ResearchPad - pathogenesis https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[<i>Ehrlichia chaffeensis</i> TRP120-mediated ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of tumor suppressor FBW7 increases oncoprotein stability and promotes infection]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13827 E. chaffeensis is an obligately intracellular bacterium that replicates in mononuclear phagocytes by secreting effectors that manipulate host cell processes and exploit evolutionarily conserved pathways. This investigation reveals the complex and expanding role of the E. chaffeensis TRP120 moonlighting effector as a ubiquitin (Ub) ligase targeting host nuclear proteins. Herein, we demonstrate that E. chaffeensis TRP120 HECT Ub ligase targets the nuclear tumor suppressor Skp1-cullin-1-FBOX E3 ubiquitin (Ub) ligase complex substrate recognition subunit, F-BOX and WD domain repeating-containing 7 (FBW7) for degradation. FBW7 is a central regulator of broadly acting host cell oncoproteins involved in cell proliferation and survival. The reduction in FBW7 through TRP120-mediated ubiquitination increases cellular oncoprotein levels and promotes E. chaffeensis infection. This study illuminates novel bacterial effector-host interactions, the importance and interplay of both host and bacterial Ub ligases and the Ub-proteasome system for infection, and mechanisms whereby evolutionarily conserved signaling pathways are hijacked by obligately intracellular pathogens.

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<![CDATA[Interaction between host genes and <i>Mycobacterium tuberculosis</i> lineage can affect tuberculosis severity: Evidence for coevolution?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13824 Susceptibility to tuberculosis (TB) is affected by genetic variation in both the human host and the causative bacterium, Mycobacterium tuberculosis. However, prior studies of the genetics of each species have not explained a large part of TB risk. The possibility exists that risk can be better estimated from patterns of variation in the two species as a unit, such that some combinations provide increased risk, or in the presence of TB, increased disease severity. We hypothesized that alleles in the two species that have co-existed for long periods are more likely to reduce disease severity so as to promote prolonged co-occurrence. We tested this by studying TB severity in two patient cohorts from Uganda for which paired MTB-human DNA were available. We examined severity, as measured by the Bandim TBscore, and assessed whether there was an interaction between MTB lineage and SNPs in the host with this metric. Our results indicate that the most recent TB lineage (L4.6/Uganda) when found together with an ancestral allele in SLC11A1 resulted in more severe disease. This finding is consistent with the conclusion that MTB and human have coevolved to modulate TB severity.

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<![CDATA[Sequence-Based Human Leukocyte Antigen—B Typing of Patients Infected with Ebola Virus in Uganda in 2000: Identification of Alleles Associated with Fatal and Nonfatal Disease Outcomes]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Na7041707-ef9a-4c42-a5bf-7576f1325e0a

Abstract

The Sudan species of Ebola virus (SEBOV) causes severe, often fatal infection in ∼50% of infected humans. We sought to determine whether the human leukocyte antigen—B (HLA-B) locus has a role in the outcome of SEBOV disease by typing 77 cases from an outbreak in northern Uganda in 2000–2001. Sequence-based HLA-B typing was performed using leukocytes isolated from 77 patients. Statistical analysis and a predictive discriminant analysis (PDA) were applied to typing data. Epitope prediction software was also applied to SEBOV sequences. Statistically significant associations were found between certain sets of alleles and either fatal or nonfatal disease outcomes. Alleles B*67 and B*15 were associated with fatal outcomes, whereas B*07 and B*14 were associated with nonfatal outcomes. The PDA-derived functions that were produced were 81.8% accurate in classifying patients into their correct outcome group. Several epitopes predicted to bind strongly to HLA-B*07 molecules were identified in the viral polymerase, nucleoprotein, and VP35 protein. HLA-B alleles associated with either fatal or nonfatal outcomes of SEBOV disease were identified and can be used in a predictive model. Studies of HLA-B—restricted epitopes could contribute to characterization of protective host responses and to vaccine development.

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<![CDATA[Discovery and Selection of Hepatitis B Virus-Derived T Cell Epitopes for Global Immunotherapy Based on Viral Indispensability, Conservation, and HLA-Binding Strength]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Naedb8cf7-7629-46b5-97fd-edfd6841c03e

Multiple HBV-derived T cell epitopes have been reported, which can be useful in a therapeutic vaccination strategy. However, these epitopes are largely restricted to HLA-A*02, which is not dominantly expressed in populations with high HBV prevalence. Thus, current epitopes are falling short in the development of a global immunotherapeutic approach. Therefore, we aimed to identify novel epitopes for 6 HLA supertypes most prevalent in the infected population. Moreover, established epitopes might not all be equally effective as they can be subject to different levels of immune escape. It is therefore important to identify targets that are crucial in viral replication and conserved in the majority of the infected population. Here, we applied a stringent selection procedure to compose a combined overview of existing and novel HBV-derived T cell epitopes most promising for viral eradication. This set of T cell epitopes now lays the basis for the development of globally effective HBV antigen-specific immunotherapies.

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<![CDATA[Genetic Determinants of Altered Virulence of Type O Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N4b83c25a-7a72-4ca7-a0e7-a6fd11103b0d

FMD is probably the most important livestock disease in the world due to the severe economic consequences caused. The alteration of several viral genes may give the virus selective advantage to maintain its prevalence in nature. Here, we identified that a 70-nucleotide deletion in the S fragment combined with a single leucine insertion in the leader protein (Lpro) is a novel determinant of restricted growth on bovine cells, which significantly contributes to the altered virulence of serotype O FMDV in cattle. A synergistic and additive effect of the 70-nucleotide deletion in the S fragment and the single leucine insertion in Lpro on the virulence and host specificity of the virus was determined. These results will benefit efforts to understand the vial pathogenicity mechanism and molecular characteristics of FMDV.

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<![CDATA[Polymorphisms in the Mannan-Binding Lectin Gene Are Not Associated with Questionnaire-Reported Respiratory Tract Infections in Children]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N0c267ae4-847d-4d49-8546-39c2c079cd85

Abstract

Background. Low mannan-binding lectin (MBL) levels, caused by MBL2 polymorphisms, are suggested to contribute to susceptibility to respiratory tract infections (RTIs), particularly early in life. Large-scale replication of previous associations is needed, however. We investigated the association between MBL2 polymorphisms and the frequency of RTI in a large population-based birth cohort of white children.

Methods. The frequency of RTI was prospectively assessed by annual parental questionnaires until children were 4 years of age. Thirteen polymorphisms in MBL2 were determined in 987 Dutch children. Haplotypes, previously shown to be associated with functional levels of MBL, were constructed, and their associations with the frequency of RTI during year 1, year 2, and the first 4 years of life were assessed. High-producing, intermediate-producing, and deficient MBL2 genotypes were defined on the basis of exon 1 and Y/X promoter polymorphisms.

Results. No differences were found between investigated polymorphisms and haplotype frequencies in the population as a whole or between the groups with frequent, moderately frequent, or no RTIs reported. Deficient MBL2 genotypes were not associated with an increased risk of RTI (odds ratio, 0.71 [95% confidence interval, 0.25 to 2.05]) during years 1–4 of life. This was also true when year 1 and year 2 were studied separately.

Conclusion. These results suggest that, at the population level, MBL2 polymorphisms do not contribute to the risk of questionnaire-reported RTI in white children.

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<![CDATA[Activation of C-Type Lectin Receptor and (RIG)-I-Like Receptors Contributes to Proinflammatory Response in Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-Infected Macrophages]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N4435befc-45aa-4a0a-8787-a0381fccdc66

Abstract

Background

Human infection with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) poses an ongoing threat to public health worldwide. The studies of MERS patients with severe disease and experimentally infected animals showed that robust viral replication and intensive proinflammatory response in lung tissues contribute to high pathogenicity of MERS-CoV. We sought to identify pattern recognition receptor (PRR) signaling pathway(s) that mediates the inflammatory cascade in human macrophages upon MERS-CoV infection.

Methods

The potential signaling pathways were manipulated individually by pharmacological inhibition, small interfering ribonucleic acid (siRNA) depletion, and antibody blocking. The MERS-CoV-induced proinflammatory response was evaluated by measuring the expression levels of key cytokines and/or chemokines. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay, flow cytometry analysis, and Western blotting were applied to evaluate the activation of related PRRs and engagement of adaptors.

Results

MERS-CoV replication significantly upregulated C-type lectin receptor (CLR) macrophage-inducible Ca2+-dependent lectin receptor (Mincle). The role of Mincle for MERS-CoV-triggered cytokine/chemokine induction was established based on the results of antibody blockage, siRNA depletion of Mincle and its adaptor spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk), and Syk pharmacological inhibition. The cytokine and/or chemokine induction was significantly attenuated by siRNA depletion of retinoic acid-inducible-I-like receptors (RLR) or adaptor, indicating that RLR signaling also contributed to MERS-CoV-induced proinflammatory response.

Conclusions

The CLR and RLR pathways are activated and contribute to the proinflammatory response in MERS-CoV-infected macrophages.

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<![CDATA[Hemagglutinin and Neuraminidase Antibodies Are Induced in an Age- and Subtype-Dependent Manner after Influenza Virus Infection]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nbefbf6bf-957c-42fe-a3f6-de91c03c5afa

Data on the immunologic responses to neuraminidase (NA) is lacking compared to what is available on hemagglutinin (HA) responses, despite growing evidence that NA immunity can be protective and broadly cross-reactive. Understanding these NA responses during natural infection is key to exploiting these properties for improving influenza vaccines. Using two community-acquired influenza cohorts, we showed that the induction of both HA and NA antibodies after infection is influenced by age and subtypes. Such response dynamics suggest the influence of immunological memory, and understanding how this process is regulated will be critical to any vaccine effort targeting NA immunity.

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<![CDATA[Cytokine Profile Distinguishes Children With Plasmodium falciparum Malaria From Those With Bacterial Blood Stream Infections]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N7dc62b7f-3ce0-4e41-93c3-138c92a9c518

Abstract

Background

Malaria presents with unspecific clinical symptoms that frequently overlap with other infectious diseases and is also a risk factor for coinfections, such as non-Typhi Salmonella. Malaria rapid diagnostic tests are sensitive but unable to distinguish between an acute infection requiring treatment and asymptomatic malaria with a concomitant infection. We set out to test whether cytokine profiles could predict disease status and allow the differentiation between malaria and a bacterial bloodstream infection.

Methods

We created a classification model based on cytokine concentration levels of pediatric inpatients with either Plasmodium falciparum malaria or a bacterial bloodstream infection using the Luminex platform. Candidate markers were preselected using classification and regression trees, and the predictive strength was calculated through random forest modeling.

Results

Analyses revealed that a combination of 7–15 cytokines exhibited a median disease prediction accuracy of 88% (95th percentile interval, 73%–100%). Haptoglobin, soluble Fas-Ligand, and complement component C2 were the strongest single markers with median prediction accuracies of 82% (with 95th percentile intervals of 71%–94%, 62%–94%, and 62%–94%, respectively).

Conclusions

Cytokine profiles possess good median disease prediction accuracy and offer new possibilities for the development of innovative point-of-care tests to guide treatment decisions in malaria-endemic regions.

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<![CDATA[Elevated Human Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4 Expression Reduces the Susceptibility of hDPP4 Transgenic Mice to Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Infection and Disease]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N22062211-937b-46ca-a5ea-fb59873ffba0

Abstract

Background

The ongoing Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infections pose threats to public health worldwide, making an understanding of MERS pathogenesis and development of effective medical countermeasures (MCMs) urgent.

Methods

We used homozygous (+/+) and heterozygous (+/−) human dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (hDPP4) transgenic mice to study the effect of hDPP4 on MERS-CoV infection. Specifically, we determined values of 50% lethal dose (LD50) of MERS-CoV for the 2 strains of mice, compared and correlated their levels of soluble (s)hDPP4 expression to susceptibility, and explored recombinant (r)shDPP4 as an effective MCM for MERS infection.

Results

hDPP4+/+ mice were unexpectedly more resistant than hDPP4+/− mice to MERS-CoV infection, as judged by increased LD50, reduced lung viral infection, attenuated morbidity and mortality, and reduced histopathology. Additionally, the resistance to MERS-CoV infection directly correlated with increased serum shDPP4 and serum virus neutralizing activity. Finally, administration of rshDPP4 led to reduced lung virus titer and histopathology.

Conclusions

Our studies suggest that the serum shDPP4 levels play a role in MERS pathogenesis and demonstrate a potential of rshDPP4 as a treatment option for MERS. Additionally, it offers a validated pair of Tg mice strains for characterizing the effect of shDPP4 on MERS pathogenesis.

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<![CDATA[Very Early Blood Diffusion of the Active Lethal and Edema Factors of Bacillus anthracis After Intranasal Infection]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nbbeb1b52-5ce5-4ffa-8c3e-977850c1fb0a

Abstract

Background

Lethal and edema toxins are critical virulence factors of Bacillus anthracis. Few data are available on their presence in the early stage of intranasal infection.

Methods

To investigate the diffusion of edema factor (EF) and lethal factor (LF), we use sensitive quantitative methods to measure their enzymatic activities in mice intranasally challenged with a wild-type B anthracis strain or with an isogenic mutant deficient for the protective antigen.

Results

One hour after mouse challenge, although only 7% of mice presented bacteremia, LF and EF were detected in the blood of 100% and 42% of mice, respectively. Protective antigen facilitated the diffusion of LF and EF into the blood compartment. Toxins played a significant role in the systemic dissemination of B anthracis in the blood, spleen, and liver. A mouse model of intoxination further confirmed that LT and ET could diffuse rapidly in the circulation, independently of bacteria.

Conclusions

In this inhalational model, toxins have disseminated rapidly in the blood, playing a significant and novel role in the early systemic diffusion of bacteria, demonstrating that they may represent a very early target for the diagnosis and the treatment of anthrax.

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<![CDATA[Restoration of Mal overcomes the defects of apoptosis in lung cancer cells]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N4678b2b4-03e3-4a62-aa79-1954dd96fe53

Background and aims

Cancer is one of the life-threatening diseases of human beings; the pathogenesis of cancer remains to be further investigated. Toll like receptor (TLR) activities are involved in the apoptosis regulation. This study aims to elucidate the role of Mal (MyD88-adapter-like) molecule in the apoptosis regulation of lung cancer (LC) cells.

Methods

The LC tissues were collected from LC patients. LC cells and normal control (NC) cells were isolated from the tissues and analyzed by pertinent biochemical and immunological approaches.

Results

We found that fewer apoptotic LC cells were induced by cisplatin in the culture as compared to NC cells. The expression of Fas ligand (FasL) was lower in LC cells than that in NC cells. FasL mRNA levels declined spontaneously in LC cells. A complex of FasL/TDP-43 was detected in LC cells. LC cells expressed less Mal than NC cells. Activation of Mal by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) increased TDP-43 expression in LC cells. TDP-43 formed a complex with FasL mRNA to prevent FasL mRNA from decay. Reconstitution of Mal or TDP-43 restored the sensitiveness of LC cells to apoptotic inducers.

Conclusions

LC cells express low Mal levels that contributes to FasL mRNA decay through impairing TDP-43 expression. Reconstitution of Mal restores sensitiveness of LC cells to apoptosis inducers that may be a novel therapeutic approach for LC treatment.

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<![CDATA[Propylthiouracil-induced antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis and agranulocytosis in a patient with Graves’ disease]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nc8394a54-eced-44c4-b2fb-979b720a9e0b

Summary

This case is the first to describe a patient who experienced concomitant agranulocytosis and anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis as an adverse effect of propylthiouracil treatment for Graves’ disease. A 42-year-old female with Graves’ disease presented to the emergency department (ED) with a 2-week history of fevers, night sweats, transient lower limb rash, arthralgia, myalgia and fatigue. She had been taking propylthiouracil for 18 months prior to presentation. On admission, agranulocytosis was evident with a neutrophil count of 0.36 × 109/L and immediately propylthiouracil was stopped. There was no evidence of active infection and the patient was treated with broad-spectrum antibodies and one dose of granulocyte colony-stimulation factor, resulting in a satisfactory response. On further investigation, ANCAs were positive with dual positivity for proteinase 3 and myeloperoxidase. There was no evidence of end-organ damage secondary to vasculitis, and the patient’s constitutional symptoms resolved completely on discontinuation of the drug precluding the need for immunosuppressive therapy.

Learning points:

  • Continued vigilance and patient education regarding the risk of antithyroid drug-induced agranulocytosis is vital throughout the course of treatment.

  • ANCA-associated vasculitis is a rare adverse effect of antithyroid drug use.

  • Timely discontinuation of the offending drug is vital in reducing end-organ damage and the need for immunosuppressive therapy in drug-induced ANCA-associated vasculitis.

  • Similarities in the pathogenesis of agranulocytosis and drug-induced ANCA-associated vasculitis may offer insight into an improved understanding of vasculitis and agranulocytosis.

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<![CDATA[The Salmonella type III effector SpvC triggers the reverse transmigration of infected cells into the bloodstream]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N64786058-46f1-4e38-866e-6d07cb9ab4f4

Salmonella can appear in the bloodstream within CD18 expressing phagocytes following oral ingestion in as little as 15 minutes. Here, we provide evidence that the process underlying this phenomenon is reverse transmigration. Reverse transmigration is a normal host process in which dendritic cells can reenter the bloodstream by traversing endothelium in the basal to apical direction. We have developed an in vitro reverse transmigration assay in which dendritic cells are given the opportunity to cross endothelial monolayers in the basal to apical direction grown on membranes with small pores, modeling how such cells can penetrate the bloodstream. We demonstrate that exposing dendritic cells to microbial components negatively regulates reverse transmigration. We propose that microbial components normally cause the host to toggle between positively and negatively regulating reverse transmigration, balancing the need to resolve inflammation with inhibiting the spread of microbes. We show that Salmonella in part overcomes this negative regulation of reverse transmigration with the Salmonella pathogenicity island-2 encoded type III secretion system, which increases reverse transmigration by over an order of magnitude. The SPI-2 type III secretion system does this in part, but not entirely by injecting the type III effector SpvC into infected cells. We further demonstrate that SpvC greatly promotes early extra-intestinal dissemination in mice. This result combined with the previous observation that the spv operon is conserved amongst strains of non-typhoidal Salmonella capable of causing bacteremia in humans suggests that this pathway to the bloodstream could be important for understanding human infections.

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<![CDATA[Historical and new insights into pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N27619fce-19fa-4b81-8cb5-cad7419587f8

Summary

In recent years, there have been exciting new insights into pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes in a number of areas of immunology. In this edition, a collection of four review articles are presented, which encompass new findings presented at the Immunology of Diabetes Society meeting in London 2018. The articles are focused particularly in 4 related areas of investigation, which include autoantibodies in type 1 diabetes, new autoantigenic targets for CD4 T cells, trafficking of immune cells to the pancreas and islet‐immune interactions in the pancreas.

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<![CDATA[Birth and coming of age of islet autoantibodies]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nec8871a2-fe5f-4a29-88c9-aff59f6cc6e2

Summary

This review takes the reader through 45 years of islet autoantibody research, from the discovery of islet‐cell antibodies in 1974 to today’s population‐based screening for presymptomatic early‐stage type 1 diabetes. The review emphasizes the current practical value of, and factors to be considered in, the measurement of islet autoantibodies.

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<![CDATA[Host-parasite interaction explains variation in the prevalence of avian haemosporidians at the community level]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c897744d5eed0c4847d2876

Parasites are a selective force that shape host community structure and dynamics, but host communities can also influence parasitism. Understanding the dual nature from host-parasite interactions can be facilitated by quantifying the variation in parasite prevalence among host species and then comparing that variation to other ecological factors that are known to also shape host communities. Avian haemosporidian parasites (e.g. Plasmodium and Haemoproteus) are abundant and widespread representing an excellent model for the study of host-parasite interactions. Several geographic and environmental factors have been suggested to determine prevalence of avian haemosporidians in bird communities. However, it remains unknown whether host and parasite traits, represented by phylogenetic distances among species and degree of specialization in host-parasite relationships, can influence infection status. The aims of this study were to analyze factors affecting infection status in a bird community and to test whether the degree of parasite specialization on their hosts is determined by host traits. Our statistical analyses suggest that infection status is mainly determined by the interaction between host species and parasite lineages where tolerance and/or susceptibility to parasites plays an essential role. Additionally, we found that although some of the parasite lineages infected a low number of bird individuals, the species they infected were distantly related and therefore the parasites themselves should not be considered typical host specialists. Infection status was higher for generalist than for specialist parasites in some, but not all, host species. These results suggest that detected prevalence in a species mainly results from the interaction between host immune defences and parasite exploitation strategies wherein the result of an association between particular parasite lineages and particular host species is idiosyncratic.

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<![CDATA[The seven transmembrane domain protein MoRgs7 functions in surface perception and undergoes coronin MoCrn1-dependent endocytosis in complex with Gα subunit MoMagA to promote cAMP signaling and appressorium formation in Magnaporthe oryzae]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c7d95f6d5eed0c484735053

Regulator of G-protein signaling (RGS) proteins primarily function as GTPase-accelerating proteins (GAPs) to promote GTP hydrolysis of Gα subunits, thereby regulating G-protein mediated signal transduction. RGS proteins could also contain additional domains such as GoLoco to inhibit GDP dissociation. The rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae encodes eight RGS and RGS-like proteins (MoRgs1 to MoRgs8) that have shared and distinct functions in growth, appressorium formation and pathogenicity. Interestingly, MoRgs7 and MoRgs8 contain a C-terminal seven-transmembrane domain (7-TM) motif typical of G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) proteins, in addition to the conserved RGS domain. We found that MoRgs7, but not MoRgs8, couples with Gα MoMagA to undergo endocytic transport from the plasma membrane to the endosome upon sensing of surface hydrophobicity. We also found that MoRgs7 can interact with hydrophobic surfaces via a hydrophobic interaction, leading to the perception of environmental hydrophobiccues. Moreover, we found that MoRgs7-MoMagA endocytosis is regulated by actin patch-associated protein MoCrn1, linking it to cAMP signaling. Our studies provided evidence suggesting that MoRgs7 could also function in a GPCR-like manner to sense environmental signals and it, together with additional proteins of diverse functions, promotes cAMP signaling required for developmental processes underlying appressorium function and pathogenicity.

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<![CDATA[Localization of near-infrared labeled antibodies to the central nervous system in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c706776d5eed0c4847c7081

Antibodies, including antibodies to the RNA binding protein heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1, have been shown to contribute to the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis, thus it is important to assess their biological activity using animal models of disease. Near-infrared optical imaging of fluorescently labeled antibodies and matrix metalloproteinase activity were measured and quantified in an animal model of multiple sclerosis, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. We successfully labeled, imaged and quantified the fluorescence signal of antibodies that localized to the central nervous system of mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Fluorescently labeled anti-heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 antibodies persisted in the central nervous system of mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, colocalized with matrix metalloproteinase activity, correlated with clinical disease and shifted rostrally within the spinal cord, consistent with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis being an ascending paralysis. The fluorescent antibody signal also colocalized with matrix metalloproteinase activity in brain. Previous imaging studies in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis analyzed inflammatory markers such as cellular immune responses, dendritic cell activity, blood brain barrier integrity and myelination, but none assessed fluorescently labeled antibodies within the central nervous system. This data suggests a strong association between autoantibody localization and disease. This system can be used to detect other antibodies that might contribute to the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases of the central nervous system including multiple sclerosis.

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<![CDATA[Convergent perturbation of the human domain-resolved interactome by viruses and mutations inducing similar disease phenotypes]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6dc9afd5eed0c484529ff0

An important goal of systems medicine is to study disease in the context of genetic and environmental perturbations to the human interactome network. For diseases with both genetic and infectious contributors, a key postulate is that similar perturbations of the human interactome by either disease mutations or pathogens can have similar disease consequences. This postulate has so far only been tested for a few viral species at the level of whole proteins. Here, we expand the scope of viral species examined, and test this postulate more rigorously at the higher resolution of protein domains. Focusing on diseases with both genetic and viral contributors, we found significant convergent perturbation of the human domain-resolved interactome by endogenous genetic mutations and exogenous viral proteins inducing similar disease phenotypes. Pan-cancer, pan-oncovirus analysis further revealed that domains of human oncoproteins either physically targeted or structurally mimicked by oncoviruses are enriched for cancer driver rather than passenger mutations, suggesting convergent targeting of cancer driver pathways by diverse oncoviruses. Our study provides a framework for high-resolution, network-based comparison of various disease factors, both genetic and environmental, in terms of their impacts on the human interactome.

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