ResearchPad - parenting-behavior https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Familial assimilation in transmission of raw-freshwater fish-eating practice leading to clonorchiasis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_15763 Clonorchiasis is caused by the ingestion of raw freshwater fish, which contains the infective larvae of Clonorchis sinensis. It is highly endemic in Asia, where about 15 million people are afflicted. To establish sustainable control strategy, the transmission of raw-eating practice needs to be illuminated. In this study, we conducted a survey in school students from four clonorchiasis endemic provinces in China, covering 23,222 students aged 9–18. The characteristics of raw-eating practice, impact of parents’ raw-eating practice on children, interaction of spouses’ practice was explored. It is demonstrated that raw-eating practice presents familial clustering, which is higher in those families with older children and with boys. Raw-eating practice in children is highly influenced by their parents’ raw-eating practice especially when both parents do. Additionally, there exists interaction between spouses’ raw-eating practice. The impact of husband’s raw-eating practice on his wife is higher than that of wife’s raw-eating practice on her husband. Familial assimilation dominates the transmission of raw-freshwater eating-practice, including the assimilation from parents to their children and that between spouses. This finding indicates the adoption of sustainable strategy against clonorchiasis through blocking raw-freshwater fish-eating practice.

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<![CDATA[Cessation of breastfeeding in mothers of preterm infants—A mixed method study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14739 Many women cease breastfeeding earlier than desired. This study examined the cessation of breastfeeding among mothers of preterm infants. Thus, the aim was to describe the cessation of breastfeeding in mothers of preterm infants up to 12 months after birth.MethodThis mixed methods study used a convergent design with both qualitative data, consisting of written comments, and quantitative data, on breastfeeding status and breastfeeding satisfaction. The data were collected from questionnaires sent to the mothers at three points during the first year after birth. In total, 270 mothers of preterm infants who breastfed at the time of discharge from the neonatal unit provided data for the study. The quantitative and qualitative data were analysed separately with statistical tests and hermeneutical analysis, respectively and then together according to the convergent mixed methods design.ResultsFour themes of the meanings of the cessation of breastfeeding were identified in the qualitative analysis: “Desire to regain the mother’s and the infant’s well-being”, “The mothers interpretation that the infants actively ceased breastfeeding”, “The mother’s body and/or the infants’ signals showing the way” and “The mother's own will and perceived external obstacles”. Mothers who did not breastfeed as long as they wanted were more likely to report less satisfaction with breastfeeding, a shorter breastfeeding period, and less activity when ceasing breastfeeding. In comparison, mothers who breastfed as long as they wanted were more satisfied with breastfeeding, breastfed for a longer period of time and were more active in decision making in breastfeeding cessation.ConclusionMaternal passivity or activity influenced the cessation of breastfeeding in mothers of preterm infants who breastfed at the time of discharge from the neonatal unit. Passive behaviour related to breastfeeding may result in early cessation of breastfeeding, and low breastfeeding satisfaction while active behaviour may increase breastfeeding length and satisfaction. ]]> <![CDATA[Exploring psychosocial factors that influence smartphone dependency among Korean adolescents]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14478 This study investigated the relationships among psychosocial factors that contribute to smartphone dependency among South Korean adolescents. This cross-sectional study involved the secondary data analysis of the 2016 Korean Children and Youth Panel Survey, a nationwide multistage cluster survey. Data were collected from 1,840 7th grade students in South Korea and analyzed with descriptive statistics, Pearson’s correlation coefficients, and a path analysis using SPSS 21.0 and AMOS 23.0. The path analysis showed that self-esteem and aggressiveness directly influenced smartphone dependency, while affective parenting attitude, peer attachment, resilience, self-esteem, and depressive symptoms indirectly influenced it. The explanatory variables accounted for 18.3% of the total variance. In conclusion, parents’ education on positive parenting and guidance concerning adolescents’ smartphone use is necessary to reduce adolescents’ smartphone dependency. It may also prove effective to promote adolescents’ interpersonal skills and self-esteem to foster positive peer relationships and self-control concerning smartphone use.

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<![CDATA[The prevalence of religiosity and association between religiosity and alcohol use, other drug use, and risky sexual behaviours among grade 8-10 learners in Western Cape, South Africa]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6dca34d5eed0c48452a8c1

Background

Alcohol and other drug use (AOD) and risky sexual behaviours remain high among adolescents in South Africa and globally. Religiosity influences, mitigates and provides resilience against engaging in risky behaviours among young people but few South African studies have explored potential associations between religiosity, AOD use and risky sex. We report the prevalence of religiosity and association between religiosity and AOD use and risky sexual behaviours among learners in the Western Cape Province, South Africa.

Methods

Between May and August 2011, a cross sectional survey was conducted among 20 227 learners from 240 public schools randomly selected through a stratified multistage sampling design to determine the prevalence of AOD use and sexual risk behaviours. We performed univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses to assess the association between religiosity, AOD use and risky sexual behaviours.

Results

The learners were aged 10–23 years. Almost three quarters (74%) of learners reported high religiosity (defined as attending religious services or activities at least 1–2 times a month). More female than male learners had high religiosity. The prevalence of past 30 day reported alcohol, tobacco and cannabis use was 23%, 19% and 8% respectively. Compared to learners with low religiosity, those with high religiosity were less likely to engage in AOD use: specifically alcohol use, (AOR = 0.86, 95%CI: 0.76–0.97), tobacco use (AOR = 0.76, 95%CI: 0.67–0.87), cannabis use (AOR = 0.57, 95%CI: 0.48–0.68) in the last 30 days. They were also less likely to engage in risky sexual behaviours (AOR = 0.90, 95%CI: 0.81–0.99).

Conclusion

Religiosity was associated with lower odds of reported AOD use and risky sexual behaviours among learners in the Western Cape. This calls for further exploration on how to incorporate religiosity into AOD use and risky sexual behaviour interventions.

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<![CDATA[Long-term effectiveness of a gambling intervention program among children in central Illinois]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6b2678d5eed0c484289b1e

Youth gambling is an increasing concern. As a response, the “Don’t Gamble Away our Future (DGAOF)” program has been implemented among children in central Illinois. We aim to assess the long-term effectiveness of this school-based youth gambling prevention program in Illinois using the data from 2005 to 2009. The intervention included interactive PowerPoint presentations and prevention materials in parent packets. Students aged 8 to 18 years were eligible to participate in the intervention and the questionnaire pre-post knowledge tests (total score 0–9). Students in 5th grade and above also received a gambling behavior screen test using the Modified South Oaks Gambling Screening for Teens (MSOGST) for identifying probable gamblers. Multivariable generalized mixed models were conducted to detect the effects of a 5-year youth gambling prevention program as controlling potential confounders. A total of 16,262 and 16,421 students completed pre-post tests and MSOGST tests, respectively. Of 16,262, half were female, the majority (76.1%) were from senior high school, and 21.3% received the intervention at least twice. The median gap between interventions was 368 days. Students receiving multiple interventions had higher scores on the pre-test as compared to those receiving a single intervention (P<0.001 for all comparisons among groups), and they demonstrated an increasing trend of awareness about gambling over time (P<0.001 for multiple interventions; P = 0.538 for single intervention). The prevalence of problem gambling had decreased among students receiving the intervention twice as compared to receiving the intervention once (7.9% versus 9.4%; OR = 0.89, 95% CL: 0.82–0.97). However, this effect was not confirmed among students receiving the intervention three or more times. In conclusion, the DGAOF program has demonstrated a positive long-term impact on increasing gambling knowledge and partially reducing pathological gamblers through direct training. It suggests that multiple repeated interventions are important for youth gambling prevention.

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<![CDATA[Impact of lay health worker programmes on the health outcomes of mother-child pairs of HIV exposed children in Africa: A scoping review]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5ca2cfd5eed0c48441eb5e

Background

Increased demand for healthcare services in countries experiencing high HIV disease burden and often coupled with a shortage of health workers, has necessitated task shifting from professional health workers to Lay Health Workers (LHWs) in order to improve healthcare delivery. Maternal and Child Health (MCH) services particularly benefit from task-shifting to LHWs or similar cadres. However, evidence on the roles and usefulness of LHWs in MCH service delivery in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is not fully known.

Objectives

To examine evidence of the roles and impact of lay health worker programmes focusing on Women Living with HIV (WLH) and their HIV-exposed infants (HEIs).

Methods

A scoping review approach based on Arksey and O’Malley’s guiding principles was used to retrieve, review and analyse existing literature. We searched for articles published between January 2008 and July 2018 in seven (7) databases, including: MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, Joanna Briggs, The Cochrane Library, EBM reviews and Web of Science. The critical constructs used for the literature search were “lay health worker”, “community health worker”, “peer mentor”, “mentor mother,” “Maternal and Child health worker”, “HIV positive mothers”, “HIV exposed infants” and PMTCT.

Results

Thirty-three (33) full-text articles meeting the eligibility criteria were identified and included in the final analysis. Most (n = 13, 39.4%) of the included studies were conducted in South Africa and used a cluster RCT design (n = 13, 39.4%). The most commonly performed roles of LHWs in HIV specific MCH programmes included: community engagement and sensitisation, psychosocial support, linkage to care, encouraging women to bring their infants back for HIV testing and supporting default tracing. Community awareness on Mother to Child Transmission of HIV (MTCT), proper and consistent use of condoms, clinic attendance and timely HIV testing of HEIs, as well as retention in care for infected persons, have all improved because of LHW programmes.

Conclusion

LHWs play significant roles in the management of WLH and their HEIs, improving MCH outcomes in the process. LHW interventions are beneficial in increasing access to PMTCT services and reducing MTCT of HIV, though their impact on improving adherence to ART remains scanty. Further research is needed to evaluate ART adherence in LHW interventions targeted at WLH. LHW programmes can be enhanced by increasing supportive supervision and remuneration of LHWs.

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<![CDATA[Experiences, needs, and perceptions of paternal involvement during the first year after their infants’ birth: A meta-synthesis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c3d00ffd5eed0c4840376b1

Objectives

Fatherhood has evolved in recent decades from ‘a moral teacher’ to ‘an involved father’. However, fatherhood experiences have not been examined in detail. This meta-synthesis aimed to examine fathers’ experiences, needs, and perceptions of their involvement with their infants during the first 12 months of birth.

Method

Six electronic databases were systematically searched: PubMed, CINAHL, Embase, Scopus, PsycINFO, ProQuest (grey literature). The search resulted in 13 studies that met the inclusion criteria. Quality appraisal was conducted using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme Checklist. All 13 studies met the appraisal criteria and were included in the meta-synthesis. The findings of the 13 studies were synthesized using the steps of Sandelowski and Barroso in conducting meta-synthesis.

Results

The 13 included studies comprised studies conducted in the West, Africa, and Asia. Fatherhood experiences differed according to different sociocultural contexts. Three themes were identified: (1) trajectory of the father-infant relationship, (2) reinforcements and hindrances to involvement, and (3) change from self-oriented to family-oriented behavior. Changes in a father’s relationship with his infant were influenced by relationships with his spouse and family members after the birth of the infant. Reinforcements, hindrances, and needs to fathers’ involvement were identified. Fathering responsibility and parenting satisfaction that developed overtime influenced a father’s behavior, changing from self-oriented to family-oriented.

Significance

This is the first meta-synthesis that examined fathers’ experiences, needs, and perceptions of their involvement with their infants during the first 12 months of birth. Multiple factors were found to influence the socially-defined fathering ideology. Cultural practices of fatherhood and fathers’ own perceptions shaped their actual fathering behaviors. The findings of this study may guide healthcare professionals as frontline personnel to understand fathers’ needs and experiences in order to promote fathers’ involvement in the early days after their infants’ birth.

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<![CDATA[Longitudinal relation between state-trait maternal irritability and harsh parenting]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c3fa606d5eed0c484cab485

According to Belsky’s process model of parenting, parents’ personality represents the most important factor influencing parenting and child development. While an extensive literature has empirically corroborated the role of irritability traits in predicting aggressive behaviors in laboratory-based studies, only a few studies have examined the role of irritability in predicting aggressive behaviors within family contexts. The present study addressed this gap by examining the longitudinal association between maternal irritability and harsh parenting. Referencing latent state-trait theory (LST), first we estimated the amount of variance in mothers’ irritability due to trait and state components, and, next, we examined the relation between mothers’ irritability (both at trait- and state- levels) and harsh parenting over time. A sample of 204 mothers from Naples and Rome provided data over 5 years in four waves. Mothers averaged 40.30 years (SD = 5.33) at Time 1 and 44.01 years (SD = 5.43) at Time 4. Their children (50% girls) were 9.45 years (SD = 0.74) at Time 1 and 13.18 years (SD = 0.66) at Time 4. Results of LST analysis showed that, on average, 39% of variability in irritability was due to trait-like factors and only 12% to state-like factors. A multitrait-multistate model revealed that the irritability trait associated with mother’s lack of control predicted her harsh parenting 1-year later, while controlling for the rank-order stability of harsh parenting.

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<![CDATA[Associations between organised sport participation and classroom behaviour outcomes among primary school-aged children]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c36679ed5eed0c4841a5dd3

Introduction

Physical activity is positively associated with children’s classroom behaviour. However, less is known about how different types of physical activity contribute to these outcomes. This study examines associations between sport participation and classroom behaviour among primary school-aged children.

Methods

Parents of 568 children aged 9–11 years reported child sport participation and classroom behaviour outcomes (school functioning, inattention, classroom behaviour (fidgetiness), acting without thinking and poor concentration). Sport participation included: duration (hours/week) and type (individual; team; team and individual). Regression analyses assessed associations between sport participation and classroom behaviour outcomes. Analyses adjusted for maternal education, and objectively-measured overall physical activity, and accounted for clustering by recruitment centre. Sex differences in associations were explored as a secondary aim.

Results

In comparison to children who did not participate in sport, children who participated in sport displayed less inattention/hyperactivity (individual sport: B = -1.00;95%CI:-1.90, -0.00; team sport:-0.88;95%CI:-1.73, -0.03) and less acting without thinking (individual sport: OR = 0.35;95%CI:0.13,0.98), after adjusting for overall physical activity. There were no sex differences in associations.

Conclusions

Findings indicated sport participation, one form of physical activity, was associated with less inattention/hyperactivity and acting without thinking, over and above the influence of overall physical activity levels. Parents may consider sport as one way to contribute to their child’s overall physical activity levels, although the impact of organised sport on classroom behaviour is modest at best.

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<![CDATA[The impact of approaches in improving male partner involvement in the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV on the uptake of safe infant feeding practices by HIV positive women in sub-Saharan Africa. A systematic review and meta-analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c0ed765d5eed0c484f1406d

Background

The low level of male partner involvement in Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission of HIV services such as safe infant feeding practices poses a serious challenge to the implementation of guidelines on safe infant feeding and may undermine efforts towards elimination of mother to child transmission of HIV in sub Saharan Africa(SSA). We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to identify the approaches that have been utilized to improve male partner involvement in PMTCT services as well as their impact on the uptake of safe infant feeding practices by HIV positive mothers in SSA.

Methods

In this systematic review and meta-analysis, Ovid Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, Cochrane library, ClinicalTrials.gov, Web of Science and Current Controlled Trials were searched. Only studies performed in SSA that reported an approach that specifically involved male partners and its impact on the uptake of safe infant feeding practices (irrespective of the language and date of publication) were included. Odds ratios were extracted or calculated from studies and combined in a meta-analysis using the statistical package Stata version 11.0. Forest plots were generated using the random effect model.

Results

From an initial 2416 non-duplicate articles, 06 articles were included in the systematic review and meta-analysis. The overall pooled unadjusted OR was 3.08[95%CI: 2.58–3.68], while the effect sizes for interventions aimed at promoting male partner involvement such as verbal encouragement, complex community intervention and enhanced psychosocial interventions were 1.93[95%CI: 1.34–2.79], 3.45[95%CI: 2.79–4.25] and 5.14[95%CI: 2.42–10.90] respectively. Using only adjusted odd ratios, the pooled adjusted OR = 1.78[95%CI: 1.35–2.34]. The I2 = 60.1% p = 0.057 using adjusted ORs.

Conclusion

Interventions aimed at promoting male partner involvement such as enhanced psychosocial interventions, verbal encouragement and complex community interventions increase the uptake of safe infant feeding options. The heterogeneity was moderate among studies. More studies including randomised trials that will recruit larger, representative samples of patients are needed in the future.

Prospero registration number: 42016032673

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<![CDATA[Can we monitor adaptation of juvenile goats to a new social environment through continuous qualitative behaviour assessment?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b4a289b463d7e4513b8980c

We aimed to verify whether Continuous Qualitative Behaviour Assessment (10 observers used a list of six qualitative descriptors) paired with Temporal Dominant Behavioural Expression (the same observers were asked to select the dominant descriptor and to score its intensity level) was able to monitor fluctuations of animal behaviour expression over time. We applied these techniques to three groups of juvenile goats either weaned (group C), or un-weaned (groups WOM and WM). Each animal was separated from its group, moved to group C and tested for 30 min either while their mothers were at pasture, or while their mothers were in an adjacent pen (group WOM and WM, respectively). Animals from group C were separated from their group and immediately reintroduced to it. TDBE duration and score of each descriptor of behavioural expression were able to detect differences among groups but were unable to describe how the behaviour of the goats changed as the time progressed. TDBE curves described the evolution of each behavioural expression of each animal over time but were unable to detect differences among groups. The χ2 test conducted on peaks of dominance, albeit displaying the variations of the behavioural expression over time and allowing the assessment of differences among groups, focussed on occurrences of higher agreement between observers while neglecting most of the information concerning the descriptors above the level of significance. Conversely, based on mixed analysis of variance with the fixed effects of group, test interval and group x test interval (animal nested into group and observer were considered to be random), most of the descriptors were able to discriminate the three experimental groups while preserving the information on the fluctuations of the behavioural expression of the animals during the test.

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<![CDATA[Exposure-Based Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Children with Abdominal Pain: A Pilot Trial]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da11ab0ee8fa60b79b81

Background

Children with pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorders (P-FGIDs) have an increased risk for school absenteeism, depression, anxiety and low quality of life. Exposure-based cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) has shown large treatment effects in adults with irritable bowel syndrome, but has not been tested for children 8–12 years with P-FGIDs.

Aim

The aim of this trial was to test the feasibility, acceptability and potential efficacy of a newly developed exposure-based CBT for children with P-FGIDs.

Method

The children (n = 20) with a P-FGID, were referred by their treating physicians. The participants received 10 weekly sessions of exposure-based CBT and were assessed at pre-treatment, post-treatment and 6-month follow-up.

Results

Children improved significantly on the primary outcome measure pain intensity at post (Cohen’s d = 0.40, p = 0.049) and at 6-month follow-up (Cohen’s d = 0.85, p = 0.004). Improvements were also seen in pain frequency, gastrointestinal symptoms, quality of life, depression, anxiety, school absenteeism and somatic symptoms. Improvements were maintained or further increased at 6-month follow-up. The children engaged in the exposures and were satisfied with the treatment.

Conclusions

Exposure-based CBT for children with P-FGIDs is feasible, acceptable and potentially efficacious.

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<![CDATA[Associations between Screen-Based Sedentary Behaviour and Anxiety Symptoms in Mothers with Young Children]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da65ab0ee8fa60b91c17

Objectives

Anxiety is a serious illness and women (including mothers with young children) are at particular risk. Although physical activity (PA) may reduce anxiety risk, little research has investigated the link between sedentary behaviour and anxiety risk. The aim of this study was to examine the association between screen-based sedentary behaviour and anxiety symptoms, independent of PA, amongst mothers with young children.

Methods

During 2013–2014, 528 mothers with children aged 2–5 years completed self-report measures of recreational screen-based sedentary behaviour (TV/DVD/video viewing, computer/e-games/hand held device use) and anxiety symptoms (using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, HADS-A). Linear regression analyses examined the cross-sectional association between screen-based sedentary behaviour and anxiety symptoms.

Results

In models that adjusted for key demographic and behavioural covariates (including moderate- to vigorous-intensity PA, MVPA), computer/device use (B = 0.212; 95% CI = 0.048, 0.377) and total screen time (B = 0.109; 95% CI = 0.014, 0.205) were positively associated with heightened anxiety symptoms. TV viewing was not associated with anxiety symptoms in either model.

Conclusions

Higher levels of recreational computer or handheld device use and overall screen time may be linked to higher risk of anxiety symptoms in mothers with young children, independent of MVPA. Further longitudinal and intervention research is required to determine temporal associations.

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<![CDATA[Limited Amount of Formula May Facilitate Breastfeeding: Randomized, Controlled Trial to Compare Standard Clinical Practice versus Limited Supplemental Feeding]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da9aab0ee8fa60ba37ad

Objectives

Breastfeeding is known to reduce infant morbidity and improve well-being. Nevertheless, breastfeeding rates remain low despite public health efforts. Our study aims to investigate the effect of controlled limited formula usage during birth hospitalisation on breastfeeding, using the primary hypothesis that early limited formula feeds in infants with early weight loss will not adversely affect the rate of exclusive or any breastfeeding as measured at discharge, 3 and 6 months of age.

Material and Methods

We randomly assigned 104 healthy term infants, 24 to 48 hours old, with ≥ 5% loss of birth weight to controlled limited formula (CLF) intervention (10 ml formula by syringe after each breastfeeding, discontinued at onset of lactation) or control group (standard approach, SA). Groups were compared for demographic data and breastfeeding rates at discharge, 3 months and 6 months of age (p-values adjusted for multiple testing).

Results

Fifty newborns were analysed in CLF and 50 in SA group. There were no differences in demographic data or clinical characteristics between groups. We found no evidence of difference between treatment groups in the rates of exclusive as well as any breastfeeding at discharge (p-value 0.2 and >0.99 respectively), 3 months (p-value 0.12 and 0.10) and 6 months of infants’ age (p-value 0.45 and 0.34 respectively). The percentage weight loss during hospitalisation was significantly higher in the SA group (7.3% in CLF group, 8.4% in SA group, p = 0.002).

Conclusion

The study shows that controlled limited formula use does not have an adverse effect on rates of breastfeeding in the short and long term. Larger studies are needed to confirm a possible potential in controlled limited formula use to support establishing breastfeeding and to help to improve the rates of breastfeeding overall.

Trial Registration

ISRCTN registry ISRCTN61915183

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<![CDATA[Response to Infant Cry in Clinically Depressed and Non-Depressed Mothers]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da83ab0ee8fa60b9b4d9

Background

Bowlby and Ainsworth hypothesized that maternal responsiveness is displayed in the context of infant distress. Depressed mothers are less responsive to infant distress vocalizations (cry) than non-depressed mothers. The present study focuses on acoustical components of infant cry that give rise to responsive caregiving in clinically depressed (n = 30) compared with non-depressed mothers (n = 30) in the natural setting of the home.

Methods

Analyses of infant and mother behaviors followed three paths: (1) tests of group differences in acoustic characteristics of infant cry, (2) tests of group differences of mothers’ behaviors during their infant’s crying, and (3) tree-based modeling to ascertain which variable(s) best predict maternal behaviors during infant cry.

Results

(1) Infants of depressed mothers cried as frequently and for equal durations as infants of non-depressed mothers; however, infants of depressed mothers cried with a higher fundamental frequency (f0) and in a more restricted range of f0. (2) Depressed mothers fed, rocked, and touched their crying infants less than non-depressed mothers, and depressed mothers were less responsive to their infants overall. (3) Novel tree-based analyses confirmed that depressed mothers engaged in less caregiving during their infants’ cry and indicated that depressed mothers responded only to cries at higher f0s and shorter durations. Older non-depressed mothers were the most interactive with infants.

Conclusions

Clinical depression affects maternal responsiveness during infant cry, leading to patterns of action that appear poorly attuned to infant needs.

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<![CDATA[Youth as contested sites of culture: The intergenerational acculturation gap amongst new migrant communities—Parental and young adult perspectives]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db4fab0ee8fa60bdb88f

Background

Immigration often results in changes in family dynamics, and within this process of dynamic relational adjustment youth can be conceptualised as contested sites of culture and associated intergenerational conflicts. This paper considers the experiences of migrant youth in Greater Western Sydney, New South Wales, Australia using conflict as a useful lens through which to view issues of migrant youth identity and their sense of social connectedness, belonging, and agency. The aim of this study was twofold: 1) to explore how migrant youth cope with acculturative stress and intergenerational conflicts, and 2) to better understand the systemic and family-related factors that facilitate positive settlement experiences for migrant youth.

Methods

A total of 14 focus group discussions, comprising 164 people, were carried out in Greater Western Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. These focus groups targeted newly arrived migrant parents and young adults (aged 18–24) of African, Burmese, Nepalese, Indian, Afghani, Bangladeshi and Iraqi backgrounds. Each focus group was 1.5 hours in duration and was conducted by a team of three people (an experienced facilitator, an accredited interpreter/bilingual worker, and a note taker). Data were collected using a standard interview schedule, and an accredited interpreter/bilingual worker asked the questions in the appropriate language and translated participant responses into English.

Results

The findings highlight how youth in new migrant families become contested sites of culture as they try to balance integration into the new culture while maintaining their originating country’s cultural values. Two themes and four subthemes emerged from the analysis: Intergenerational acculturation gap (loss of family capital and intergenerational conflicts); and factors that successfully protected positive family values while still allowing young people to integrate (the legal system that disarm authoritarian parenting practices and family rules; and parental use of children’s increased knowledge of the new environment to navigate their new environment). Migrant families conceptualised family capital as the social solidarity, influence, and control governing obligations and expectations, intergenerational knowledge transmission and information flow, social norms, and cultural identity. The loss of family capital was characterised by children’s refusal to associate with or meet family members, preferring to be alone in their rooms and private space. Migrant youth find themselves caught between and negotiating two cultures, with unwanted negative consequences at the family level in the form of intergenerational conflicts. The new found freedom among children and their rapid transition into the Australian society gives children an increased sense of agency, which in turn threatens parental authority, allowing children to exercise three forms of power: increased assertiveness due to legal protection of children against any corporal punishment; and English language fluency and greater understanding of the functioning of Australian social institutions.

Conclusion

Our findings suggest the need for an inter-generational approach to healthy family dynamics within migrant communities when dealing with youth negotiating the complexity and sensitivity of forging their cultural identity.

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<![CDATA[Behavior change communication activities improve infant and young child nutrition knowledge and practice of neighboring non-participants in a cluster-randomized trial in rural Bangladesh]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db5fab0ee8fa60be1180

Objective

To examine the impact on infant and young child nutrition knowledge and practice of mothers who were neighbors of mothers participating in a nutrition Behavior Change Communication (BCC) intervention in rural Bangladesh.

Methods

We analyzed data from 300 mothers whose neighbor participated in a nutrition BCC intervention and 600 mothers whose neighbor participated in an intervention that did not include BCC. We constructed measures capturing mothers’ knowledge of infant and young child nutrition (IYCN) and measures of food consumption by children 6-24m. The effect on these outcomes of exposure to a neighbor receiving a nutrition BCC intervention was estimated using ordinary least squares and probit regressions. The study was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (Study ID: NCT02237144).

Results

Having a neighboring mother participate in a nutrition BCC intervention increased non-participant mothers’ IYCN knowledge by 0.17 SD (translating to 0.3 more correct answers). They were 14.1 percentage points more likely to feed their 6-24m children legumes and nuts; 11.6 percentage points more likely to feed these children vitamin A rich fruits and vegetables; and 10.0 percentage points more likely to feed these children eggs. Children of non-participant mothers who had a neighboring mother participate in a nutrition BCC intervention were 13.8 percentage points more likely to meet World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for minimum diet diversity, 11.9 percentage points more likely to meet WHO guidelines for minimum acceptable diet, and 10.3 percentage points more likely to meet WHO guidelines for minimum meal frequency for children who continue to be breastfed after age 6m. Children aged 0-6m of non-participant mothers who are neighbors of mothers receiving BCC were 7.1 percentage points less likely to have ever consumed water-based liquids.

Conclusions

Studies of nutrition BCC that do not account for information spillovers to non-participants may underestimate its benefits in terms of IYCN knowledge and practice.

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<![CDATA[The Dynamic Interplay among Maternal Empathy, Quality of Mother-Adolescent Relationship, and Adolescent Antisocial Behaviors: New Insights from a Six-Wave Longitudinal Multi-Informant Study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da5bab0ee8fa60b8fd74

Adolescents’ behavior is often a matter of concern, given their increased likelihood of enacting antisocial behaviors, which cause disruptions in the social order and are potentially harmful for the adolescents themselves and for the people around them. In this six-wave longitudinal study we sought to examine the interplay among maternal empathy, multiple indicators of mother-adolescent relationship quality (i.e., balanced relatedness, conflict, and support), and adolescent antisocial behaviors rated both by adolescents and their mothers. Participants for the current study were 497 Dutch adolescents (56.9% males) followed from age 13 to 18, and their mothers. A series of cross-lagged panel models revealed reciprocal associations between maternal empathy and mother-adolescent relationship quality and between mother-adolescent relationship quality and adolescent antisocial behaviors. Interestingly, we also found some indirect effects of adolescent antisocial behaviors on maternal empathy mediated by mother-adolescent relationship quality. Overall, this study further highlights a process of reciprocal influences within mother-adolescent dyads.

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<![CDATA[Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive Health Services and Implications for the Provision of Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision: Results of a Systematic Literature Review]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da1dab0ee8fa60b7dc19

Background

Voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) is a critical HIV prevention tool. Since 2007, sub-Saharan African countries with the highest prevalence of HIV have been mobilizing resources to make VMMC available. While implementers initially targeted adult men, demand has been highest for boys under age 18. It is important to understand how male adolescents can best be served by quality VMMC services.

Methods and Findings

A systematic literature review was performed to synthesize the evidence on best practices in adolescent health service delivery specific to males in sub-Saharan Africa. PubMed, Scopus, and JSTOR databases were searched for literature published between January 1990 and March 2014. The review revealed a general absence of health services addressing the specific needs of male adolescents, resulting in knowledge gaps that could diminish the benefits of VMMC programming for this population. Articles focused specifically on VMMC contained little information on the adolescent subgroup. The review revealed barriers to and gaps in sexual and reproductive health and VMMC service provision to adolescents, including structural factors, imposed feelings of shame, endorsement of traditional gender roles, negative interactions with providers, violations of privacy, fear of pain associated with the VMMC procedure, and a desire for elements of traditional non-medical circumcision methods to be integrated into medical procedures. Factors linked to effective adolescent-focused services included the engagement of parents and the community, an adolescent-friendly service environment, and VMMC counseling messages sufficiently understood by young males.

Conclusions

VMMC presents an opportune time for early involvement of male adolescents in HIV prevention and sexual and reproductive health programming. However, more research is needed to determine how to align VMMC services with the unique needs of this population.

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<![CDATA[Early-Onset Paternal Smoking and Offspring Adiposity: Further Investigation of a Potential Intergenerational Effect Using the HUNT Study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db3eab0ee8fa60bd5ee2

Recently it has been suggested that rearing conditions during preadolescence in one generation may affect health outcomes in subsequent generations. Such parental effects, potentially induced by epigenetic modifications in the germ line, have attracted considerable attention because of their implications for public health and social policies. Yet, to date, evidence in humans has been rare due to data limitations and much further investigation in large studies is required. The aim of this paper is to reproduce and extend a recent study which found that paternal smoking before age 11 was associated with elevated body mass index (BMI) among male offspring in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Using the Nord-Trøndelag Health (HUNT) Study, we find that paternal smoking during pre-adolescence (<age 11) is not reliably or strongly associated with BMI among sons, with an estimated association close to zero (mean difference in kg m-2 (95% CI) was -0.18 (-1.75, 1.39) for sons aged 12–19 and 0.22 (-0.53, 0.97) for all ages). Among daughters, early-onset paternal smoking was imprecisely associated with an elevated BMI (mean difference was 1.50 (0.00, 3.00) for daughters aged 12–19 and 0.97 (0.06, 1.87) for all ages). Our results do not support a son-specific association of the magnitude reported in the ALSPAC study and we consider it improbable that early onset paternal smoking should influence specifically sons' BMI in one population and daughters' BMI in another. However, despite our considerable sample size (>45,000 offspring), we cannot rule out a weaker association, perhaps common to sons and daughters, which would be consistent with the ALSPAC study. Alternatively, we discuss whether confounding, chance in parallel tests, or sample selection effects might explain the observed associations of early paternal smoking with offspring BMI.

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