ResearchPad - papua-new-guinea https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Confidential, accessible point-of-care sexual health services to support the participation of key populations in biobehavioural surveys: Lessons for Papua New Guinea and other settings where reach of key populations is limited]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14720 To achieve the UNAIDS 90-90-90 targets at a national level, many countries must accelerate service coverage among key populations. To do this, key population programs have adopted methods similar to those used in respondent-driven sampling (RDS) to expand reach. A deeper understanding of factors from RDS surveys that enhance health service engagement can improve key population programs. To understand the in-depth lives of key populations, acceptance of expanded point-of-care biological testing and determine drivers of participation in RDS surveys, we conducted semi-structured interviews with 111 key population participants (12–65 years) were purposefully selected from six biobehavioral surveys (BBS) in three cities in Papua New Guinea. Key populations were female sex workers, men who have sex with men, and transgender women. Four reasons motivated individuals to participate in the BBS: peer referrals; private, confidential, and stigma-free study facilities; “one-stop shop” services that provided multiple tests and with same-day results, sexually transmitted infection treatment, and referrals; and the desire to know ones’ health status. Biobehavioral surveys, and programs offering key population services can incorporate the approach we used to facilitate key population engagement in the HIV cascade.

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<![CDATA[The incredible diversity of Labiobaetis Novikova & Kluge in New Guinea revealed by integrative taxonomy (Ephemeroptera, Baetidae)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c2a7908d5eed0c48422cb8e
Abstract

Material collected between 1999 and 2011 in Papua New Guinea and the Papua Province of Indonesia unveiled the enormous diversity of Labiobaetis on this island. Twenty-six new species were identified and delimited by integrative taxonomy using genetic distance (COI, Kimura-2-parameter) and morphology. These new species are described and illustrated based on larvae, augmenting the total number of Labiobaetis species on the island of New Guinea to 32. Seven morpho-groups of species are proposed based on morphological characters and a key to all New Guinea species is provided. The generic attributes of the larvae are summarised and slightly modified based on the examinations of the new species. Results on the genetics of most species (COI) are also provided. The interspecific K2P distances are between 13% and 32%, the intraspecific distances usually between 0% and 2%. Possible reasons for the remarkable richness of this genus in New Guinea are discussed.

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<![CDATA[New Species of the Fern Genus Lindsaea (Lindsaeaceae) from New Guinea with Notes on the Phylogeny of L. sect. Synaphlebium]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dac9ab0ee8fa60bb3b39

To determine the taxonomic identities and the systematic positions of some collections of Lindsaea sect. Synaphlebium (Lindsaeaceae) from Papua New Guinea, we conducted morphological comparisons and phylogenetic analyses on the whole section. A total of 22 morphological characters were selected and coded for each of all known taxa in L. sect. Synaphlebium, and were analyzed using maximum parsimony. The datasets containing either of or combined two plastid DNA sequences (trnL-trnF spacer and trnH-psbA spacer) of 37 taxa were analyzed using maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian inference. Morphological comparisons revealed two new species which are formally published here as L. subobscura and L. novoguineensis. Lindsaea subobscura is similar to sympatric L. obscura and L. modesta but differs in the obviously reduced upper pinnules and other characters. Lindsaea novoguineensis is most similar to L. pacifica from Melanesia but differs in having rhomboid pinnules with truncate apices and concave soral receptacles. Molecular analyses resolved L. sect. Synaphlebium and allied species into five well-supported clades, namely L. rigida clade, L. obtusa clade, L. pulchella clade, L. multisora clade, and L. cultrata clade. The new species L. novoguineensis is included in L. obtusa clade; L. subobscura is in L. pulchella clade; whereas the majority of L. sect. Synaphlebium is clustered in L. cultrata clade. As the section Synaphlebium sensu Kramer is strongly suggested as polyphyletic, we propose the concept of a monophyletic L. sect. Synaphlebium in a broad sense that comprises five lineages. The morphological circumscription of L. sect. Synaphlebium sensu lato and the divergence in morphology, habit, and distribution between the five lineages are briefly discussed. Further molecular study is needed to test the systematic positions of 16 other species which are supposed to be within L. sect. Synaphlebium sensu lato but have not been included in this and previous molecular analyses.

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<![CDATA[Getting the Data Flowing: Lessons Learned from Existing Reporting Systems in the Forestry Sector in Indonesia for REDD+ MRV]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da0eab0ee8fa60b78d2a

In the context of REDD+, Measurement, Reporting and Verification (MRV) is one way to manage forest change information. A national carbon and non-carbon database will be used in REDD+ to negotiate compensation schemes with the international community. Much of this data will be collected at the local level, thus a reporting system that can integrate these locally collected data into the national database is crucial. In this paper we compare and draw lessons from three existing local to national reporting systems that include the participation of local communities: 1) the government extension services, 2) the government owned forestry company, and 3) a private logging company in Indonesia, and provide recommendations for REDD+ reporting systems. The results suggest that the main desired conditions for effective data flow are: benefits to motivate local participation, based on contributions to reporting activities; simple data format and reporting procedures to allow local participation in the reporting process, and to support data aggregation at the national level; a facilitator to mediate data aggregation at the village level to ensure data consistency, completeness and accuracy; and a transparent and clear data flow. Under these conditions, continuous, accountable and consistent data flow from the local level will reach the national level where it can be fully utilized.

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<![CDATA[Motivation Matters: Lessons for REDD+ Participatory Measurement, Reporting and Verification from Three Decades of Child Health Participatory Monitoring in Indonesia]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9e4ab0ee8fa60b6a841

Participatory Measurement, Reporting and Verification (PMRV), in the context of reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation with its co-benefits (REDD+) requires sustained monitoring and reporting by community members. This requirement appears challenging and has yet to be achieved. Other successful, long established, community self-monitoring and reporting systems may provide valuable lessons. The Indonesian integrated village healthcare program (Posyandu) was initiated in the 1980s and still provides effective and successful participatory measurement and reporting of child health status across the diverse, and often remote, communities of Indonesia. Posyandu activities focus on the growth and development of children under the age of five by recording their height and weight and reporting these monthly to the Ministry of Health. Here we focus on the local Posyandu personnel (kaders) and their motivations and incentives for contributing. While Posyandu and REDD+ measurement and reporting activities differ, there are sufficient commonalities to draw useful lessons. We find that the Posyandu kaders are motivated by their interests in health care, by their belief that it benefits the community, and by encouragement by local leaders. Recognition from the community, status within the system, training opportunities, competition among communities, and small payments provide incentives to sustain participation. We examine these lessons in the context of REDD+.

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<![CDATA[Model-Informed Risk Assessment and Decision Making for an Emerging Infectious Disease in the Asia-Pacific Region]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daa0ab0ee8fa60ba5aa9

Background

Effective response to emerging infectious disease (EID) threats relies on health care systems that can detect and contain localised outbreaks before they reach a national or international scale. The Asia-Pacific region contains low and middle income countries in which the risk of EID outbreaks is elevated and whose health care systems may require international support to effectively detect and respond to such events. The absence of comprehensive data on populations, health care systems and disease characteristics in this region makes risk assessment and decisions about the provision of such support challenging.

Methodology/principal findings

We describe a mathematical modelling framework that can inform this process by integrating available data sources, systematically explore the effects of uncertainty, and provide estimates of outbreak risk under a range of intervention scenarios. We illustrate the use of this framework in the context of a potential importation of Ebola Virus Disease into the Asia-Pacific region. Results suggest that, across a wide range of plausible scenarios, preemptive interventions supporting the timely detection of early cases provide substantially greater reductions in the probability of large outbreaks than interventions that support health care system capacity after an outbreak has commenced.

Conclusions/significance

Our study demonstrates how, in the presence of substantial uncertainty about health care system infrastructure and other relevant aspects of disease control, mathematical models can be used to assess the constraints that limited resources place upon the ability of local health care systems to detect and respond to EID outbreaks in a timely and effective fashion. Our framework can help evaluate the relative impact of these constraints to identify resourcing priorities for health care system support, in order to inform principled and quantifiable decision making.

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<![CDATA[Microsatellite Genotyping of Plasmodium vivax Isolates from Pregnant Women in Four Malaria Endemic Countries]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da77ab0ee8fa60b9730b

Plasmodium vivax is the most widely distributed human parasite and the main cause of human malaria outside the African continent. However, the knowledge about the genetic variability of P. vivax is limited when compared to the information available for P. falciparum. We present the results of a study aimed at characterizing the genetic structure of P. vivax populations obtained from pregnant women from different malaria endemic settings. Between June 2008 and October 2011 nearly 2000 pregnant women were recruited during routine antenatal care at each site and followed up until delivery. A capillary blood sample from the study participants was collected for genotyping at different time points. Seven P. vivax microsatellite markers were used for genotypic characterization on a total of 229 P. vivax isolates obtained from Brazil, Colombia, India and Papua New Guinea. In each population, the number of alleles per locus, the expected heterozygosity and the levels of multilocus linkage disequilibrium were assessed. The extent of genetic differentiation among populations was also estimated. Six microsatellite loci on 137 P. falciparum isolates from three countries were screened for comparison. The mean value of expected heterozygosity per country ranged from 0.839 to 0.874 for P. vivax and from 0.578 to 0.758 for P. falciparum. P. vivax populations were more diverse than those of P. falciparum. In some of the studied countries, the diversity of P. vivax population was very high compared to the respective level of endemicity. The level of inter-population differentiation was moderate to high in all P. vivax and P. falciparum populations studied.

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<![CDATA[A Genome-Wide Association Study on the Seedless Phenotype in Banana (Musa spp.) Reveals the Potential of a Selected Panel to Detect Candidate Genes in a Vegetatively Propagated Crop]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dabfab0ee8fa60bb03ef

Banana (Musa sp.) is a vegetatively propagated, low fertility, potentially hybrid and polyploid crop. These qualities make the breeding and targeted genetic improvement of this crop a difficult and long process. The Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) approach is becoming widely used in crop plants and has proven efficient to detecting candidate genes for traits of interest, especially in cereals. GWAS has not been applied yet to a vegetatively propagated crop. However, successful GWAS in banana would considerably help unravel the genomic basis of traits of interest and therefore speed up this crop improvement. We present here a dedicated panel of 105 accessions of banana, freely available upon request, and their corresponding GBS data. A set of 5,544 highly reliable markers revealed high levels of admixture in most accessions, except for a subset of 33 individuals from Papua. A GWAS on the seedless phenotype was then successfully applied to the panel. By applying the Mixed Linear Model corrected for both kinship and structure as implemented in TASSEL, we detected 13 candidate genomic regions in which we found a number of genes potentially linked with the seedless phenotype (i.e. parthenocarpy combined with female sterility). An additional GWAS performed on the unstructured Papuan subset composed of 33 accessions confirmed six of these regions as candidate. Out of both sets of analyses, one strong candidate gene for female sterility, a putative orthologous gene to Histidine Kinase CKI1, was identified. The results presented here confirmed the feasibility and potential of GWAS when applied to small sets of banana accessions, at least for traits underpinned by a few loci. As phenotyping in banana is extremely space and time-consuming, this latest finding is of particular importance in the context of banana improvement.

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<![CDATA[A Single Dose Oral Azithromycin versus Intramuscular Benzathine Penicillin for the Treatment of Yaws-A Randomized Non Inferiority Trial in Ghana]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db53ab0ee8fa60bdcef5

Background

Yaws is a treponemal infection that was almost eradicated fifty years ago; however, the disease has re-emerged in a number of countries including Ghana. A single-dose of intramuscular benzathine penicillin has been the mainstay of treatment for yaws. However, intramuscular injections are painful and pose safety and logistical constraints in the poor areas where yaws occurs. A single center randomized control trial (RCT) carried out in Papua New Guinea in 2012 demonstrated the efficacy of a single-dose of oral azithromycin for the treatment of yaws. In this study, we also compared the efficacy of a single oral dose of azithromycin as an alternative to intramuscular benzathine penicillin for the treatment of the disease in another geographic setting.

Methodology

We conducted an open-label, randomized non-inferiority trial in three neighboring yaws-endemic districts in Southern Ghana. Children aged 1–15 years with yaws lesions were assigned to receive either 30mg/kg of oral azithromycin or 50,000 units/kg of intramuscular benzathine penicillin. The primary end point was clinical cure rate, defined as a complete or partial resolution of lesions 3 weeks after treatment. The secondary endpoint was serological cure, defined as at least a 4-fold decline in baseline RPR titre 6 months after treatment. Non- inferiority of azithromycin treatment was determined if the upper bound limit of a 2 sided 95% CI was less than 10%.

Findings

The mean age of participants was 9.5 years (S.D.3.1, range: 1–15 years), 247(70%) were males. The clinical cure rates were 98.2% (95% CI: 96.2–100) in the azithromycin group and 96.9% (95% CI: 94.1–99.6) in the benzathine penicillin group. The serological cure rates at 6 months were 57.4% (95% CI: 49.9–64.9) in the azithromycin group and 49.1% (95% CI: 41.2–56.9) in the benzathine penicillin group, thus achieving the specified criteria for non-inferiority.

Conclusions

A single oral dose of azithromycin, at a dosage of 30mg/kg, was non-inferior to a single dose of intramuscular benzathine penicillin for the treatment of early yaws among Ghanaian patients, and provides additional support for the WHO policy for use of oral azithromycin for the eradication of yaws in resource-poor settings.

Trial Registration

Pan African Clinical Trials Registry PACTR2013030005181 http://www.pactr.org/

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<![CDATA[Completing the Picture: Importance of Considering Participatory Mapping for REDD+ Measurement, Reporting and Verification (MRV)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db46ab0ee8fa60bd869e

Remote sensing has been widely used for mapping land cover and is considered key to monitoring changes in forest areas in the REDD+ Measurement, Reporting and Verification (MRV) system. But Remote Sensing as a desk study cannot capture the whole picture; it also requires ground checking. Therefore, complementing remote sensing analysis using participatory mapping can help provide information for an initial forest cover assessment, gain better understanding of how local land use might affect changes, and provide a way to engage local communities in REDD+. Our study looked at the potential of participatory mapping in providing complementary information for remotely sensed maps. The research sites were located in different ecological and socio-economic contexts in the provinces of Papua, West Kalimantan and Central Java, Indonesia. Twenty-one maps of land cover and land use were drawn with local community participation during focus group discussions in seven villages. These maps, covering a total of 270,000ha, were used to add information to maps developed using remote sensing, adding 39 land covers to the eight from our initial desk assessment. They also provided additional information on drivers of land use and land cover change, resource areas, territory claims and land status, which we were able to correlate to understand changes in forest cover. Incorporating participatory mapping in the REDD+ MRV protocol would help with initial remotely sensed land classifications, stratify an area for ground checks and measurement plots, and add other valuable social data not visible at the RS scale. Ultimately, it would provide a forum for local communities to discuss REDD+ activities and develop a better understanding of REDD+.

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<![CDATA[How Are Local People Driving and Affected by Forest Cover Change? Opportunities for Local Participation in REDD+ Measurement, Reporting and Verification]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9e9ab0ee8fa60b6c16c

Deforestation and forest degradation are complex and dynamic processes that vary from place to place. They are driven by multiple causes. Local communities are, to some extent, driving and also affected by some of these processes. Can their knowledge aid and add to place-specific assessment and monitoring of Deforestation and forest Degradation (DD) drivers? Our research was conducted in seven villages across three provinces of Indonesia (Papua, West Kalimantan and Central Java). Household surveys and focus group discussions were used to investigate how local community knowledge of DD drivers contributes to place-specific assessment and monitoring of DD drivers. We analyzed the link between drivers and local livelihoods to see how attempts to address deforestation and forest degradation might affect local communities and how this link might influence their participation in climate change mitigation measures such as Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+) and Measuring, Reporting and Verifying (MRV) activities. We found that local knowledge is fundamental to capturing the variety of drivers particularly in countries like Indonesia where forest and socio-economic conditions are diverse. Better understanding of drivers and their importance for local livelihoods will not only contribute to a more locally appropriate design of REDD+ and monitoring systems but will also foster local participation.

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<![CDATA[Serological evidence for transmission of multiple dengue virus serotypes in Papua New Guinea and West Papua prior to 1963]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db5aab0ee8fa60bdf29e

Little is known about the natural history of dengue in Papua New Guinea (PNG). We assessed dengue virus (DENV)-specific neutralizing antibody profiles in serum samples collected from northern and southern coastal areas and the highland region of New Guinea between 1959 and 1963. Neutralizing antibodies were demonstrated in sera from the northern coast of New Guinea: from Sabron in Dutch New Guinea (now known as West Papua) and from four villages in East Sepik in what is now PNG. Previous monotypic infection with DENV-1, DENV-2, and DENV-4 was identified, with a predominance of anti-DENV-2 neutralizing antibody. The majority of positive sera demonstrated evidence of multiple previous DENV infections and neutralizing activity against all four serotypes was detected, with anti-DENV-2 responses being most frequent and of greatest magnitude. No evidence of previous DENV infection was identified in the Asmat villages of the southern coast and a single anti-DENV-positive sample was identified in the Eastern Highlands of PNG. These findings indicate that multiple DENV serotypes circulated along the northern coast of New Guinea at different times in the decades prior to 1963 and support the notion that dengue has been a significant yet neglected tropical infection in PNG for many decades.

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<![CDATA[Traditional Banana Diversity in Oceania: An Endangered Heritage]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da0dab0ee8fa60b78304

This study aims to understand the genetic diversity of traditional Oceanian starchy bananas in order to propose an efficient conservation strategy for these endangered varieties. SSR and DArT molecular markers are used to characterize a large sample of Pacific accessions, from New Guinea to Tahiti and Hawaii. All Pacific starchy bananas are shown of New Guinea origin, by interspecific hybridization between Musa acuminata (AA genome), more precisely its local subspecies M. acuminata ssp. banksii, and M. balbisiana (BB genome) generating triploid AAB Pacific starchy bananas. These AAB genotypes do not form a subgroup sensu stricto and genetic markers differentiate two subgroups across the three morphotypes usually identified: Iholena versus Popoulu and Maoli. The Popoulu/Maoli accessions, even if morphologically diverse throughout the Pacific, cluster in the same genetic subgroup. However, the subgroup is not strictly monophyletic and several close, but different genotypes are linked to the dominant genotype. One of the related genotypes is specific to New Caledonia (NC), with morphotypes close to Maoli, but with some primitive characters. It is concluded that the diffusion of Pacific starchy AAB bananas results from a series of introductions of triploids originating in New Guinea area from several sexual recombination events implying different genotypes of M. acuminata ssp. banksii. This scheme of multiple waves from the New Guinea zone is consistent with the archaeological data for peopling of the Pacific. The present geographic distribution suggests that a greater diversity must have existed in the past. Its erosion finds parallels with the erosion of cultural traditions, inexorably declining in most of the Polynesian or Melanesian Islands. Symmetrically, diversity hot spots appear linked to the local persistence of traditions: Maoli in New Caledonian Kanak traditions or Iholena in a few Polynesian islands. These results will contribute to optimizing the conservation strategy for the ex-situ Pacific Banana Collection supported collectively by the Pacific countries.

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<![CDATA[Why Huddle? Ecological Drivers of Chick Aggregations in Gentoo Penguins, Pygoscelis papua, across Latitudes]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da1dab0ee8fa60b7dba9

Aggregations of young animals are common in a range of endothermic and ectothermic species, yet the adaptive behavior may depend on social circumstance and local conditions. In penguins, many species form aggregations (aka. crèches) for a variety of purposes, whilst others have never been observed exhibiting this behavior. Those that do form aggregations do so for three known benefits: 1) reduced thermoregulatory requirements, 2) avoidance of unrelated-adult aggression, and 3) lower predation risk. In gentoo penguins, Pygoscelis papua, chick aggregations are known to form during the post-guard period, yet the cause of these aggregations is poorly understood. Here, for the first time, we study aggregation behavior in gentoo penguins, examining four study sites along a latitudinal gradient using time-lapse cameras to examine the adaptive benefit of aggregations to chicks. Our results support the idea that aggregations of gentoo chicks decrease an individual’s energetic expenditure when wet, cold conditions are present. However, we found significant differences in aggregation behavior between the lowest latitude site, Maiviken, South Georgia, and two of the higher latitude sites on the Antarctic Peninsula, suggesting this behavior may be colony specific. We provide strong evidence that more chicks aggregate and a larger number of aggregations occur on South Georgia, while the opposite occurs at Petermann Island in Antarctica. Future studies should evaluate multiple seabird colonies within one species before generalizing behaviors based on one location, and past studies may need to be re-evaluated to determine whether chick aggregation and other behaviors are in fact exhibited species-wide.

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<![CDATA[Plasmodium vivax Reticulocyte Binding Proteins Are Key Targets of Naturally Acquired Immunity in Young Papua New Guinean Children]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dabaab0ee8fa60bae58c

Background

Major gaps in our understanding of Plasmodium vivax biology and the acquisition of immunity to this parasite hinder vaccine development. P. vivax merozoites exclusively invade reticulocytes, making parasite proteins that mediate reticulocyte binding and/or invasion potential key vaccine or drug targets. While protein interactions that mediate invasion are still poorly understood, the P. vivax Reticulocyte-Binding Protein family (PvRBP) is thought to be involved in P. vivax restricted host-cell selectivity.

Methodology/Principal findings

We assessed the binding specificity of five members of the PvRBP family (PvRBP1a, PvRBP1b, PvRBP2a, PvRBP2b, PvRBP2-P2 and a non-binding fragment of PvRBP2c) to normocytes or reticulocytes. PvRBP2b was identified as the only reticulocyte-specific binder (P<0.001), whereas the others preferentially bound to normocytes (PvRBP1a/b P≤0.034), or showed comparable binding to both (PvRBP2a/2-P2, P = 0.38). Furthermore, we measured levels of total and IgG subclasses 1, 2, 3 and 4 to the six PvRBPs in a cohort of young Papua New Guinean children, and assessed their relationship with prospective risk of P. vivax malaria. Children had substantial, highly correlated (rho = 0.49–0.82, P<0.001) antibody levels to all six PvRBPs, with dominant IgG1 and IgG3 subclasses. Both total IgG (Incidence Rate Ratio [IRR] 0.63–0.73, P = 0.008–0.041) and IgG1 (IRR 0.56–0.69, P = 0.001–0.035) to PvRBP2b and PvRBP1a were strongly associated with reduced risk of vivax-malaria, independently of age and exposure.

Conclusion/Significance

These results demonstrate a diversity of erythrocyte-binding phenotypes of PvRBPs, indicating binding to both reticulocyte-specific and normocyte-specific ligands. Our findings provide further insights into the naturally acquired immunity to P. vivax and highlight the importance of PvRBP proteins as targets of naturally acquired humoral immunity. In-depth studies of the role of PvRBPs in P. vivax invasion and functional validation of the role of anti-PvRBP antibodies in clinical immunity against P. vivax are now required to confirm the potential of the reticulocyte-binding PvRBP2b and PvRBP1a as vaccine candidate antigens.

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<![CDATA[Tiger on the prowl: Invasion history and spatio-temporal genetic structure of the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus (Skuse 1894) in the Indo-Pacific]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db5aab0ee8fa60bdf29a

Background

Within the last century, increases in human movement and globalization of trade have facilitated the establishment of several highly invasive mosquito species in new geographic locations with concurrent major environmental, economic and health consequences. The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, is an extremely invasive and aggressive daytime-biting mosquito that is a major public health threat throughout its expanding range.

Methodology/Principal findings

We used 13 nuclear microsatellite loci (on 911 individuals) and mitochondrial COI sequences to gain a better understanding of the historical and contemporary movements of Ae. albopictus in the Indo-Pacific region and to characterize its population structure. Approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) was employed to test competing historical routes of invasion of Ae. albopictus within the Southeast (SE) Asian/Australasian region. Our ABC results show that Ae. albopictus was most likely introduced to New Guinea via mainland Southeast Asia, before colonizing the Solomon Islands via either Papua New Guinea or SE Asia. The analysis also supported that the recent incursion into northern Australia’s Torres Strait Islands was seeded chiefly from Indonesia. For the first time documented in this invasive species, we provide evidence of a recently colonized population (the Torres Strait Islands) that has undergone rapid temporal changes in its genetic makeup, which could be the result of genetic drift or represent a secondary invasion from an unknown source.

Conclusions/Significance

There appears to be high spatial genetic structure and high gene flow between some geographically distant populations. The species' genetic structure in the region tends to favour a dispersal pattern driven mostly by human movements. Importantly, this study provides a more widespread sampling distribution of the species’ native range, revealing more spatial population structure than previously shown. Additionally, we present the most probable invasion history of this species in the Australasian region using ABC analysis.

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