ResearchPad - pediatric-endocrinology Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[SAT-081 Hidden in Plain Sight: Rethinking Our Approach to Allan-Herndon-Dudley Syndrome]]> Background: Allan-Herndon-Dudley (AHD) is a rare X-linked disorder with neurological manifestations secondary to a mutation in monocarboxylate transporter 8, a protein that transports T3 into nerve cells in the brain. AHD is characterized by increased serum free T3, decreased serum free T4 and normal serum TSH levels as well as the severe neurological manifestations including global developmental delay, hypotonia, and joint contractures (1). A phase 2 trial using triodyothyroacetic acid has shown promise in treating this disorder (2). We report on three children who were diagnosed by whole exome sequencing after presenting with neurological manifestations.

Clinical Cases: Patient 1 presented at 4 months to the neurology clinic for seizures. He had a normal newborn screen. Worsening developmental delays and central hypotonia prompted a brain MRI that revealed delayed myelination for age. At 6 months a chromosomal microarray and metabolic work-up were performed and were nondiagnostic. Whole exome sequencing was obtained at the age of 4.5 years revealing a mutation in the SLC16A2 gene (p.Ser210Tyr). Thyroid studies were consistent with the diagnosis.

Patient 2 presented to neurology at 9 months for developmental delay. A brain MRI was obtained which was within normal limits. At 14 months an acylcarnitine profile was obtained which indicated a possible CPT1 deficiency, which did not fit his clinical picture. Chromosomal microarray as well as work-up for inborn errors of metabolism were performed and were nondiagnostic. Thyroid studies were obtained which showed low free T4 with normal TSH. Whole exome sequencing was obtained at the age of 2.5 years, which revealed a mutation in SLC16A2 (p.R371C).

Patient 3 presented as sibling of patient 2 with known AHD syndrome. Testing for SLC16A2 was performed at the age of 5 months and returned positive for same mutation as sibling (p.R371C).

Conclusion: Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome is a rare neurological disease secondary to a mutation in the T3 transporter protein to nervous tissue. A high index of suspicion as well as thyroid studies should be obtained in patients presenting with central hypotonia and global developmental delay with normal newborn screens, particularly in states that use TSH as a screening test. This is especially important as treatments are becoming available that may help prevent neurological devastation seen in these patients.


1. Dumitrescu AM, Fu J, Dempsey MA, Refetoff S. MCT8-Specific Thyroid Hormone Cell-Membrane Transporter Deficiency. In: Adam MP, Ardinger HH, Pagon RA, et al., eds. GeneReviews®. Seattle (WA): University of Washington, Seattle; 1993

2. Groeneweg S, Peeters RP, Moran C, et al. Effectiveness and safety of the tri-iodothyronine analogue Triac in children and adults with MCT8 deficiency: an international, single-arm, open-label, phase 2 trial. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2019;7(9):695-706.

<![CDATA[SUN-083 Screening of Vitamin D and Calcium Concentrations in Neonates of Mothers at High Risk of Vitamin D Deficiency]]> Objective: The aim of this study was to determine, retrospectively, the serum 25OHD and calcium concentrations of screened neonates of mothers at high risk of 25OHD deficiency (maternal 25OHD < 25 nmol/L or unknown vitamin D concentrations and risk factors for vitamin D deficiency) and critically analyse whether their measurements contributes to the management of these neonates.

Methods: Serum 25OHD and calcium concentrations from 600 samples of umbilical cord blood or venous blood collected from neonates over a 12-month period were analysed. 25OHD concentrations were reported for all while both the corrected calcium concentrations and vitamin D concentrations were available for 569 samples.

Results: There was little or no evidence of association between neonatal 25OHD concentrations and gender, gestational age or birth weight. There was a high prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency (27.6%, 30–50 nmol/L) and deficiency (21.3%, < 30 nmol/L) in neonates from high-risk maternal groups. There was a statistically positive but weak correlation (ρ = 0.22, P < 0.0001) between serum calcium and 25OHD concentrations. Only 7 neonates out of 569 (1.2%) had calcium levels in the hypocalcaemic range; however, a significant number (47.6%) were reported to be in the hypercalcaemic range. Nearly all of these were venous samples collected in first 24 hours after birth. We calculated the reference interval for corrected calcium from our data of venous samples in first 24 hours and the upper limit was significantly higher (2.38–3.04 mmol/L) than the standard reference range used.

Conclusion: Vitamin D deficiency is prevalent in neonates of high-risk mothers but the risk of hypocalcaemia due to vitamin D deficiency at birth is low. Screening neonates entails blood testing which can cause distress to neonates and their parents, substantial impost on staff and financial burden on the health care system. 25OHD deficiency is corrected relatively easily in neonates with supplementation and vitamin D supplementation of neonates from birth without routine screening appears to offer better value of care. Also, the data from this study suggest that the paediatric reference range for corrected calcium concentrations in neonates is higher and the paediatric reference range should be reconsidered.

<![CDATA[MON-103 Pattern and Predictors of Thyroid Dysfunction Among Paediatric Endocrine Referrals at Tertiary Care Centre: A Longitudinal Study]]> Background Post iodisation era has experienced gradual change in pattern of thyroid disorders among paediatric population with autoimmunity taking precedence over iodine deficiency disorders and subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) now more frequently diagnosed but inappropriately managed. Aims This study was conducted to evaluate pattern of abnormal thyroid function among children referred to our tertiary care centre, to ascertain characteristics that influence treatment decisions and to follow them for various outcome measures. Design It was an observational longitudinal follow up study where all children less than 18 years, referred to our outpatient clinic for suspected thyroid disorder were recruited. Demographic data, personal and family history, clinical features were noted and laboratory tests including TT4, TT3, TSH, anti-thyroid peroxidase(antiTPO) and anti-thyroglobulin(antiTG) antibody were conducted in study subjects. Management was based on the clinical judgment of the attending endocrinologist. Patients were followed at 6 week, 3 months, 6 months and one year with clinical and laboratory work up at each visit. Results A total of 241 subjects aged 18 days to 17 years were included out of which 62.25% were females. Initial evaluation revealed SCH in 40% of refereed subjects, overt hypothyroidism (OH) in 33%, congenital hypothyroidism (CH) in 18% and overt thyrotoxicosis in 5%. Autoimmune thyroiditis constituted the major cause of hypothyroidism in the OH group with significantly higher prevalence of anti-TPO and antiTG antibody in comparison of SCH group (61% vs 31%; 45% vs 21.9%, p<0.05) respectively. All subjects in OH group were treated whereas 76% subjects in SCH group were treated and the mean dose of L thyroxine required to treat OH was significantly higher (2.31+1.1ug/kg/day vs 1.76+1.07ug/kg/day; p<0.001) in comparison of SCH group. A major independent predictor of treatment in SCH was initial TSH which was significantly higher in the treated group (11.65 + 3.80 uIU/ml vs 9.24 + 1.31 uIU/ml; p<0.001). Subjects with congenital hypothyroid presented at a mean age of 6 months (18 days to 2 years) with most common aetiology being thyroid hypoplasia and dyshormonogenesis

(20% each). Graves’ disease was diagnosed in 11 out of 12 subjects with thyrotoxicosis and were treated with antithyroid drugs. Overall 85.5% of refereed subjects were treated and after one-year follow up management was found to be adequate in 81% subjects. Conclusions The evolving trend of diagnosing children having nonspecific symptoms with SCH is a matter of concern as many are subjected to the burden of unwanted prolonged treatment and frequent testing as highlighted in our study. Delayed presentation of CH in our study warrants active surveillance of children at birth for thyroid disorders to avoid long term adverse effects on mental development.

<![CDATA[MON-072 A 2 -Year Old Girl with Turner Syndrome and Neurofibromatosis Type 1]]> Introduction: Turner syndrome (TS) occurs due to loss of either all or part of the X chromosome, in some or all the cells of the body. The most consistent features of TS are short stature and premature ovarian failure. Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is an inheritable in an autosomal dominant manner tumor predisposition syndrome and is caused by loss-of-function mutations in the tumor suppressor NF1 gene (neurofibromin 1). Literature review indicated rare cases with NF1 and TS (1). We report the sixth girl with mosaic TS and NF1 who presented with optic nerve glioma.

Case report: A 2-year-old female presented to us due to short stature. Her height was 2,5 SD lower than the mean parental height curve, and her bone age was delayed only by 3 months. She already had a normal (46XX) peripheral blood karyotype (70 mitoses). She had abnormal body proportions and with short limbs with unremarkable café au lait spots. Additionally, to the short stature laboratory investigation we ordered a gene panel to exclude hypochondroplasia, and a Karyotype in fibroblasts culture from oral cavity sample. The results revealed low IGF-1 and mosaic TS in 14%. We preformed 2 provocative tests which revealed low growth hormone peak < 5 ng/ml. A brain and pituitary MRI to exclude pituitary lesions or structural abnormalities revealed gliomas of the optic chiasma and the right optic nerve with characteristic NF1 “spots” (regions of signal abnormality in T2 sequences) involving the basal ganglia, cerebellum and the right temporal lobe. DNA sequencing targeted to a gene panel related to NF1 and NF2 revealed a novel de novo heterozygous NF1 gene mutation in exon 28 [3764Α>G];[=]p.[Gln1255Arg].

Discussion: NF1- Gliomas are most commonly seen in young children, (mean 4.5 years). Only 1/3 of affected children will require therapeutic intervention. However early diagnosis, of optic gliomas is important. Our patient was completely asymptomatic by the time of diagnosis and no other symptom or sign of NF1 was apparent. Ophthalmologic examination was normal, but visual electrophysiologic testing was abnormal as far the right optic nerve is concerned. The oncology team decided to preform chemotherapy. In TS impaired growth is related to resistance in GH. Some studies suggested that there could be a relationship between GHD and NF1 even in the absence of an organic pituitary damage. In our patient it has been decided not to treat with GH and closely track the patient’s growth.

Conclusion: Coexistence of NF1 with TS is rare. Awareness is needed as early identification and treatment of CNS gliomas can prevent visual loss and severe co-morbidities.


Rare Presentation of Neurofibromatosis and Turner Syndrome in a Pediatric Patient. Pediatr Rep. 2017 Jun 26; 9(2): 6810

<![CDATA[SAT-077 Two Cases of Hypoparathyroidism Due to Activating Calcium Sensing Receptor Mutation]]> Introduction

The extracellular calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) expressed mainly in the parathyroid gland and kidneys regulates calcium (Ca+2) homeostasis through parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion. Activating mutations of CaSR can lead to autosomal dominant hypocalcemia and severe congenital hypoparathyroidism. Constitutively activated CaSR receptors blocks PTH release leading to hypocalcemia, hyperphosphatemia and decreased Ca+2 reabsorption from the kidney.

Case 1:

14 year old male presented for an evaluation of hypocalcemia and hyperphosphatemia found on routine blood work. He denied symptoms of hypocalcemia. He had normal vital signs, positive Chovstek sign but rest of exam was unremarkable. His lab results showed low Ca+2 8.1 mg/dl (8.6–10 mg/dl), high phosphorus 6 mg/dl (2.7–4.5 mg/dl) and inappropriately normal PTH 26.8 pg/ml (10–65 pg/ml). FISH was negative for DiGeorge. Genetic testing showed heterozygous CaSR gene mutation I822T, variant of uncertain significance. His father with primary hypoparathyroidism has the same CaSR gene mutation; mother is healthy and tested negative for this variant. Given the inheritance pattern of the mutation, it is likely a pathologic mutation. He is maintained on Calcium (1500 mg BID) and Calcitriol (0.5 mcg PO BID) and is doing well.

Case 2:

One day old premature 32-week old infant girl was found to have early onset neonatal hypocalcemia 6.1 mg/dl (6.2–11 mg/dl) during NICU admission for respiratory distress, inappropriately normal PTH 18.5 pg/ml and high phosphorus 8.8 mg/dl (4.6–7.9 mg/dl). She had no symptoms of hypocalcemia in the NICU or at home. She did not have any dysmorphic features. FISH was negative for DiGeorge. Genetic testing to sequence genes including AIRE, AP2S1, CASR, GNAS, HADHA, HADHB, PTH1R, SOX3, STX16, TBCE was done and revealed a novel heterozygous mutation in the CaSR gene for a missense variant c.2495T>C

(p.lle832Thr) and STX16 c.644A>T, possibly benign variant. Unfortunately, the parents have not consented to testing yet. Further familial and functional characterization of this new variant is necessary to confirm its possible pathogenetic role in this hypocalcemic patient. Currently she is maintained on ergocalciferol 800 IU, calcitriol 0.25 mcg and sevelamer 3 packets daily and is doing well.


In the workup for primary hypoparathyroidism without dysmorphic features and tests negative for DiGeorge, CaSR mutations should be investigated as part of the differential as we have identified variants in the CaSR gene in 2 children with asymptomatic hypocalcemia, one of which is a novel mutation which has never been reported before.

<![CDATA[SUN-LB13 Idiopathic Infantile Hypercalcemia Secondary to CYP24A1 Mutation: A Rare Case Without Exogenous Vitamin D Supplementation]]> Background: Mutations in CYP24A1, which encodes 24-hydroxylase, the key enzyme for Vitamin D breakdown, cause symptomatic hypercalcemia and nephrocalcinosis in infants on Vitamin D supplementation. New, symptomatic diagnoses of idiopathic infantile hypercalcemia without exogenous supplementation are rare. Previous case reports describe a seasonal effect with worsening hypercalcemia and hypercalciuria during summertime, attributed to increased sun exposure and endogenous Vitamin D production. Clinical Case: A 10-month-old female presented to endocrine care with hypercalcemia and nephrocalcinosis, detected on renal ultrasound (US) due to history of UTI. Her first renal US and serum calcium (Ca) at 3mo of age were normal. Subsequent renal US at 6mo and 9mo of age demonstrated nephrocalcinosis, prompting nephrology and endocrine evaluation. History was significant for failure to thrive. She was born in the fall, with worsening hypercalcemia and nephrocalcinosis during the summer. Diet consisted of standard infant formula and age appropriate solid foods with no added Vitamin D supplementation (~300 IU/day in her formula). She had no family history of nephrocalcinosis, nephrolithiasis, bone disease, or disorders of Ca regulation. Initial labs were notable for Ca corrected for albumin 11.5 (7.8-11.1 mg/dL), PTH <4 (8.7-77.1 pg/mL), 25-OH-Vitamin D 81 (30-96 ng/mL), 1,25-OH-Vitamin D 23.1 (26.1-95 pg/mL), Urine Ca/creatinine ratio of 0.9 mg/mg (<0.81), normal chromosomal microarray, and normal thyroid function tests. She was started on reduced mineral formula PM 60/40. One week later, repeat Ca level increased to Ca corrected 14.2 (7.8-11.1 mg/dL). She was admitted for IV fluids and pamidronate, and was transitioned to a low Ca and Vitamin D formula (Calcilo), with improvement in Ca levels. Testing revealed an increased ratio of 25-OH-Vitamin D to 24,25-OH-Vitamin D of 192 (normal <25), and genetic testing showed 2 pathogenic missense mutations in CYP24A1 genes: c.1226T>C p.(Leu409Ser) and c.1186C>T p.(Arg396Trp). The Leu409Ser mutation has shown a small amount of 24-hydroxylase activity in previous in vitro analysis. She has continued a low Ca diet with stable Ca corrected of 10.7-10.8 (8.7-9.8 mg/dL) and significantly improved weight gain. Conclusion: This is one of the few documented cases of symptomatic idiopathic infantile hypercalcemia secondary to CYP24A1 mutation in an infant without exogeneous Vitamin D supplementation. Her nephrocalcinosis and hypercalcemia worsened over the summer, suggesting increased sun exposure may have been a contributing factor. This case demonstrates that 1,25-OH-Vitamin D levels may be normal or low in this condition, particularly for individuals with the Leu409Ser mutation who may retain partial 24-hydroxylase function.

<![CDATA[MON-LB011 Retrospective Comparison of Cystic Fibrosis Related Diabetes Pediatric Screening Rates]]> Cystic fibrosis-related diabetes (CFRD) is the most common comorbidity in those with CF, affecting 20% of adolescents and 40-50% of adults with CF. If uncontrolled, it can cause worsened pulmonary outcomes, increased hospital length of stay, and increased mortality. It is typically clinically silent, and hemoglobin A1C and fasting plasma glucose are not sensitive enough to diagnose it. Per national guidelines, the proper outpatient screening method is oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), annually beginning age 10. Inpatient diagnosis involves fasting glucose >126 mg/dl or 2 hour postprandial glucose >200 persisting for more than 48 hours. It is believed that national screening guidelines are unfortunately not being met, particularly while inpatient. At our institution, there are 137 pediatric patients with CF; of those, 8 have a diagnosis of CFRD, and 4 have impaired glucose tolerance.

We aim to study the adherence of our institution to the best practice guidelines for CFRD screening in pediatric patients with Cystic Fibrosis.

Retrospective chart review is occurring through our institution’s EMR for inpatient data, and through a CF database (PortCF) for outpatient data. Inclusion criteria includes pediatric patients (below 1 day or above 17 years and 364 days) with CF. Exclusion criteria is those outside this age range, and those with CFRD. Consent is waived, as this is a retrospective data collection. Several variables including demographics, glycemic status, CFTR modulator and class, corticosteroid and vitamin use, and feeding regimen are also being reviewed. REDCap is being used for secure data entry and analysis. Descriptive statistical analysis will be used. Categorical data will be expressed as frequency (percent). Numeric data will be expressed as mean ± standard deviation or median [25th, 75th percentile], depending on normality of the data. Univariate analysis, like Chi square or Fisher’s exact test, will be used between successful and unsuccessful inpatient screens for CFRD.

Thus far, retrospective chart review of all outpatient data is complete. Preliminary analysis of those who should have received OGTT screening shows 11% have never been screened, and 32% were screened more than one year ago. Completion of inpatient data collection and all statistical analysis is anticipated within the next month. Future direction includes increasing inpatient CFRD screening with use of continuous glucose monitoring sensors during CF exacerbation admissions.

<![CDATA[SAT-LB19 Is There a Need to Use Gadolinium Contrast for Pituitary MRI in the Evaluation of Pediatric Short Stature and Growth Hormone Deficiency?]]> Short stature is a common concern that necessitates pediatric endocrinology evaluation. Growth hormone (GH) deficiency is often included as an etiology. Brain and pituitary Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) with gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) is the imaging modality of choice in assessing patients with GH deficiency. Given the significant strides made in MRI technology that allow improved spatial and contrast resolution, the necessity of using contrast material when obtaining brain and pituitary MRI in cases of short stature and isolated GH deficiency should be reassessed. We preformed a retrospective review of otherwise healthy patients with short stature and/or GH deficiency who underwent brain and pituitary MRI without and with contrast, to assess the benefit of contrast administration.

Introduction: Short stature is a common concern that necessitates pediatric endocrinology evaluation. The etiologies of short stature are diverse. GH deficiency is often included as an etiology although it accounts for only 1-2% of short stature cases. The prevalence of GH deficiency is reported to be ~ 1:3500. The vast majority of GH deficiency cases are idiopathic in nature with only 20% due to organic causes. The organic causes of GH deficiency include congenital central nervous system (CNS) anomalies, tumors and other pathologic conditions that involve the pituitary-hypothalamic region. As a result, the radiological assessment of the hypothalamic-pituitary region is considered standard of care for evaluating patients with GH deficiency. Although brain and pituitary MRI is the imaging modality of choice in assessing patients with GH deficiency, its yield in cases of isolated GH deficiency is very low. In a study of 40 otherwise normal patients with isolated GH deficiency, 35 (87.5%) had normal brain MRIs. The abnormal findings of brain MRI in the minority of isolated GH deficiency cases included pituitary hypoplasia, pituitary stalk agenesis, lack of the normal T1-weighted pituitary hyperintensity in the posterior part of the sella turcica, and the presence of a high-intensity signal at the infundibular level representing ectopic neurohypophysis. Traditionally, these brain and pituitary MRI images are obtained with the use of contrast material (gadolinium). The main purpose of using contrast material is for the evaluation of pituitary microadenomas. Given the fact that significant strides made in MRI technology and pituitary microadenomas are not appeared to be associated with GH deficiency, the necessity of using contrast material when obtaining brain and pituitary MRI in cases of short stature and isolated GH deficiency should be reassessed. GBCAs have been shown to deposit in different tissues including the kidneys and the brain. The risk increases with repeated doses. The clinical significance of this deposition is unclear at this time but warrants caution especially in pediatric population who have a longer expected lifespan to manifest any delayed effects. Allergic reactions and gastrointestinal symptoms in pediatric patients can occur with GBCA administration, although the incidence is low. Using contrast material also increases the total cost of the MRI study and prolongs the time needed to complete it. Moreover, in order to use contrast material, intravenous venous (IV) access is required which causes discomfort and additional stress to children and their families.

Therefore, we performed a retrospective review of otherwise healthy patients with short stature and/or growth hormone deficiency who underwent brain and pituitary MRI without and with contrast, to assess whether contrast administration led to diagnoses that would have otherwise been missed and/or impacted the patient’s clinical course.Objectives: - To compare the diagnostic yield of non-contrast MRI with pre and post-contrast MRI of the brain and pituitary in evaluation of pediatric patients with short stature and/or growth hormone deficiency.- A secondary objective is to measure the size of the pituitary gland and correlates it with peak growth hormone levels (using insulin/argenine).

Methodology: We included patients who underwent brain/pituitary MRI with/without contrast performed at our institution between Jan 2013-Dec 2018 who have short stature/GH deficiency. We excluded patients with known diagnosis of other pituitary hormone deficiencies prior to obtaining MRI studies, genetic and neurological disorders, known tumors/malignancies of any type, or renal failure. Two pediatric neuroradiologists independently reviewed the brain and pituitary MRI of these patients (each read 50% of the cohort) blinded to the clinical data and diagnoses. Each radiologist initially reviewed only the non-contrast portions of the studies, and subsequently, the same radiologist reviewed the entire study, including pre- and post-contrast portions in a separate session. The two sessions were 6 weeks apart to avoid recall bias. Several imaging findings including size and morphology of pituitary gland, presence of congenital anomalies or focal lesions and any associated intracranial findings systematically recorded, and subsequently analyzed.

Hypotheses: 1.The incidence of finding congenital pituitary cysts is the same when obtaining brain/pituitary MRI imaging using gadolinium contrast versus when not using contrast in patients with short stature and or isolate GH deficiency.

2.The incidence of discovering abnormal infundibulum is the same when obtaining brain/pituitary MRI imaging using gadolinium contrast versus when not using contrast in patients with short stature and or isolate GH deficiency. 3.Small pituitary size correlate with GH deficiency.

Results: -We identified 327 patients with short stature/GH deficiency from Jan 2013-Dec 2018-224 (68.5%) are males and 103 (31.5%) are females. -The mean age at the time of imaging is 10 years and the median is 11 years. -161 (49.24%) have height z-score < -2.25 and 166 (50.76%) have height z-score > -2.25.-82 (25.07%) have IGF1 z-score for age < -2, 102 (31.19%) have z-score ≥-2 to ≤ -1, 141 (43.12%) have z-score > -1 and 2 (0.62%) have no level done.-63 (19.27%) have GH peak <5, 87 (26.61%) have GH peak 5-7.99, 53 (16.21%) have GH peak 8-9.99, 30 (9.17%) have GH peak > 10 and 94 (28.75%) did not undergo GH provocative testing. -The kappa coefficient for pars intermedia cyst on pre vs. post contrast imaging is 0.74 and 0.55 for the infundibulum on pre vs. post contrast imaging. -The mean pituitary height for patients with IGF z-score < -2 is 3.9 mm, 4 mm for z-score ≥- 2 to ≤ -1 and 4.3 mm for z-score > -1-The mean pituitary height for patients with peak GH < 5 is 3.8 mm, 4.2 mm for peak 5-7.99, 4.3 mm for peak 8-9.99 and 4.4 mm for peak > 10.

Conclusion: This question has not been answered or even raised in the literature. Our findings suggest that the there is no added benefit to use gadolinium when obtaining brain/pituitary MRI for the evaluation of GH deficiency/short stature. Furthermore, it seems that there is an association between the pituitary height and the GH status of the cohort which is in line with previous published studies.

<![CDATA[MON-061 A Case of Central Precocious Puberty Patient with Arnold Chiari Malformation, Type I]]> Central precocious puberty (CPP) is caused by early activation of Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal-Gonal (H-P-G) axis. Although the cause of CPP is idiopathic in most cases, small portions of CPP are caused by intracranial lesion such as hypothalamic hamartomas, postencephalitic scars, tubercular meningitis, head trauma, hydrocephalus, tuberous sclerosis, arachnoid cyst, etc. Type I Chiari malformation is a disorder characterized by a displacement of the cerebellar tonsils through the foramen magnum into the upper cervical spinal canal with various neurologic symptom. There have been some reported cases of Arnold-Chiari type I malformations with CPP, however this association is not yet completely understood. We would like to introduce a case of girl experiencing Arnold Chiari type I malformation as well as CPP, who presented with progressive breast budding and acceleration of growth. A 8-year-old girl was presented with 6month history of breast budding and acceleration of growth (5cm/7month). Her family history demonstrated that her mother had been treated with prolactinoma and experienced early menarche. On physical examination, she showed Tanner stage 2(B2, P1). She did not exhibit any neurological signs or symptoms. Thyroid gland was not enlarged and No abnormal skin pigmentation or bony abnormalities were identified. Her height was 124.9cm (37th percentile), weight was 22.4kg (14th percentile), while midparental height was calculated to be 159cm (father: 174cm, mother: 157cm). Her bone age was assessed to be 10 years of age. Luteinizing hormone(LH) showed pubertal response (peak LH: 9.9IU/L) in Luteinizing Hormone Releasing Hormone (LHRH) stimulation test. The abdominopelvic US revealed pubertal response of uterus(length 4.1cm, endometrial echogenicity) without any other abnormality. We performed brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging(MRI) for rule out intracranial lesion, which showed Arnold-Chiari type 1 malformation (downward displacement of the cerebellar tonsil by 6 mm). Following diagnosis, Her parents wanted further neurologic evaluation and treatment in Canada, beacause she was Canadian. In conclusion, Arnold-Chiari type 1 malformation can be a possible cause of CPP without neurological symptoms in children, more cases are needed to clarify the relationship and evaluate reasonable causes of Arnold-Chiari type 1 malformation in the brain, especially in young patients with precocious puberty.

<![CDATA[SAT-108 Growth Hormone Deficiency in a Patient with Ectodermal Dysplasia]]> Background information:

Ectodermal dysplasia (ED) is a rare heterogeneous group of genetic disorders of ectodermal derived tissues, characterized by abnormalities in skin, teeth, hair and eccrine glands. Growth failure in these children varies depending on the genetic mutation and has not been well characterized. This clinical case report presents a 11-year-old male with a heterozygous mutation in WNT 10 A, a variant of the hypohydrotic ED gene, who was found to have growth hormone (GH) deficiency and treated with GH.

Case report:

He was born at 35 weeks gestation by C-section with a birth weight of 5 lbs. 12 oz. to a mother who had invitro fertilization with donor eggs from the maternal aunt with ocular myasthenia gravis and sperm from the father. Pregnancy was complicated by twin gestation and polyhydraminos. He had transient myasthenia gravis and treated with pyridostigmine for 3 months for feeding problems and swallowing difficulty. He also had arthrogryposis of the distal upper extremities attributed to placental transfer of the maternal aunt’s myasthenia gravis antibodies.

He was referred to the endocrine clinic for evaluation of his growth failure around the age of 8 years. His growth chart indicated that he grew along the 5thpercentile until age 5 year with a gradual decline to the 3rd percentile by age 7 year and close to 2nd percentile by age 8 year. His BMI was at 7th percentile. Mid parental height was 5’9”. There was no history of delayed adolescence in the family. His twin sister had very mild form of arthrogryposis with dental delay but steady linear growth. He also had decreased exercise tolerance. His body tended to become hot during sports activities and had to wrap his face and neck with cold soaked towels. His other problems included delayed dental development with conical incisor, thin nail, missing teeth and hearing defects that raised suspicion for ectodermal dysplasia. Genetic testing at the age of 4 years had demonstrated a heterozygous mutation in the WNT 10A gene, an important gene for tooth development. Physical examination revealed a mild facial dysmorphism with conical incisor, missing teeth and high arched palate. He had contracture of the proximal inter phalangeal joints of the hands. Investigations revealed a normal thyroid function test, IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 level, CBC, sedimentation rate, chemistry panel and celiac titer. The bone age was concordant with his chronological age of 8 years. A GH stimulation study demonstrated a peak GH level of 4.94 ng/ml. An MRI of the brain revealed a normal pituitary gland. He was started on GH therapy with 0.3 mg/kg/week at age 9 year. His height improved from 2nd percentile at age 9 year to 20th percentile by age 11 year on growth hormone therapy. His exercise capacity and stamina also improved.


Growth failure and GH axis should be evaluated in children with ED. GH therapy improves growth velocity and exercise capacity in patients with ED.

<![CDATA[SAT-055 A De Novo 1p13.2 Deletion Related to Short Stature, Hypothyroidism and Mild Developmental Delay]]> Background: Chromosomal deletions may lead to variable phenotypic alterations, depending on which loci and genes are deleted. We present the case of a boy with a de novo 1p13.2 deletion which was diagnosed by array-CGH analysis.

Clinical Case: A Greek boy, who was referred for evaluation of growth failure, was investigated. He was delivered at term by cesarean section, with normal birth weight (3.060 kg), birth length (51 cm) and head circumference (35.5 cm). There was no positive family history for short stature. Target height was on the 25th percentile. He presented with growth deceleration since the age of 12 months leading to stature lower than the 3rd percentile at the age of two years, while his weight was at the 3rd percentile. Macrocephaly was appreciated (53 cm, >95th percentile). Dysmorphic facial features resembling Noonan syndrome, such as frontal bossing, depressed nasal bridge and low-set ears were recognized. His motor development was normal. Laboratory examination revealed hypothyroidism and treatment with L-thyroxine was initiated. He had regular follow-ups at 6 months intervals. A mild delay in speech development and motor skills was appreciated. At the age of five years old, as his growth rate remained slow, growth hormone (GH) stimulation tests were performed. GH had a borderline normal peak of 9.9 ng/ml. IGF-1 levels were also within normal range (123.7 ng/ml). Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of the pituitary gland and the brain was normal. Array-CGH analysis detected a loss of approximately 800 Kb on chromosome 1p13.2; these alterations affect 8 genes in the OMIM database. The deleted segment was mapped at chr1: 115,186,092_115,977,647 region. The genomic coordinates are listed according to genomic build GRCh37/hg19. The genetic material analysis did not show the presence of a deficit in chromosomal region 1p13.2 (chr1: 115,186,092_115,977,647) in neither of the parents, indicating that this finding was created de novo.

Conclusion: We describe a patient with a Noonan like phenotype, due to a 1p13.2 deletion. In the international literature and databases of Database of Genomic Variants and Database of Chromosomal Imbalance and Phenotype in Humans Using Ensemble Resources there are no reports of normal individuals or patients with a similar finding in chromosomal region 1p13.2. Regular follow up of the patient is needed in order to better understand the evolution of the phenotype.

<![CDATA[SAT-104 Unraveling the Connection Between Cortisol and Pediatric Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension]]> Background: Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is a condition of elevated intracranial pressure without identifiable secondary causes. The childhood incidence is 0.7 per 100,000 and increases with age, obesity, and female gender. Few case reports in the literature, and our own experience, suggest there may be an association between IIH and adrenal insufficiency (AI) but the real extent is unknown. Aim: To describe the prevalence of AI in children presenting with IIH to a large pediatric referral center. Methods: Retrospective chart review identified all children who presented with IHH and had cortisol measured between January 2010 and September 2019. Based on morning, random or 1 mcg ACTH stimulated cortisol levels, adrenal functioning was classified as: (1) deficient (peak cortisol <16 μg/dl, AM cortisol <5 μg/dl), (2) at risk (peak cortisol 16 - 20 μg/dl, AM cortisol 5 - 13 μg/dl or random < 13 μg/dl), or (3) sufficient (peak cortisol >20 μg/dl, AM or random cortisol >13 μg/dl). Descriptive data present mean (+/- standard deviation), and chi-squared (χ 2) tests of differences are used to examine differences between the adrenal functioning groups. Results: Participants (N=64) were 40.6% male, of mixed ancestry (61% non-Hispanic white; 19% African-American, 16% Hispanic White and 5% Asian), with a mean age of 10.8 (4.8) years. Cortisol levels were obtained at an average of 0.6 (1.9) years after diagnosis of IIH; 23% and 52% of patients had insufficient or at risk cortisol levels. The majority of those in the insufficient (70%) or at risk (80%) groups were exposed to topical, nasal or inhaled corticosteroids, but not systemic. Only 60% and 12 % of those with IIH and insufficient or at risk cortisol testing, respectively, underwent definitive testing with a stimulation test. Adrenal function did not differ by age, race/ethnicity, zBMI, nor prolong exposure to steroids (> 2 weeks), time between IIH diagnosis and cortisol testing (all P>.05). Those in the deficient group were less likely to be female (33%) than those in the at risk (61%; χ 2=3.07, df=1, P=.001) or sufficient (81%; χ 2=7.30, df=1, P<.001) groups. Those with AI were more likely to have history of asthma (53%; vs: 18% at risk and 12% normal; both P>.05) Conclusions: Steroid use and AI are common in IIH and need consideration as a cause of IIH development. Appropriate diagnosis and treatment of AI in children who present with IIH may lead to its resolution, significantly impacting clinical outcomes of these children. In our cohort, the majority had AI or at risk cortisol levels, and many did not undergo further testing. All young children who present with IIH should be evaluated for steroid exposure, including non-systemic steroids, and undergo evaluation for AI. Caution should be utilized in pediatric providers prescribing these medications. More prospective studies are required to evaluate the effects of steroid use in relation to IIH development.

<![CDATA[SUN-095 Understanding and Communication Around DSD According to the Mothers and Patients’ Perspectives]]> Communication around DSD is complex. It involves diagnosis and treatment aspects and is influenced by the psychological status of the individuals and the cultural context. An adequate understanding by patients and relatives is essential for approach of DSD. Objetive: To evaluate the DSD care setting in three Brazilian tertiary centers in order to identify the barriers to an adequate understanding and an optimal communication. Methods: A guide with 69 questions, assessing the level of knowledge, the main doubts and difficulties around DSD was developed and guided individual interviews with 100 mothers and 53 adult patients with DSD. The main doubts were clarified and a self-assessment was requested to them before and after the interview on a scale from 0 to 10. Results: Mothers and patients mean age were, respectevily, 35.2 and 36.5 years. Both of them had a satisfactory educational level. Although 48% (p<0.01) of mothers and 68% (p:0.02) of patients were satisfied/very satisfied about their knowledge related to the DSD, 78% and 58%, respectively, of them still had doubts. The doubts were related to diagnosis, karyotype, medications, appearance of genitalia, surgery, sexual activity, fertility, genetic counseling, consequences of the condition and treatment on general health and condition influence on the child’s behavior and personality The unsatisfied mothers cited as barriers to an optimal understanding the complexity of the conditions, the difficult terms and the psychological stress at diagnosis. Patients also cited as barriers the absence of dialogue about the condition at home and some of them chose not to know. About 55% of mothers and 62% of patients didn’t even know the name of the condition; but positively 88% of them knew the necessary treatment. Regarding communication, 68% of mothers and 89% of patients didn’t feel comfortable talking to people about the DSD condition and around 68% of them underwent negative comments. Although 73% of patients would prefer to be first informed about their condition at childhood, 29% of mothers think that childhood is the best age for it. Among mothers and patients, the most and least appropriate term to name the DSD condition is, respectively, genital malformation and disease (p<0.01). Both of them have the stigma as the main concern. Conclusion: Even in a tertiary center with a multidisciplinary team, the mothers and patient’s knowledge about DSD conditions is scarce. The proper choice of the term to refer to DSD conditions should consider the families and patients perspectives. Communication about DSD is prejudiced by the lack of knowledge and the stigma suffered by these patients and families. Thus, due to complexity of this topic, continued educational action must be instituted as a strategy to modify this scenario.

<![CDATA[SAT-063 Polymicrobial Suppurative Thyroiditis Masquerading as Thyroid Storm]]> Introduction:

The thyroid gland is highly resistant to infection due to a robust blood supply, good lymphatic drainage, and high iodine concentration. Suppurative thyroiditis (ST) often presents with fever, tachycardia, leukocytosis, tenderness, and euthyroid labs. However, when ST occurs with thyrotoxicosis, it can meet criteria for thyroid storm, which presents a diagnostic dilemma.

Clinical Case:

A 17 year old female with family history of Graves’ disease presented to the ER with a sore throat. She was diagnosed with viral pharyngitis and treated with dexamethasone. Over the next 2 weeks, she developed fatigue, body aches, nausea, vomiting, and chills. She returned to the ER and was found to have tachycardia, hyperthyroidism [free T4 5.64 ng/dL (0.8 - 2.0 ng/dL), TSH <0.015 uIU/mL (0.5 - 4.5 uIU/mL)], and WBC 11 k/uL (3.5 - 11.5 k/uL). She was prescribed atenolol and referred to Endocrinology. Three days later she developed fever, diaphoresis, ear pain, vomiting, and abdominal pain. In the ER, she was febrile to 101.2°F with a heart rate (HR) of 117 BPM. Labs showed a free T4 6.14 ng/dL, TSH <0.015 uIU/mL, and WBC 20 k/uL. She was treated with methylprednisolone, propylthiouracil, and labetalol with improvement and transferred for concern of impending thyroid storm. Exam showed left-sided thyroid enlargement with tenderness. Thyroid ultrasound showed an enlarged heterogenous left thyroid lobe with 2 nodules, one 25 x 33 x 21 mm heterogenous and one 19 x 11 x 19 mm homogenous, without discrete abscess. That night she developed vomiting, hand tremors, HR in the 130’s BPM, fever to 104.1°F, and a headache. Treatment was initiated with methimazole, SSKI drops, propranolol, and dexamethasone. Symptoms improved save persistent neck tenderness and dysphagia. CT neck demonstrated a left-sided 25 x 17 x 90 mm abscess with concern for 4th branchial apparatus abnormality. She underwent incision and drainage with drain placement. Cultures grew Streptococcus anginosus and Fusobacterium necrophorum. Broad spectrum antibiotics were started and later narrowed to ampicillin-sulbactam. Betablockers and methimazole were discontinued and thyroid labs nearly normalized by discharge [T4 11.8 mcg/dL (4.5-11.5 mcg/dL), free T4 2.0 ng/dL (0.8-2 ng/dL), and total T3 78 ng/dL (100-210 ng/dL)]. Thyroid auto-antibodies were negative.


In patients with ST, only 11% present with hyperthyroidism. Current thyroid storm scoring systems are sensitive but not specific so an acute bacterial infection with thyrotoxicosis can easily meet criteria. While ultrasound is standard for assessing for thyroid abscesses, in the setting of high clinical suspicion, further imaging with contrasted neck CT is warranted.

<![CDATA[SAT-LB13 Clinical Utility of 21-Deoxycortisol in Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia]]> Introduction Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH) is most often caused by mutation of the 21-hydroxylase gene (CYP21), which results in underproduction of cortisol with overproduction of precursor steroids and their metabolites by the adrenal glands. Historically the most common biomarker used for detecting CAH in pediatric patients is 17-Hydroxyprogesterone (17OHP). Another less commonly used biomarker for 21-Hydroxylase deficiency is 21-deoxycortisol (21DOF), which increases from very low levels in normal patients to high levels in affected patients as 17OHP rises to very high levels. In this study we performed retrospective analysis of serum 21DOF concentration in specimens that had been genotyped for mutations in the CYP21A2 gene, or had been submitted to our laboratory for provocative adrenocorticotropin (ACTH / Cosyntropin) stimulation testing. Methods: Biochemical testing for 21DOF concentration was measured by LC-MS/MS. Briefly, a TX-4 HPLC system (Thermo-Fisher) with Agilent® 1100 pumps (Agilent Technologies, Inc.) and a Sciex® 5000 (Danaher) triple quadrupole mass spectrometer in positive mode atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) was used for detection in Multiple Reaction Monitoring (MRM) mode. Genetic testing was performed using the CAHDetx test, which detects the 12 most common small mutations and large gene deletions/conversions in CYP21A2. Genetic Correlations: 21DOF was quantifiable (above the LLOQ of the assay) in 4% (n=24/600) of specimens where no mutation was detected. 21-DOF was quantifiable in 42% (122/292) of specimens with 21-hydroxylase enzyme mutations as determined by the CAHDetx test. Those mutations included In2G, I172N, V281L and others. Some mutations such as Q318X did not result in a detectable increase in 21-deoxycortisol. ACTH Stimulation Response: 21-deoxycortisol was below the quantitation limit in both the baseline and stimulated samples in ~35% (52/148) of submitted samples. The 21-deoxycortisol was quantifiable in only the stimulation sample in ~45% (65/148) of ACTH stimulation submitted, and was quantifiable in both baseline and stimulated samples in the remaining ~20% (30/148) of ACTH stimulation pairings. The extent of 21-deoxycortisol increase ranged from 1.2-fold to 116-fold with a median 14-fold increase. Clinical Significance: The use of 21-deoxycortisol may be beneficial in reducing the rate of false positives in CAH diagnosis when used in concert with other steroid hormones, and may eventually reduce the need for provocative testing to confirm CAH diagnosis.

<![CDATA[OR10-04 Interpretation of Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 (IGF-1) Levels Following Administration of Somatrogon (a Long-acting Human Growth Hormone - hGH-CTP)]]> IGF-1 is often used as a biomarker to evaluate the efficacy and safety of hGH replacement therapy. Typically, the mean IGF-1 SDS level during the dosing interval, rather than the peak value, guides clinical decision-making: sustained mean values > +2 may require hGH dose modifications. With long-acting formulations (administered weekly), the IGF-1 evaluation paradigm needs to take into account when the sample was obtained relative to the last administered dose. Previous studies with OPKO’s once weekly Somatrogon (hGH-CTP), demonstrated that IGF-1 SDS peaked ~ 48 hours post-dose and that values at ~ 96 hours best approximated the mean IGF-1 SDS throughout the dosing interval [1]. Data from the pivotal Phase 3 non-inferiority study comparing treatment with Somatrogon to Genotropin allowed further evaluation of the IGF-1 SDS analysis paradigm.

Enrolled subjects were randomized to receive treatment with either once weekly Somatrogon (0.66 mg/kg; N=109) or once daily Genotropin (0.034 mg/kg; N=115). IGF1 was sampled ~ five times during 52 weeks of treatment with Somatrogon, providing a total of 557 samples obtained after the first dose of Somatrogon. IGF-1 SDS values were calculated using Bidlingmaier’s equations [2].

Analysis of IGF-I SDS data from the Phase 3 study showed that the previously-developed model, with adjustments to two parameters (baseline IGF-1, EC50) and adapted to fit IGF-1 values in the absence of Somatrogon concentration data, fit the IGF-1 data for Somatrogon with minimal bias. This allowed prediction of IGF-1 SDS values at timepoints throughout the dosing interval as well as calculation of the mean value during a dosing interval. Of the samples obtained between 48–72 hours post-dose (representing peak IGF-1 SDS), approximately 17% had an IGF1 SDS > +2. At 96 hours (corresponding to mean IFG-1 SDS), fewer than 2% of modeled values were > +2. Mean IGF-1 SDS over the dosing interval was between -1 and +1 for all subjects.

These findings indicate that IGF-1 SDS values need to be interpreted in the context of when the sample was obtained relative to the last dose of Somatrogon. Our results indicate that samples obtained 96 hours post-dose best represent mean IGF-1 levels and that values obtained between 48–72 hours post-dose represent values closer to peak IGF-1 concentrations. In our Phase 3 study, of the 557 samples collected from 114 patients during the 12-month Somatrogon treatment period, fewer than 2% of the corresponding values at 96 hours postdose (estimated from a pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model) had IGF-1 SDS levels > +2.

1. Fisher DM, et al. Horm Res Paediatr 2017;87:324. 2. Bidlingmaier M, et al. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2014;99:1712

<![CDATA[OR22-04 Relationship of TSH Levels with the Components of Metabolic Syndrome in a Nationally Representative Population of Youth in the United States]]> Introduction: Subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) is defined as elevated TSH with normal thyroid levels, and is often associated with obesity. SH has been linked to cardiometabolic risk factors such as abnormal lipids, elevated blood pressure, atherosclerosis and fatty liver. This study sought to elucidate the association of TSH level with the components of metabolic syndrome independent of BMI in children from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES).

Methods: NHANES surveys 1999-01 and 2007-12 that measured thyroid function tests were included in the study. Youth aged 2-18 years with TSH levels < 10 uU/mL and normal Total T4 (TT4) levels were included in the analysis. The components of metabolic syndrome were defined as abdominal obesity (waist circumference > 95th %tile), hypertriglyceridemia (TG >=100 for 0-9 years and >=130 mg/dL for > 10 years), low HDL cholesterol < 40 mg/dL), elevated blood pressure (> 95th %tile for age/sex/height) and hyperglycemia (FBG > 100 mg/dL, or diagnosis of diabetes). The association of these components with quartiles of TSH were examined by logistic and linear regression controlling for age, sex, race/ethnicity and BMI. All analyses were performed in R v3.5.1.

Results: After excluding youth with TSH >10 uU/mL and TT4 levels < 12.4 mcg/dL, 2377 subjects (50% female) were included in the study. The mean age of the cohort was 15 ± 1.7 years; 28.2 % were non-hispanic whites and 38.5 % hispanic/latino. Obesity (BMI >95 %tile) was seen in 21.7% individuals. There were 44 subjects with TSH levels >4.5 uU/mL that was not different by BMI (2.5% in BMI >95%tile and 1.7% BMI < 95%tile, p = 0.29). Based on the distribution in the population, TSH levels were divided into 4 quartiles: Q1= 0.01-0.97, Q2= 0.98-1.42, Q3=1.43-2.0, Q4 = > 2.01 uU/mL. A statistically significant association of the Q4 TSH was seen with abdominal obesity, OR 2.44 (1.38-4.39), p=0.002 and elevated BP, OR 1.6 (1.06-2.44), p = 0.02 but not with high TG, OR 1.58 (0.93-2.75), p=0.09, low HDL, OR 0.84 (0.6-1.17), p = 0.31 or those with hyperglycemia and/or diabetes, OR = 1.25 (0.78-2.05), p = 0.36. Linear regression models showed statistically significant association of abdominal obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, elevated BP and hyperglycemia (and/or diabetes) with increase in TSH level.

Conclusions: In children from a representative US population, the prevalence of SH defined as TSH level >4.5 uU/mL is low, even with BMI >95th %tile. The association of measures of metabolic syndrome with linear increase in TSH suggests that the current reference range may require modification.

<![CDATA[SUN-091 Change in Sex of Rearing in Individuals with Disorders of Sex Development]]> Introduction: Differences of Sex Development (DSDs) encompass variations in formation of internal or external sex characteristics. Historically, sex assignment in children with DSDs depended on phenotype, and gender was thought to be malleable. Attention in DSD has recently shifted toward reducing gender dysphoria and preserving fertility potential. Our multidisciplinary DSD clinic was formed in 2008 with these goals and includes specialists from Endocrinology, Gynecology, Urology, Psychology, Social Work, Genetics, and Chaplaincy.

Subjects: A chart review was done on all patients seen in our DSD clinic between April 2008 and June 2019 to determine rates of sex reassignment and gender dysphoria. Two hundred patients were seen: 23 were found to not have DSDs; 61 were 46,XX; 66 were 46,XY; 31 had a sex chromosome DSD; 5 had gonadal dysgenesis without known chromosome mosaicism; and 14 had syndromic genital atypia. Mean age of follow-up is 8.77 years.

Results: Only 2 patients underwent sex reassignment at our institution. One was assigned male at birth, but was found to be 46,XX with 21-hydroxylase deficiency and was reassigned female at 1 month of age. The second was assigned male at birth and was found to be 46,XY with an NR5A1 variant. Sex was reassigned female at two months of age. Two additional patients had a sex reassignment outside our institution. One was born abroad and assigned male at birth. The patient was found to be 46,XY with an NR5A1 variant, and was reassigned female. The second patient was assigned male at birth, but was found to be 46,XX with P450 oxidoreductase deficiency. The parents changed the sex of rearing to female at 19 months of age. To date, none has signs of gender dysphoria.

A total of three patients experienced gender dysphoria and underwent transition. The first had genital ambiguity with sex chromosome mosaicism in the gonads and was assigned female at birth. We held care conferences with the family and discussed the possibility of gender dysphoria. At age 3, the patient declared that he was male, and parents socially transitioned him at that time. Two were assigned female after receiving the diagnosis of 46,XX 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Both declared male gender identity later, one at 12.5 years of age, and one at 20.5 years of age.

Conclusion: Whereas our patient population is still relatively young, it is reassuring that the overall rate of gender dysphoria is low. The rate in patients with CAH is similar to previous reports in the literature. Careful attention to sex assignment in early childhood may reduce the rates of gender dysphoria in children with DSDs.

<![CDATA[SAT-LB17 Triplication of SHOX Downstream Region in Mild Short Stature]]> Deletions of the downstream flanking regions of the SHOX gene that contain conserved non-coding cis-regulatory DNA elements are a known cause of Leri-Weill dyschondrosteosis or idiopathic short stature (ISS). Functional and comparative genomic studies have demonstrated the existence of four CNE enhancers downstream of SHOX which have transcriptional activity, and a fifth has recently been suggested at approximately X:970,000. Duplications of these downstream regions have also been described in patients with ISS, although with a variable phenotype. We present a family with ISS and the first ever reported SHOX downstream triplication. The index case was a 12-year-old Caucasian female of unrelated parents, born with normal weight and length, and normal hearing/vision and development. At the age of 12, her height was -1.87 SD (-1.35 SD adjusted for parental height). Her growth chart showed a height on the 90th centile at birth, slowly crossing centiles for the first 5 years to the 2nd centile, which she then followed. She had normal proportions and head circumference, and no dysmorphic features apart from inverted nipples. Baseline investigations for short stature were normal, including IGF1, karyotype and celiac screen. Bone age was 1.5 year delayed. Family history: arthritis in the father, early menopause in the mother. Analysis of SHOX and its flanking regions was carried out using Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA) and direct sequencing of all coding exons. MLPA analysis showed a SHOX downstream triplication with a minimum size of 66kb (X:963670-1029779) and a maximum size of 428kb (X:899389-1327688). The size of the duplication was further defined using array comparative genome hybridization (ACGH) analysis which showed the minimum size to be ~325kb (X:907457-1232802). This triplication includes the proposed regulatory element at ~ X:970,000. The triplication was subsequently shown to be present in the proband’s mother and brother who also have mild ISS. Further analysis of these and other family members is ongoing. The triplication is of a single-sized fragment, and the fragment size is identical to one that has been seen in duplicated form in several other patients, increasing the likelihood that the triplicated fragments are in tandem. The precise mechanism of the pathogenic effect of the triplication is unknown, but it likely exerts a negative effect on SHOXtranscription, reducing its expression and ultimately resulting in SHOX haploinsufficiency. In conclusion, we describe a family with mild ISS and a downstream triplication of the proposed X:970,000 SHOX downstream regulatory element. This provides further evidence for this previously proposed regulatory element downstream of SHOX and adds additional proof that increased dosage of this regulatory element region is a cause of short stature.

<![CDATA[SUN-065 Bone Health Outcomes in a Large, Diverse Pediatric Cohort Undergoing Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant]]> Background:

Impaired bone mineral density (BMD) is a known complication of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in adults and may lead to increased fracture risk. Little is known in pediatrics about the risks for impaired BMD and fragility (low trauma) fractures after HSCT. Factors that may influence the risk of bone disease include underlying diagnosis, glucocorticoid exposure, and HSCT complications (e.g. graft versus host disease (GVHD)). Our study aims to describe the incidence of fragility fractures in a large diverse pediatric HSCT population and to identify risk factors of both fracture and impaired BMD.


We reviewed the records of 237 patients (age ≤ 21 years at time of transplant) who underwent HSCT at our institution between January 2015 and March 2018. The primary endpoint was incidence of fragility fractures and the secondary endpoint was assessment of BMD on dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). We analyzed DXA results at one-year post-HSCT in 72 out of 206 patients alive at 1 year.


There were 25/237 (10.5%) patients with evidence of fragility fracture on x-ray. Of those, 18/25 (72%) were spine fractures. For patients who had fractures, median time to fracture was 5.9 months after BMT. Mortality at one-year was proportionally higher, though not significant (p=0.11) in patients who had at least one fragility fracture (24%; 6/25) compared to patients without fragility fracture (12%; 25/212). Vitamin D status at one-year post transplant was sufficient (>20ng/mL) in 94% (160/171) of patients measured. There was no difference in incidence of fracture between vitamin D sufficient and insufficient patients. The median height-for-age adjusted Z-score (HAZ) for spine BMD at one-year post transplant was 0.13 in all patients. The median HAZ spine BMD Z-score in patients with fragility fracture was -1.64, though data was available for only 5 patients.


The incidence of fragility fractures, especially vertebral compression fractures, after pediatric HSCT is striking and is higher than in adult populations. Furthermore, there are likely additional asymptomatic patients with occult fractures not detected in out cohort. Additional analysis will assess the associations between underlying medical diagnosis, GVHD, and chronic glucocorticoid exposure on fragility fracture risk. The high incidence of fragility fractures seen in this study advocates for establishing bone health screening protocols with attention toward spinal imaging in pediatric patients undergoing HSCT.