ResearchPad - pericarp https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Impact of fruit orientation and pelleting material on water uptake and germination performance in artificial substrate for sugar beet]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14564 Water uptake into seeds is a fundamental prerequisite of germination and commonly influenced by commercial seed enhancement technologies. The effect of fruit orientation and contrasting pelleting materials on germination and biological performance of sugar beet was assessed. The results indicated there was orientation dependent fruit shrinkage of 37% for the operculum side supplied by moisture compared to 4% for the basal pore side. The expansion rate of 5% compared to the original size, which was also observed for non-shrinking seeds, indicated this was a temporary effect. This behaviour has importance for the application pelleting materials to seeds. Pellets composed of materials exhibiting low levels of swelling act as a water distribution layer which increased germination rates. Careful selection of pelleting material is crucial as it has direct implications on germination speed and subsequent establishment rates.

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<![CDATA[Escape to Ferality: The Endoferal Origin of Weedy Rice from Crop Rice through De-Domestication]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da6bab0ee8fa60b92d4f

Domestication is the hallmark of evolution and civilization and harnesses biodiversity through selection for specific traits. In regions where domesticated lines are grown near wild relatives, congeneric sources of aggressive weedy genotypes cause major economic losses. Thus, the origins of weedy genotypes where no congeneric species occur raise questions regarding management effectiveness and evolutionary mechanisms responsible for weedy population success. Since eradication in the 1970s, California growers avoided weedy rice through continuous flood culture and zero-tolerance guidelines, preventing the import, presence, and movement of weedy seeds. In 2003, after decades of no reported presence in California, a weedy rice population was confirmed in dry-seeded fields. Our objectives were to identify the origins and establishment of this population and pinpoint possible phenotypes involved. We show that California weedy rice is derived from a different genetic source among a broad range of AA genome Oryzas and is most recently diverged from O. sativa temperate japonica cultivated in California. In contrast, other weedy rice ecotypes in North America (Southern US) originate from weedy genotypes from China near wild Oryza, and are derived through existing crop-wild relative crosses. Analyses of morphological data show that California weedy rice subgroups have phenotypes like medium-grain or gourmet cultivars, but have colored pericarp, seed shattering, and awns like wild relatives, suggesting that reversion to non-domestic or wild-like traits can occur following domestication, despite apparent fixation of domestication alleles. Additionally, these results indicate that preventive methods focused on incoming weed sources through contamination may miss burgeoning weedy genotypes that rapidly adapt, establish, and proliferate. Investigating the common and unique evolutionary mechanisms underlying global weed origins and subsequent interactions with crop relatives sheds light on how weeds evolve and addresses broader questions regarding the stability of selection during domestication and crop improvement.

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<![CDATA[Mutation increasing β-carotene concentrations does not adversely affect concentrations of essential mineral elements in pepper fruit]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db51ab0ee8fa60bdc41a

Vitamin and mineral deficiencies are prevalent in human populations throughout the world. Vitamin A deficiency affects hundreds of millions of pre-school age children in low income countries. Fruits of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) can be a major dietary source of precursors to Vitamin A biosynthesis, such as β-carotene. Recently, pepper breeding programs have introduced the orange-fruited (of) trait of the mutant variety Oranzheva kapiya, which is associated with high fruit β-carotene concentrations, to the mutant variety Albena. In this manuscript, concentrations of β-carotene and mineral elements (magnesium, phosphorus, sulphur, potassium, zinc, calcium, manganese, iron and copper) were compared in fruit from P31, a red-fruited genotype derived from the variety Albena, and M38, a genotype developed by transferring the orange-fruited mutation (of) into Albena. It was observed that fruit from M38 plants had greater β-carotene concentration at both commercial and botanical maturity (4.9 and 52.7 mg / kg fresh weight, respectively) than fruit from P31 plants (2.3 and 30.1 mg / kg fresh weight, respectively). The mutation producing high β-carotene concentrations in pepper fruits had no detrimental effect on the concentrations of mineral elements required for human nutrition.

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<![CDATA[Transcriptome Analysis of Purple Pericarps in Common Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db48ab0ee8fa60bd94b9

Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars possessing purple grain arethought to be more nutritious because of high anthocyanin contents in the pericarp. Comparative transcriptome analysis of purple (cv Gy115) and white pericarps was carried out using next-generation sequencing technology. There were 23,642 unigenes significantly differentially expressed in the purple and white pericarps, including 9945 up-regulated and 13,697 down-regulated. The differentially expressed unigenes were mainly involved in encoding components of metabolic pathways, The flavonoid biosynthesis pathway was the most represented in metabolic pathways. In the transcriptome of purple pericarp in Gy115, most structural and regulatory genes biosynthesizing anthocyanin were identified, and had higher expression levels than in white pericarp. The largestunigene of anthocyanin biosynthesis in Gy115 was longer than the reference genes, which implies that high-throughput sequencing could isolate the genes of anthocyanin biosynthesis in tissues or organs with high anthocyanin content. Based on present and previous results, three unigenes of MYB gene on chromosome 7BL and three unigenes of MYC on chromosome 2AL were predicted as candidate genes for the purple grain trait. This article was the first to provide a systematic overview comparing the transcriptomes of purple and white pericarps in common wheat, which should be very valuable for identifying the key genes for the purple pericarp trait.

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<![CDATA[Extraction and Separation of Active Ingredients in Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill and the Study of their Antifungal Effects]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da8dab0ee8fa60b9eaf8

Schisandra chinensis extracts (SEs) have traditionally been used as an oriental medicine for the treatment of various human diseases, however, their further application in the biocontrol of plant disease remains poorly understood. This study was conducted to develop eco-friendly botanical pesticides from extracts of S. chinensis and assess whether they could play a key role in plant disease defense. Concentrated active fractions (SE-I, SE-II, and SE-III) were obtained from S. chinensis via specific extraction and separation. Then, lignan-like substances, such as Schisanhenol B, were detected via High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-ElectroSpray Ionization-Mass Spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS) analyses of the active fractions. Moreover, the results from biological tests on colony growth inhibition and spore germination indicated that SE-I, SE-II, and SE-III could inhibit hyphal growth and spore generation of three important plant pathogenic fungi (Monilinia fructicola, Fusarium oxysporum, and Botryosphaeria dothidea). The study of the mechanisms of resistant fungi revealed that the oxidation resistance system, including reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD), was activated. The expression of genes related to defense, such as pathogenesis-related protein (PR4), α-farnesene synthase (AFS), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), and phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) were shown to be up-regulated after treatment with SEs, which suggested an increase in apple immunity and that fruits were induced to effectively defend against the infection of pathogenic fungi (B. dothidea). This study revealed that SEs and their lignans represent promising resources for the development of safe, effective, and multi-targeted agents against pathogenic fungi.

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<![CDATA[Determination of fruit maturity and its prediction model based on the pericarp index of absorbance difference (IAD) for peaches]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db5aab0ee8fa60bdf7bf

Harvest maturity is closely related to peach fruit quality and has a very important effect on the fresh fruit market. Unfortunately, at present, it is difficult to determine the maturity level of peach fruits by artificial methods. The objectives of this study were to develop quadratic polynomial regression models using near-infrared spectroscopy that could determine the peel color difference, fruit firmness, soluble solids content (SSC), soluble sugar, organic acid components, and their relationships with the absorbance of chlorophyll (index of absorbance difference, IAD) in late maturing ‘Xiahui 8’ peach and ‘Xiaguang’ nectarine fruits. The analysis was based on data for fruits at veraison, fruits at harvesting maturity, and all fruits. The results showed that firmness has the highest correlation coefficient with IAD. Prediction models for fruit maturity were established between firmness and the IAD of the two cultivars using the quadratic polynomial regression method. Further variance analysis on the one degree term and quadratic term of each equation showed that every partial regression coefficient reached a significant or extremely significant level. No significant difference was observed between estimated and observed values after regression prediction. The regression equations seem to fit well. Other peach and nectarine varieties were used to test the feasibility of maturity prediction by this method, and it was found that maturity was successfully predicted in all the samples. The result indicated that the IAD can be used as an index to predict peach fruit maturity.

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<![CDATA[Key Microbiota Identification Using Functional Gene Analysis during Pepper (Piper nigrum L.) Peeling]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da86ab0ee8fa60b9c652

Pepper pericarp microbiota plays an important role in the pepper peeling process for the production of white pepper. We collected pepper samples at different peeling time points from Hainan Province, China, and used a metagenomic approach to identify changes in the pericarp microbiota based on functional gene analysis. UniFrac distance-based principal coordinates analysis revealed significant changes in the pericarp microbiota structure during peeling, which were attributed to increases in bacteria from the genera Selenomonas and Prevotella. We identified 28 core operational taxonomic units at each time point, mainly belonging to Selenomonas, Prevotella, Megasphaera, Anaerovibrio, and Clostridium genera. The results were confirmed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. At the functional level, we observed significant increases in microbial features related to acetyl xylan esterase and pectinesterase for pericarp degradation during peeling. These findings offer a new insight into biodegradation for pepper peeling and will promote the development of the white pepper industry.

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<![CDATA[Caspase-Like Activities Accompany Programmed Cell Death Events in Developing Barley Grains]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daf3ab0ee8fa60bc1f25

Programmed cell death is essential part of development and cell homeostasis of any multicellular organism. We have analyzed programmed cell death in developing barley caryopsis at histological, biochemical and molecular level. Caspase-1, -3, -4, -6 and -8-like activities increased with aging of pericarp coinciding with abundance of TUNEL positive nuclei and expression of HvVPE4 and HvPhS2 genes in the tissue. TUNEL-positive nuclei were also detected in nucellus and nucellar projection as well as in embryo surrounding region during early caryopsis development. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis of micro-dissected grain tissues revealed the expression of HvVPE2a, HvVPE2b, HvVPE2d, HvPhS2 and HvPhS3 genes exclusively in the nucellus/nucellar projection. The first increase in cascade of caspase-1, -3, -4, -6 and -8-like activities in the endosperm fraction may be related to programmed cell death in the nucellus and nucellar projection. The second increase of all above caspase-like activities including of caspase-9-like was detected in the maturating endosperm and coincided with expression of HvVPE1 and HvPhS1 genes as well as with degeneration of nuclei in starchy endosperm and transfer cells. The distribution of the TUNEL-positive nuclei, tissues-specific expression of genes encoding proteases with potential caspase activities and cascades of caspase-like activities suggest that each seed tissue follows individual pattern of development and disintegration, which however harmonizes with growth of the other tissues in order to achieve proper caryopsis development.

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<![CDATA[Regulation of the Flavonoid Biosynthesis Pathway Genes in Purple and Black Grains of Hordeum vulgare]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dac6ab0ee8fa60bb26c6

Barley grain at maturity can have yellow, purple, blue, and black pigmentations which are suggested to play a protective role under stress conditions. The first three types of the colors are caused by phenolic compounds flavonoids; the last one is caused by phytomelanins, oxidized and polymerized phenolic compounds. Although the genetic basis of the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway in barley has been thoroughly studied, there is no data yet on its regulation in purple and black barley grains. In the current study, genetic model of Hordeum vulgare ‘Bowman’ near-isogenic lines (NILs) was used to investigate the regulation of the flavonoid biosynthesis in white, purple, and black barley grains. Microsatellite genotyping revealed donor segments in the purple- and black-grained lines on chromosomes 2H (in region of the Ant2 gene determining purple color of grains) and 1H (in region of the Blp gene determining black lemma and pericarp), respectively. The isolated dominant Ant2 allele of the purple-grained line has high level of sequence similarity with the recessive Bowman’s ant2 in coding region, whereas an insertion of 179 bp was detected in promoter region of ant2. This structural divergence between Ant2 and ant2 alleles may underlie their different expression in grain pericarp: Bowman’s Ant2 is not transcribed, whereas it was up-regulated in the purple-grained line with coordinately co-expressed flavonoid biosynthesis structural genes (Chs, Chi, F3h, F3’h, Dfr, Ans). This led to total anthocyain content increase in purple-grained line identified by ultra-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Collectively, these results proved the regulatory function of the Ant2 gene in anthocyanin biosynthesis in barley grain pericarp. In the black-grained line, the specific transcriptional regulation of the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway genes was not detected, suggesting that flavonoid pigments are not involved in development of black lemma and pericarp trait.

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<![CDATA[Identification of Structural Features of Condensed Tannins That Affect Protein Aggregation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db4fab0ee8fa60bdb89c

A diverse panel of condensed tannins was used to resolve the confounding effects of size and subunit composition seen previously in tannin-protein interactions. Turbidimetry revealed that size in terms of mean degree of polymerisation (mDP) or average molecular weight (amw) was the most important tannin parameter. The smallest tannin with the relatively largest effect on protein aggregation had an mDP of ~7. The average size was significantly correlated with aggregation of bovine serum albumin, BSA (mDP: r = -0.916; amw: r = -0.925; p<0.01; df = 27), and gelatin (mDP: r = -0.961; amw: r = -0.981; p<0.01; df = 12). The procyanidin/prodelphinidin and cis-/trans-flavan-3-ol ratios gave no significant correlations. Tryptophan fluorescence quenching indicated that procyanidins and cis-flavan-3-ol units contributed most to the tannin interactions on the BSA surface and in the hydrophobic binding pocket (r = 0.677; p<0.05; df = 9 and r = 0.887; p<0.01; df = 9, respectively). Circular dichroism revealed that higher proportions of prodelphinidins decreased the apparent α-helix content (r = -0.941; p<0.01; df = 5) and increased the apparent β-sheet content (r = 0.916; p<0.05; df = 5) of BSA.

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