ResearchPad - personality-traits https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Participant and informant memory-specific cognitive complaints predict future decline and incident dementia: Findings from the Sydney Memory and Ageing Study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7842 Subjective Cognitive Complaints (SCCs) may represent one of the earliest stages of preclinical dementia. The objective of the present study was to extend previous work by our group to examine the relationship between participant-reported and informant-reported memory and non-memory SCCs, cognitive decline and incident dementia, over a six-year period. Participants were 873 community dwelling older adults (Mage = 78.65, SD = 4.79) without dementia and 843 informants (close friends or family) from the Sydney Memory and Ageing Study. Comprehensive neuropsychological testing and diagnostic assessments were carried out at baseline and biennially for six years. Linear mixed models and Cox proportional hazard models were performed to determine the association of SCCs, rate of cognitive decline and risk of incident dementia, controlling demographics and covariates of mood and personality. Participant and informant memory-specific SCCs were associated with rate of global cognitive decline; for individual cognitive domains, participant memory SCCs predicted decline for language, while informant memory SCCs predicted decline for executive function and memory. Odds of incident dementia were associated with baseline participant memory SCCs and informant memory and non-memory SCCs in partially adjusted models. In fully adjusted models, only informant SCCs were associated with increased risk of incident dementia. Self-reported memory-specific cognitive complaints are associated with decline in global cognition over 6-years and may be predictive of incident dementia, particularly if the individual is depressed or anxious and has increased neuroticism or decreased openness. Further, if and where possible, informants should be sought and asked to report on their perceptions of the individual’s memory ability and any memory-specific changes that they have noticed as these increase the index of diagnostic suspicion.

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<![CDATA[The role of moral reasoning & personality in explaining lyrical preferences]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N58765145-20be-4ad7-966a-c2141b60fcef

Previous research has supported that personality traits can act to a precursor to media preferences. Due to the ongoing association between morality and media preferences in public and political discourse (e.g., blaming immoral behaviours on media preferences), this research sought to expand the knowledge about factors that contribute to media preferences by investigating if moral reasoning styles explain some of the variance that was not already explained by personality traits. A specific form of media preferences were chosen – lyrical preferences in metal music – as claims between metal lyrical themes and behaviour have been ongoing since the 1980s, despite a lack of empirical evidence to support these claims. A lyrical preferences scale was developed, and utilizing this scale, it was found that different types of metal fans exhibit different moral reasoning styles dependent on their metal sub-genre identification. Further, it was found that moral reasoning styles explain a portion of the variance in lyrical preferences that weren’t already explained by personality traits. In particular, lyrical preferences were often thematically consistent with moral reasoning content and personality traits, such as that individuals that preferred lyrics about celebrating metal culture and unity had higher levels of the group loyalty moral reasoning domain alongside being higher in extraversion. The implications of moral reasoning styles and personality traits as being precursors to media preferences are discussed.

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<![CDATA[Impulsivity across reactive, proactive and cognitive domains in Parkinson's disease on dopaminergic medication: Evidence for multiple domain impairment]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6dc9fad5eed0c48452a639

Impulse control disorders (ICD) may occur in Parkinson’s disease (PD) although it remains to be understood if such deficits may occur even in the absence of a formal ICD diagnosis. Moreover, studies addressing simultaneously distinct neurobehavioral domains, such as cognitive, proactive and reactive motor impulsivity, are still lacking. Here, we aimed to investigate if reactive, proactive and cognitive impulsivity involving risk taking are concomitantly affected in medicated PD patients, and whether deficits were dependent on response strategies, such as speed accuracy tradeoffs, or the proportion of omission vs. commission errors. We assessed three different impulsivity domains in a sample of 21 PD patients and 13 matched controls. We found impaired impulsivity in both reactive (p = 0.042) and cognitive domains (p = 0.015) for the PD patients, irrespective of response strategy. For the latter, effect sizes were larger for the actions related with reward processing (p = 0.017, dCohen = 0.9). In the proactive impulsivity task, PD patients showed significantly increased number of omissions (p = 0.041), a response strategy which was associated with preserved number of commission errors. Moreover, the number of premature and proactive response errors were correlated with disease stage. Our findings suggest that PD ON medication is characterized compared to healthy controls by impairment across several impulsivity domains, which is moderated in the proactive domain by the response strategy.

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<![CDATA[Owner personality and the wellbeing of their cats share parallels with the parent-child relationship]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c633934d5eed0c484ae6236

Human personality may substantially affect the nature of care provided to dependants. This link has been well researched in parents and children, however, relatively little is known about this dynamic with regards to humans’ relationships with non-human animals. Owner interactions with companion animals may provide valuable insight into the wider phenomenon of familial interactions, as owners usually adopt the role of primary caregiver and potentially surrogate parent. This study, using cats as an exemplar, explored the relationship between owner personality and the lifestyles to which cats are exposed. In addition, it explored owner personality as it related to reported cat behaviour and wellbeing. Cat owners (n = 3331) responded to an online survey examining their personality and the health, behaviour and management of their cats. Owner personality was measured using the Big Five Inventory (BFI) to assess: Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Extroversion, Neuroticism and Openness. Owners also provided information concerning the physical health, breed type, management and behavioural styles of their cats. Generalised linear mixed models were used to identify relationships between owner personality and a range of factors that may have welfare implications for the wider companion animal population, and specifically, cats. Higher owner Neuroticism was associated with an increased likelihood of non-pedigree rather than pedigree cat ownership, a decreased likelihood of ad libitum access to the outdoors, cats being reported as having a ‘behavioural problem’, displaying more aggressive and anxious/fearful behavioural styles and more stress-related sickness behaviours, as well as having an ongoing medical condition and being overweight. Other owner personality traits were generally found to correlate more positively with various lifestyle, behaviour and welfare parameters. For example, higher owner Extroversion was associated with an increased likelihood that the cat would be provided ad libitum access to the outdoors; higher owner Agreeableness was associated with a higher level of owner reported satisfaction with their cat, and with a greater likelihood of owners reporting their cats as being of a normal weight. Finally higher owner Conscientiousness was associated with the cat displaying less anxious/fearful, aggressive, aloof/avoidant, but more gregarious behavioural styles. These findings demonstrate that the relationship between carer personality and the care received by a dependent, may extend beyond the human family to animal-owner relationships, with significant implications for the choice of management, behaviour and potentially the broader wellbeing of companion animals.

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<![CDATA[Enhancing activation in the right temporoparietal junction using theta-burst stimulation: Disambiguating between two hypotheses of top-down control of behavioral mimicry]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c57e659d5eed0c484ef2cf5

Whereas previous research has focused on the role of the rTPJ when consciously inhibiting mimicry, we test the role of the rTPJ on mimicry within a social interaction, during which mimicking occurs nonconsciously. We wanted to determine whether higher rTPJ activation always inhibits the tendency to imitate (regardless of the context) or whether it facilitates mimicry during social interactions (when mimicking is an adaptive response). Participants received either active or sham intermittent theta-burst stimulation (iTBS: a type of stimulation that increases cortical activation) to the rTPJ. Next, we measured how much participants mimicked the hair and face touching of another person. Participants in the active stimulation condition engaged in significantly less mimicry than those in the sham stimulation condition. This finding suggests that even in a context in which mimicking is adaptive, rTPJ inhibits mimicry rather than facilitating it, supporting the hypothesis that rTPJ enhances representations of self over other regardless of the goals within a given context.

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<![CDATA[Humorous cognitive reappraisal: More benign humour and less "dark" humour is affiliated with more adaptive cognitive reappraisal strategies]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5ca29ad5eed0c48441e74c

The capacity to find humorous perspectives in aversive situations may outline a helpful strategy in the context of cognitive reappraisal. Yet, research suggested that some people produce more adaptive humour than others. At the same time, not all forms of cognitive reinterpretation seem to be unequivocally beneficial. The present study aimed to investigate specific cognitive reappraisal strategies that individuals employ in humorous reappraisal of adverse events. In a sample of 95 participants, the use of cognitive reappraisal sub-strategies was assessed in a behavioural test in which participants were required to generate a series of humorous reappraisals of self-relevant, threatening events. These reappraisal sub-strategies (three positive reinterpretation strategies, three de-emphasising strategies) were then related to the habitual use of different kinds of humour as well as the broader DSM-5 personality trait domains and well-being in terms of depressive experiences, assessed by self-report questionnaires. While no robust relationships were found for reappraisal strategies based on de-emphasising, sub-strategies within the positive reinterpretation category showed specific and contrasting associations with the examined traits. Findings indicated that the ability to produce humour is only linked to a favourable pattern of reappraisal strategies when manifested in benign forms of humour. Specific relations also emerged for the broader personality traits. The study suggests that some characteristics that advance the use of benign humour also benefit adaptive emotion regulation. The opposite seems to be true for malicious, or "dark" humour. The introduced behavioural approach to the analysis of humorous cognitive reappraisal may prove useful also in future related research.

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<![CDATA[Explaining the longitudinal interplay of personality and social relationships in the laboratory and in the field: The PILS and the CONNECT study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5b52f9d5eed0c4842bd362

Our personalities (who we are) influence our social relationships (how we relate to people around us), and our social relationships influence our personalities. However, little is known about the specific processes underlying the complex interplay of personality and social relationships. According to the PERSOC framework, the identification of underlying social interaction processes promotes the understanding of how personality and social relationships are expressed, develop, and influence each other over time. The aim of the present paper is twofold: First, we outline and discuss four methodological challenges that arise when trying to empirically realize a process approach to the personality-relationship interplay. Second, we describe two data sets that are designed to meet these challenges and that are open for collaborative investigations: a laboratory-based process approach (Personality Interaction Laboratory Study; PILS) and a field-based process approach (CONNECT). We provide detailed information on the samples (two student samples; PILS: N = 311; CONNECT: N = 131), procedures (longitudinal and multimethodological), and measures (personality and social relationships, appearance and behavior, interpersonal perceptions), for which we present descriptive information, reliabilities, and intercorrelations. We summarize how these studies’ designs targeted the introduced methodological challenges, discuss the advantages and limitations of laboratory- and field-based process approaches, and call for their combination. We close by outlining an open research policy, aimed at accelerated collaborative efforts to further open the process black box, ultimately leading to a better understanding of the expression, development, and complex interplay of personality and social relationships.

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<![CDATA[Email fraud: The search for psychological predictors of susceptibility]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c48ded4d5eed0c4841cca10

Decisions that we make about email legitimacy can result in a pernicious threat to security of both individuals and organisations. Yet user response to phishing emails is far from uniform; some respond while others do not. What is the source of this diversity in decision-making? From a psychological perspective, we consider cognitive and situational influences that might explain why certain users are more susceptible than others. Alongside an email judgment task employed as a proxy for fraud susceptibility, 224 participants completed a range of cognitive tasks. In addition, we manipulated time pressure for email legitimacy judgments. We identify cognitive reflection and sensation seeking as significant, albeit modest, predictors of susceptibility. Further to this, participants asked to make quicker responses made more judgment errors. We conclude there are cognitive signatures that partially contribute to email fraud susceptibility, with implications for efforts to limit online security breaches and train secure behaviors.

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<![CDATA[Searching for predictors of sense of quality of health: A study using neural networks on a sample of perimenopausal women]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c37b78ed5eed0c48449043d

Background

We assumed that perimenopausal women’s sense of quality of health (SQH) is a subjective evaluation of their psycho-physical health, and comprises three dimensions: sense of quality of life, menopausal symptoms, and the level of positive and negative affect.

Purpose

The aim of the study was to: 1) test a model about SQH, and 2) explore the role of personality traits, self-esteem, body self, and self-stereotype as predictors of SQH.

Methods

The sample included 201 women aged between 45 and 55 (50.11±3.07). Participants filled out the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, the Personality Inventory based on the Big Five Factor Model, the Body Self Questionnaire, and a survey querying perimenopausal women’s self-stereotype. To determine the individual SQH dimensions we used the Sense of Quality of Life Questionnaire, the Menopause Symptom List, and the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule. To verify the assumptions of the SQH model and look for SQH predictors we conducted a neural networks analysis with structure optimization via genetic algorithms (a multivariate analysis).

Results

The SQH model was verified in the course of several neural networks analyses with structure optimization via genetic algorithms (R = 0.849, R2 = 0.723, F = 133,232, p < 0.01). Moreover, we confirmed that SQH comprised three dimensions: quality of life, menopausal symptoms, and affect. SQH and menopausal symptoms were correlated. Similarly, positive and negative affect modified the women’s global sense of quality of life. SQH predictors included: personality traits, self-esteem, the body-self, and menopausal woman’s self-stereotype.

Conclusion

In practical terms, our findings may help raise awareness among women and medical practitioners, calling for a holistic approach to the health of menopausal women. Our findings may also facilitate the creation of both prevention and therapeutic programs for women transitioning through menopause, for example, cognitive-behavioral therapy.

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<![CDATA[Longitudinal relation between state-trait maternal irritability and harsh parenting]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c3fa606d5eed0c484cab485

According to Belsky’s process model of parenting, parents’ personality represents the most important factor influencing parenting and child development. While an extensive literature has empirically corroborated the role of irritability traits in predicting aggressive behaviors in laboratory-based studies, only a few studies have examined the role of irritability in predicting aggressive behaviors within family contexts. The present study addressed this gap by examining the longitudinal association between maternal irritability and harsh parenting. Referencing latent state-trait theory (LST), first we estimated the amount of variance in mothers’ irritability due to trait and state components, and, next, we examined the relation between mothers’ irritability (both at trait- and state- levels) and harsh parenting over time. A sample of 204 mothers from Naples and Rome provided data over 5 years in four waves. Mothers averaged 40.30 years (SD = 5.33) at Time 1 and 44.01 years (SD = 5.43) at Time 4. Their children (50% girls) were 9.45 years (SD = 0.74) at Time 1 and 13.18 years (SD = 0.66) at Time 4. Results of LST analysis showed that, on average, 39% of variability in irritability was due to trait-like factors and only 12% to state-like factors. A multitrait-multistate model revealed that the irritability trait associated with mother’s lack of control predicted her harsh parenting 1-year later, while controlling for the rank-order stability of harsh parenting.

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<![CDATA[Drinking and driving relapse: Data from BAC and MMPI-2]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c36679ad5eed0c4841a5d2d

Road traffic injuries are the ninth cause of death across all age groups, globally (WHO, 2015). Many road traffic crashes are caused by Driving Under the Influence (DUI) of alcohol by persons who have previously had their license suspended for the same reason. The aim of this study was to identify specific risk factors and personality characteristics in repeat offenders. The sample was comprised of 260 subjects who were not repeat DUI offenders (DUI-NR), but had a single license suspension between 2010 and 2011; and 97 repeat offenders who received at least two DUI convictions within a period of 5 years. At the time of their first driving license suspension, participants provided their blood alcohol content (BAC) and completed a valid MMPI-2 test. ANOVA and MANOVAs were performed to determine whether there were significant differences in BAC and MMPI-2 profiles between DUI-NR and DUI-R participants and a logistic regression was run to identify whether BAC at the time of the first suspension and specific personality features could predict recidivism. A two-step cluster analysis was run to identify recidivist typologies. Results showed that, relative to DUI-NR participants, DUI-R participants had higher BAC at the time of their first conviction and more problematic MMPI-2 profiles, despite the presence of social desirability responding. The best predictors of recidivism were BAC and the scales of Lie (L), Correction (K), Psychopathic Deviate (4-Pd), Hypomania (9-Ma), and Low Self-Esteem (LSE). Two-step cluster analyses identified two recidivist profiles, according to 32 selected MMPI-2 validity, clinical, content, supplementary, and PSY-5 scales. Comparisons with previous research are discussed and ideas for further study are generated.

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<![CDATA[Adolescent development of cortical oscillations: Power, phase, and support of cognitive maturation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c0ae433d5eed0c484589220

During adolescence, the integration of specialized functional brain networks related to cognitive control continues to increase. Slow frequency oscillations (4–10 Hz) have been shown to support cognitive control processes, especially within prefrontal regions. However, it is unclear how neural oscillations contribute to functional brain network development and improvements in cognitive control during adolescence. To bridge this gap, we employed magnetoencephalography (MEG) to explore changes in oscillatory power and phase coupling across cortical networks in a sample of 68 adolescents and young adults. We found a redistribution of power from lower to higher frequencies throughout adolescence, such that delta band (1–3 Hz) power decreased, whereas beta band power (14–16 and 22–26 Hz) increased. Delta band power decreased with age most strongly in association networks within the frontal lobe and operculum. Conversely, beta band power increased throughout development, most strongly in processing networks and the posterior cingulate cortex, a hub of the default mode (DM) network. In terms of phase, theta band (5–9 Hz) phase-locking robustly decreased with development, following an anterior-to-posterior gradient, with the greatest decoupling occurring between association networks. Additionally, decreased slow frequency phase-locking between frontolimbic regions was related to decreased impulsivity with age. Thus, greater decoupling of slow frequency oscillations may afford functional networks greater flexibility during the resting state to instantiate control when required.

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<![CDATA[Meta-analysis of coefficient alpha for scores on the Narcissistic Personality Inventory]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c1028e2d5eed0c4842485de

The Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI) has greatly facilitated the scientific study of trait narcissism. However, there is great variability in the reported reliability of scores on the NPI. This study meta-analyzes coefficient alpha for scores on the NPI and its sub-scales (e.g. entitlement) with transformed alphas weighted by the inverse of the variance of alpha. Three coders evaluated 1213 individual studies for possible inclusion and determined that 1122 independent samples were suitable for coding on 12 different characteristics of the sample, scale, and study. A fourth author cross-coded 15 percent of these samples resulting in 85 percent overall agreement. In the independent samples, comprised of 195,038 self-reports, the expected population coefficient alpha for the NPI was .82. The population value for alpha on the various sub-scales ranged from .48 for narcissistic self-sufficiency to .76 for narcissistic leadership/authority. Because significant heterogeneity existed in coded study alphas for the overall NPI, moderator tests and an explanatory model were also conducted and reported. It was found that longer scales, the use of a Likert response scale as opposed to the original forced choice response format, higher mean scores and larger standard deviations on the scale, as well as the use of samples with a larger percentage of female respondents were all positively related to the expected population alpha for scores on the overall NPI. These results will likely aid researchers who are concerned with the reliability of scores on the NPI in their research on non-clinical subjects.

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<![CDATA[Latent human traits in the language of social media: An open-vocabulary approach]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c08417fd5eed0c484fc9c19

Over the past century, personality theory and research has successfully identified core sets of characteristics that consistently describe and explain fundamental differences in the way people think, feel and behave. Such characteristics were derived through theory, dictionary analyses, and survey research using explicit self-reports. The availability of social media data spanning millions of users now makes it possible to automatically derive characteristics from behavioral data—language use—at large scale. Taking advantage of linguistic information available through Facebook, we study the process of inferring a new set of potential human traits based on unprompted language use. We subject these new traits to a comprehensive set of evaluations and compare them with a popular five factor model of personality. We find that our language-based trait construct is often more generalizable in that it often predicts non-questionnaire-based outcomes better than questionnaire-based traits (e.g. entities someone likes, income and intelligence quotient), while the factors remain nearly as stable as traditional factors. Our approach suggests a value in new constructs of personality derived from everyday human language use.

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<![CDATA[Reduced microbiome alpha diversity in young patients with ADHD]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b5ff793463d7e28ade495c6

ADHD is a psychiatric disorder which is characterized by hyperactivity, impulsivity and attention problems. Due to recent findings of microbial involvement in other psychiatric disorders like autism and depression, a role of the gut microbiota in ADHD pathogenesis is assumed but has not yet been investigated. In this study, the gut microbiota of 14 male ADHD patients (mean age: 11.9 yrs.) and 17 male controls (mean age: 13.1 yrs.) was examined via next generation sequencing of 16S rDNA and analyzed for diversity and biomarkers. We found that the microbial diversity (alpha diversity) was significantly decreased in ADHD patients compared to controls (pShannon = 0.036) and that the composition (beta diversity) differed significantly between patients and controls (pANOSIM = 0.033, pADONIS = 0.006, pbetadisper = 0.002). In detail, the bacterial family Prevotellacae was associated with controls, while patients with ADHD showed elevated levels of Bacteroidaceae, and both Neisseriaceae and Neisseria spec. were found as possible biomarkers for juvenile ADHD. Our results point to a possible link of certain microbiota with ADHD, with Neisseria spec. being a very promising ADHD-associated candidate. This finding provides the basis for a systematic, longitudinal assessment of the role of the gut microbiome in ADHD, yielding promising potential for both prevention and therapeutic intervention.

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<![CDATA[Does Subjective Rating Reflect Behavioural Coding? Personality in 2 Month-Old Dog Puppies: An Open-Field Test and Adjective-Based Questionnaire]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da10ab0ee8fa60b79597

A number of studies have recently investigated personality traits in non-human species, with the dog gaining popularity as a subject species for research in this area. Recent research has shown the consistency of personality traits across both context and time for adult dogs, both when using questionnaire based methods of investigation and behavioural analyses of the dogs’ behaviour. However, only a few studies have assessed the correspondence between these two methods, with results varying considerably across studies. Furthermore, most studies have focused on adult dogs, despite the fact that an understanding of personality traits in young puppies may be important for research focusing on the genetic basis of personality traits. In the current study, we sought to evaluate the correspondence between a questionnaire based method and the in depth analyses of the behaviour of 2-month old puppies in an open-field test in which a number of both social and non-social stimuli were presented to the subjects. We further evaluated consistency of traits over time by re-testing a subset of puppies. The correspondence between methods was high and test- retest consistency (for the main trait) was also good using both evaluation methods. Results showed clear factors referring to the two main personality traits ‘extroversion,’ (i.e. the enthusiastic, exuberant approach to the stimuli) and ‘neuroticism,’ (i.e. the more cautious and fearful approach to the stimuli), potentially similar to the shyness-boldness dimension found in previous studies. Furthermore, both methods identified an ‘amicability’ dimension, expressing the positive interactions the pups directed at the humans stranger, and a ‘reservedness’ dimension which identified pups who largely chose not to interact with the stimuli, and were defined as quiet and not nosey in the questionnaire.

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<![CDATA[Attention Network Dysfunction in Bulimia Nervosa - An fMRI Study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9dfab0ee8fa60b68ed4

Objective

Recent evidence has suggested an increased rate of comorbid ADHD and subclinical attentional impairments in bulimia nervosa (BN) patients. However, little is known regarding the underlying neural mechanisms of attentional functions in BN.

Method

Twenty BN patients and twenty age- and weight-matched healthy controls (HC) were investigated using a modified version of the Attention Network Task (ANT) in an fMRI study. This design enabled an investigation of the neural mechanisms associated with the three attention networks involved in alerting, reorienting and executive attention.

Results

The BN patients showed hyperactivation in parieto-occipital regions and reduced deactivation of default-mode-network (DMN) areas during alerting compared with HCs. Posterior cingulate activation during alerting correlated with the severity of eating-disorder symptoms within the patient group. Conversely, BN patients showed hypoactivation during reorienting and executive attention in anterior cingulate regions, the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ) and parahippocampus compared with HCs, which was negatively associated with global ADHD symptoms and impulsivity, respectively.

Discussion

Our findings demonstrate altered brain mechanisms in BN associated with all three attentional networks. Failure to deactivate the DMN and increased parieto-occipital activation required for alerting might be associated with a constant preoccupation with food or body image-related thoughts. Hypoactivation of executive control networks and TPJ might increase the likelihood of inattentive and impulsive behaviors and poor emotion regulation. Thus, dysfunction in the attentional network in BN goes beyond an altered executive attentional domain and needs to be considered in the diagnosis and treatment of BN.

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<![CDATA[The Role of Nature and Nurture for Individual Differences in Primary Emotional Systems: Evidence from a Twin Study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9d1ab0ee8fa60b64562

The present study investigated for the first time the relative importance of genetics and environment on individual differences in primary emotionality as measured with the Affective Neuroscience Personality Scales (ANPS) by means of a twin-sibling study design. In N = 795 participants (n = 303 monozygotic twins, n = 172 dizygotic twins and n = 267 non-twin full siblings), moderate to strong influences of genetics on individual differences in these emotional systems are observed. Lowest heritability estimates are presented for the SEEKING system (33%) and highest for the PLAY system (69%). Further, multivariate genetic modeling was applied to the data showing that associations among the six ANPS scales were influences by both, a genetic as well as an environmental overlap between them. In sum, the study underlines the usefulness of the ANPS for biologically oriented personality psychology research.

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<![CDATA[Statistical Evidence Suggests that Inattention Drives Hyperactivity/Impulsivity in Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dac9ab0ee8fa60bb37ea

Background

Numerous factor analytic studies consistently support a distinction between two symptom domains of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity. Both dimensions show high internal consistency and moderate to strong correlations with each other. However, it is not clear what drives this strong correlation. The aim of this paper is to address this issue.

Method

We applied a sophisticated approach for causal discovery on three independent data sets of scores of the two ADHD dimensions in NeuroIMAGE (total N = 675), ADHD-200 (N = 245), and IMpACT (N = 164), assessed by different raters and instruments, and further used information on gender or a genetic risk haplotype.

Results

In all data sets we found strong statistical evidence for the same pattern: the clear dependence between hyperactivity/impulsivity symptom level and an established genetic factor (either gender or risk haplotype) vanishes when one conditions upon inattention symptom level. Under reasonable assumptions, e.g., that phenotypes do not cause genotypes, a causal model that is consistent with this pattern contains a causal path from inattention to hyperactivity/impulsivity.

Conclusions

The robust dependency cancellation observed in three different data sets suggests that inattention is a driving factor for hyperactivity/impulsivity. This causal hypothesis can be further validated in intervention studies. Our model suggests that interventions that affect inattention will also have an effect on the level of hyperactivity/impulsivity. On the other hand, interventions that affect hyperactivity/impulsivity would not change the level of inattention. This causal model may explain earlier findings on heritable factors causing ADHD reported in the study of twins with learning difficulties.

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<![CDATA[The Role of Trait and State Absorption in the Enjoyment of Music]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dab1ab0ee8fa60bab478

Little is known about the role of state versus trait characteristics on our enjoyment of music. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of state and trait absorption upon preference for music, particularly preference for music that evokes negative emotions. The sample consisted of 128 participants who were asked to listen to two pieces of self-selected music and rate the music on variables including preference and felt and expressed emotions. Participants completed a brief measure of state absorption after listening to each piece, and a trait absorption inventory. State absorption was strongly positively correlated with music preference, whereas trait absorption was not. Trait absorption was related to preference for negative emotions in music, with chi-square analyses demonstrating greater enjoyment of negative emotions in music among individuals with high trait absorption. This is the first study to show that state and trait absorption have separable and distinct effects on a listener’s music experience, with state characteristics impacting music enjoyment in the moment, and trait characteristics influencing music preference based on its emotional content.

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