also no obvious associations were found for all genetic models (Asp/Glu vs. Asp/Asp: OR = 0.947, 95% CI = 0.829–1.082; Glu/Glu vs. Asp/Asp: OR = 0.958, 95% CI = 0.813–1.129; dominant model: OR = 0.946, 95% CI = 0.835–1.072; and recessive model: OR = 1.004, 95% CI = 0.873–1.155). In the subgroup analysis by ethnicity or study design, still no obvious associations were found.

Conclusions/Significance

This meta-analysis indicates that ADPRT Val762Ala and APE1 Asp148Glu polymorphisms are not associated with increased breast cancer risk.

]]>
<![CDATA[Preoperative serum cystatin-C as a potential biomarker for prognosis of renal cell carcinoma]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db5cab0ee8fa60be034e

Purpose

The prognostic value of serum cystatin-C (Cys-C) in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) remains unknown. The purpose of this study is to explore the prognostic value of Cys-C for RCC patients.

Patients and methods

The levels of preoperative Cys-C, creatinine (CRE) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (e-GFR) were retrospectively collected in 325 RCC patients undergoing surgery. The cutoff values of Cys-C, CRE and e-GFR were determined by the standardized Cutoff Finder algorithm. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and pairwise comparison were performed to compare the three variables. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses were performed to investigate the prognostic value of serum Cys-C in RCC.

Results

Based on the analysis of Cutoff Finder algorithm, ROC curve and pairwise comparison, the preoperative Cys-C was superior to CRE and e-GFR as a predictive factor in RCC. Multivariate Cox regression analyses showed that high preoperative Cys-C (>1.09 mg/L) was significantly associated with shorter overall survival (OS) in all RCC patients (hazard ratio [HR], 1.59; P = 0.012), patients at pT1-2 (P<0.001), pN0 (P<0.001) and pM0 stages (P<0.001). Moreover, Multivariate Cox regression analyses also showed that in the 306 patients without metastasis, high preoperative Cys-C was also associated with shorter disease-free survival (DFS) (HR, 3.50; P = 0.013).

Conclusions

An elevated preoperative Cys-C level was demonstrated to be related with worse survival in patients with RCC. Measuring preoperative serum Cys-C might be a simple way for finding poor prognostic patients and patients with elevated preoperative Cys-C level should be more closely followed up.

]]>
<![CDATA[Similar Prognoses for Invasive Micropapillary Breast Carcinoma and Pure Invasive Ductal Carcinoma: A Retrospectively Matched Cohort Study in China]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da31ab0ee8fa60b84763

Purpose

Invasive micropapillary breast carcinoma (IMPC) is a rare pathological finding. Few studies have compared IMPC with invasive ductal breast carcinoma (IDC) according to matched nodal status and age. To better illustrate the difference between IMPC and IDC prognoses, we conducted this cohort study.

Methods

51 mixed or pure IMPC patients and 102 pure IDC patients were matched for nodal status and age. Clinical and biological features as well as disease-free survival (DFS) were compared between groups.

Results

More than one-half of IMPC consisted of mostly or exclusively IMPC component (meaning greater than 75%) and these tumors significantly correlated with a higher histologic grade (P = 0.016) and LVI positivity (P = 0.036) compared with mixed IMPC. IMPC displayed a significantly higher rate of estrogen receptor (ER) positivity and lymphovascular invasion (LVI) compared to matched IDC. Women diagnosed with IMPC had a slight, but not significant, reduced frequency for recurrence and metastasis compared to women with IDC (15.7% vs. 21.6%, P = 0.518). In the subgroup analysis, IMPC patients demonstrated significantly reduced survival (P = 0.018) compared to IDC patients in the T1N2–3 subpopulation, whereas IDC patients demonstrated significantly increased recurrence and metastasis (P = 0.024) compared to IMPC patients in the T2N2–3 subgroup. No difference was observed in patients with 3 or less positive lymph nodes (LNs).

Conclusion

Although no difference in DFS was observed between IMPC and LN-matched IDC patients, IMPC patients demonstrated a significantly poorer outcome compared to IDC patients with smaller tumors and 4 or more positive LNs. The opposite results were observed in larger tumors and patients with 4 or more positive LNs. Therefore, we might advise more proactive treatment for IMPC patients with a smaller tumor size and extensive LN involvement. Furthermore, correlative IMPC studies should focus on this subset of patients to elucidate the genetic and/or biologic differences that contribute to metastatic potential.

]]>
<![CDATA[Ultrasonography methods for predicting malignancy in canine mammary tumors]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db5cab0ee8fa60bdff3f

The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the efficacy of B-mode, Doppler, contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS), and Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse (ARFI) elastography in predicting malignancy in canine mammary masses. This was a prospective cohort study from 2014 to 2016, which included 153 bitches with one or more mammary masses. A total of 300 masses were evaluated by ultrasonography (B-mode, Doppler, CEUS, and ARFI) and subsequently classified as benign or malignant by histopathology. Each ultrasound parameters studied were compared between benign and malignant masses by Chi-square or Student tests and differences were considered significant when P < 0.01. For the variables that proved significant differences were estimated the cut-off point, sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and area under curve (AUC) by receiver-operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis in a logistic regression model using histopathological classification as reference, to assess and compare diagnostic performance of each technique. Out of 300 mammary masses evaluated 246 were classified as malignant and 54 as benign. B-mode measurements showed sensitivity 67.9%, and specificity 67.6% as malignancy predictors on canine mammary masses; Doppler indexes systolic (>21.2 m/s) and diastolic velocity (>4.8 m/s) sensitivity 79.2% and specificity 70.8%; CEUS wash-out time (<80.5 s) sensitivity 80.2% and specificity 16.7%; and ARFI elastography shear velocity (SWV > 2.57 m/s) sensitivity 94.7% and specificity 97.2% In conclusion B-mode and Doppler ultrasound evaluations may assist in malignancy prediction of canine mammary masses with moderate sensitivity and specificity, already the SWV was an great accurate predictor. Therefore, ARFI elastography exam inclusion in veterinary clinic oncology and research is highly recommended, since it allows fast, non-invasive, and complication-free malignancy prediction of canine mammary masses.

]]>
<![CDATA[Intraocular Pressure-Lowering Effect of Latanoprost Is Hampered by Defective Cervical Lymphatic Drainage]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da1cab0ee8fa60b7d143

Purpose

To evaluate whether defects in cervical lymphatic drainage influence the intraocular pressure (IOP)-lowering effect of latanoprost in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) who have undergone unilateral radical neck dissection (uRND).

Methods

We enrolled (1) bilateral POAG patients who had started (bilateral) latanoprost (0.005%) monotherapy prior to their uRND and (2) treatment-naïve, bilateral glaucoma suspects (GSs) who had undergone the same surgery. We compared the eyes ipsilateral to the uRND with their fellow eyes in terms of the changes in IOP between the baseline (prior to the uRND) and the follow-up visits (1, 3, and 6 months after the uRND).

Results

The study involved 22 eyes of 11 POAG patients and 14 eyes of 7 GSs. In the POAG patients, IOP had increased significantly after surgery in the eyes ipsilateral to the uRND (from 14.7±1.4mmHg to 17.1±2.2mmHg; P = 0.007). Interestingly, in the eyes contralateral to the uRND, IOP had not changed significantly after surgery (from 14.2±1.8mmHg to 14.4±2.0mmHg; P = 0.826). In GSs, the eyes ipsilateral to the uRND did not differ significantly from their fellow eyes in terms of post-operative IOP change (ipsilateral value: 0.3±0.5mmHg, fellow eyes: -0.1±0.7mmHg; P = 0.242).

Conclusion

In the POAG patients, IOP had increased significantly in the eyes ipsilateral to the uRND. However, it had not changed significantly in the eyes contralateral to the surgery or in the eyes of the GSs. These findings suggest that, latanoprost works, at least in part, by enhancing outflow from the aqueous humor via the uveolymphatic pathway.

]]>
<![CDATA[Circulating Cell-Free DNA in Dogs with Mammary Tumors: Short and Long Fragments and Integrity Index]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daf2ab0ee8fa60bc1b32

Circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) has been considered an interesting diagnostic/prognostic plasma biomarker in tumor-bearing subjects. In cancer patients, cfDNA can hypothetically derive from tumor necrosis/apoptosis, lysed circulating cells, and some yet unrevealed mechanisms of active release. This study aimed to preliminarily analyze cfDNA in dogs with canine mammary tumors (CMTs). Forty-four neoplastic, 17 non-neoplastic disease-bearing, and 15 healthy dogs were recruited. Necrosis and apoptosis were also assessed as potential source of cfDNA on 78 CMTs diagnosed from the 44 dogs. The cfDNA fragments and integrity index significantly differentiated neoplastic versus non-neoplastic dogs (P<0.05), and allowed the distinction between benign and malignant lesions (P<0.05). Even if without statistical significance, the amount of cfDNA was also affected by tumor necrosis and correlated with tumor size and apoptotic markers expression. A significant (P<0.01) increase of Bcl-2 in malignant tumors was observed, and in metastatic CMTs the evasion of apoptosis was also suggested. This study, therefore, provides evidence that cfDNA could be a diagnostic marker in dogs carrying mammary nodules suggesting that its potential application in early diagnostic procedures should be further investigated.

]]>
<![CDATA[Hormone Receptor Expression Analyses in Neoplastic and Non-Neoplastic Canine Mammary Tissue by a Bead Based Multiplex Branched DNA Assay: A Gene Expression Study in Fresh Frozen and Formalin-Fixed, Paraffin-Embedded Samples]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9f6ab0ee8fa60b70540

Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is currently considered the method of choice for steroid hormone receptor status evaluation in human breast cancer and, therefore, it is commonly utilized for assessing canine mammary tumors. In case of low hormone receptor expression, IHC is limited and thus is complemented by molecular analyses. In the present study, a multiplex bDNA assay was evaluated as a method for hormone receptor gene expression detection in canine mammary tissues. Estrogen receptor (ESR1), progesterone receptor (PGR), prolactin receptor (PRLR) and growth hormone receptor (GHR) gene expressions were evaluated in neoplastic and non-neoplastic canine mammary tissues. A set of 119 fresh frozen and 180 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) was comparatively analyzed and used for assay evaluation. Furthermore, a possible association between the hormone receptor expression in different histological subtypes of canine malignant mammary tumors and the castration status, breed and invasive growth of the tumor were analyzed. The multiplex bDNA assay proved to be more sensitive for fresh frozen specimens. Hormone receptor expression found was significantly decreased in malignant mammary tumors in comparison to non-neoplastic tissue and benign mammary tumors. Among the histological subtypes the lowest gene expression levels of ESR1, PGR and PRLR were found in solid, anaplastic and ductal carcinomas. In summary, the evaluation showed that the measurement of hormone receptors with the multiplex bDNA assay represents a practicable method for obtaining detailed quantitative information about gene expression in canine mammary tissue for future studies. Still, comparison with IHC or quantitative real-time PCR is needed for further validation of the present method.

]]>