ResearchPad - perspective https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Oral healthcare during the COVID-19 pandemic]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_12957 <![CDATA[Down Syndrome and COVID-19: A Perfect Storm?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_12890 Individuals with Down syndrome display immune dysregulation associated with interferon hyperactivity, and in the context of SARS-CoV-2 infections, this could lead to a stronger cytokine storm and an increased risk of severe COVID-19 pathology. Espinosa proposes that individuals with trisomy 21 are a vulnerable population during the COVID-19 pandemic.

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<![CDATA[Should international medical electives to resource-poor countries continue during COVID-19?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_12385 <![CDATA[COVID-19, a far cry from the influenza]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_12366 <![CDATA[From plague to coronavirus: vessel trajectory data from ship automatic identification systems for epidemic modeling]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_12361 In addition to moving people and goods, ships can spread disease. Vessel trajectory data from ship Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) is available online and can be extracted and analyzed, as we illustrate in the case of the current coronavirus epidemic. This data should be included in epidemiological models of disease transmission to complement air traffic data and inform operational responses.

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<![CDATA[Balancing Expediency and Scientific Rigor in Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 Vaccine Development]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_12356 <![CDATA[Historic tobacco legislation in Israel: a moment to celebrate]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_12098 Israel was once a leader in tobacco control, but fell behind other countries, particularly during the past decade, as smoking rates stagnated.TextLandmark tobacco control legislation, which banned advertising (with the exception of the print press) and limited marketing, was passed in Israel on Dec. 31rst, 2018. The changes occurred following years of attempts which culminated in successful last-minute efforts to promote the legislation just before the early disbanding of the 20th Knesset (Israeli Parliament). Regulations concerning marketing and advertising were substantially strengthened to address all tobacco, nicotine and smoking products. Digital media was included for the first time. Electronic cigarettes, which were previously largely unregulated, now fall under existing tobacco legislation. The changes overcame intense opposition from the tobacco lobby, and occurred despite the fact that the basic elements for prevention policy postulated by the Richmond model were not in place.ConclusionsThis legislation represents an important and long-awaited change in Israeli tobacco control policy. Many deficiencies in existing tobacco control regulation were overcome, and some measures went beyond current international regulations. The cohesive partnership between legislators, public health organizations and professionals, advocacy groups, academia, and leading journalists was critical to this success. The progress was lauded by the World Health Organization with its highest award for tobacco control, which was presented to Smoke Free Israel. This case study provides important lessons for up-to-date tobacco control policy, in the age of rapid global changes in the tobacco, vaping and nicotine landscape. ]]> <![CDATA[A Novel Combination of Vitamin C, Curcumin and Glycyrrhizic Acid Potentially Regulates Immune and Inflammatory Response Associated with Coronavirus Infections: A Perspective from System Biology Analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_11598 Novel coronaviruses (CoV) have emerged periodically around the world in recent years. The recurrent spreading of CoVs imposes an ongoing threat to global health and the economy. Since no specific therapy for these CoVs is available, any beneficial approach (including nutritional and dietary approach) is worth investigation. Based on recent advances in nutrients and phytonutrients research, a novel combination of vitamin C, curcumin and glycyrrhizic acid (VCG Plus) was developed that has potential against CoV infection. System biology tools were applied to explore the potential of VCG Plus in modulating targets and pathways relevant to immune and inflammation responses. Gene target acquisition, gene ontology and Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment were conducted consecutively along with network analysis. The results show that VCG Plus can act on 88 hub targets which are closely connected and associated with immune and inflammatory responses. Specifically, VCG Plus has the potential to regulate innate immune response by acting on NOD-like and Toll-like signaling pathways to promote interferons production, activate and balance T-cells, and regulate the inflammatory response by inhibiting PI3K/AKT, NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways. All these biological processes and pathways have been well documented in CoV infections studies. Therefore, our findings suggest that VCG Plus may be helpful in regulating immune response to combat CoV infections and inhibit excessive inflammatory responses to prevent the onset of cytokine storm. However, further in vitro and in vivo experiments are warranted to validate the current findings with system biology tools. Our current approach provides a new strategy in predicting formulation rationale when developing new dietary supplements.

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<![CDATA[Stop Doing Needless Things! Saving Healthcare Resources During COVID-19 and Beyond]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_11588 The COVID-19 outbreak is putting tremendous strain on the US healthcare system, with a direct impact on medical professionals, hospital systems, and physical resources. While comprehensive public health and regulatory efforts are essential to overcome this crisis, it is important to recognize this moment as an opportunity to provide more intelligent and more efficient care in spite of increasing patient volumes and fewer resources. Specifically, we must limit unnecessary and wasteful medical practices and improve the delivery of those services which enhance the quality of patient care. In doing so, we will increase availability of the critical resources required for the provision of high-quality care to those in greatest need both now and in the future.

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<![CDATA[Pandemic Preparedness: Developing Vaccines and Therapeutic Antibodies For COVID-19]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_11093 Collaboration between academic, government, and private institutions can enable the development and sustenance of a pandemic preparedness platform that can be readily deployed upon need, as is the case with the COVID-19 pandemic.

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<![CDATA[Structured assessment of frailty in multiple myeloma as a paradigm of individualized treatment algorithms in cancer patients at advanced age]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_11046 <![CDATA[Geroprotective and senoremediative strategies to reduce the comorbidity, infection rates, severity, and lethality in gerophilic and gerolavic infections]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_10789 The recently identified SARS-CoV-2 betacoronavirus responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic has uncovered the age-associated vulnerability in the burden of disease and put aging research in the spotlight. The limited data available indicates that COVID-19 should be referred to as a gerolavic (from Greek, géros “old man” and epilavís, “harmful”) infection because the infection rates, severity, and lethality are substantially higher in the population aged 60 and older. This is primarily due to comorbidity but may be partially due to immunosenescence, decreased immune function in the elderly, and general loss of function, fitness, and increased frailty associated with aging. Immunosenescence is a major factor affecting vaccination response, as well as the severity and lethality of infectious diseases. While vaccination reduces infection rates, and therapeutic interventions reduce the severity and lethality of infections, these interventions have limitations. Previous studies showed that postulated geroprotectors, such as sirolimus (rapamycin) and its close derivative rapalog everolimus (RAD001), decreased infection rates in a small sample of elderly patients. This article presents a review of the limited literature available on geroprotective and senoremediative interventions that may be investigated to decrease the disease burden of gerolavic infections. This article also highlights a need for rigorous clinical validation of deep aging clocks as surrogate markers of biological age. These could be used to assess the need for, and efficacy of, geroprotective and senoremediative interventions and provide better protection for elderly populations from gerolavic infections. This article does not represent medical advice and the medications described are not yet licensed or recommended as immune system boosters, as they have not undergone clinical evaluation for this purpose.

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<![CDATA[Hospital preparedness for COVID-19 pandemic: experience from department of medicine at Veterans Affairs Connecticut Healthcare System]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_10285 The 2019–2020 pandemic Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has inundated hospital systems globally, as they prepare to accommodate surge of patients requiring advanced levels of care. Pandemic preparedness has not been this urgently and widely needed in the last several decades. According to epidemiologic predictions, the peak of this pandemic has still not been reached, and hospitals everywhere need to ensure readiness to care for more patients than they usually do, and safety for healthcare workers who strive to save lives. We share our hospital-wide rapid preparedness and response to COVID-19 to help provide information to other healthcare systems globally.

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<![CDATA[Pandemics, climate change, and disability related to SCI]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_10266 <![CDATA[Bamboo, climate change and forest use: A critical combination for southwestern Amazonian forests?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_10005 About 160 000 km2 of forests in the border zone between Brazil and Peru are dominated by semi-scandent bamboos (Guadua spp.). We argue that both predicted decreased precipitation during the dry season and widespread anthropogenic disturbances will significantly increase the distribution and biomass of bamboos in the area. Seasonal dryness favours the growth of evergreen bamboos in relation to trees that shed their leaves during the dry season. Disturbance can be beneficial for the bamboo because, as a clonal plant, it is often able to recover more rapidly than trees. It also withstands dry season better than many trees. The bamboo life cycle ends in a mass mortality event every 28 years, producing potential fuel for a forest fire. Presently, natural forest fires hardly exist in the area. However, in the projected future climate with more pronounced dry season and with increased fuel load after bamboo die-off events the forests may start to catch fire that has escaped from inhabited areas or even started naturally. Fires can kill trees, thus further increasing the fuel load of the forest. As a result, the landscape may start to convert to a savanna ecosystem.

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<![CDATA[The challenges and opportunities of a global health crisis: the management and business implications of COVID-19 from an Asian perspective]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_9401 On March 11, 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak a pandemic. As the evolution and implications of the COVID-19 crisis are still unfolding, we posit that exploring the experiences and strategic responses of Asian countries may shed light on ways to combat COVID-19 for the rest of the world. In this paper, we first articulate the importance of resilience, strategic agility, and entrepreneurship in the context of the fight against COVID-19. Then, with the focus on China, South Korea, and Singapore, we discuss the impact COVID-19 is having on economies and businesses, governmental support for businesses and societies, and implications for global supply chain disruptions. We hope that the global health system will recover quickly, and that the world economy will be revitalized with the contributions and collaboration of science (including social science), industry, and governments.

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<![CDATA[Colloidal stability of the living cell]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_8295 Cellular function is generally depicted at the level of functional pathways and detailed structural mechanisms, based on the identification of specific protein–protein interactions. For an individual protein searching for its partner, however, the perspective is quite different: The functional task is challenged by a dense crowd of nonpartners obstructing the way. Adding to the challenge, there is little information about how to navigate the search, since the encountered surrounding is composed of protein surfaces that are predominantly “nonconserved” or, at least, highly variable across organisms. In this study, we demonstrate from a colloidal standpoint that such a blindfolded intracellular search is indeed favored and has more fundamental impact on the cellular organization than previously anticipated. Basically, the unique polyion composition of cellular systems renders the electrostatic interactions different from those in physiological buffer, leading to a situation where the protein net-charge density balances the attractive dispersion force and surface heterogeneity at close range. Inspection of naturally occurring proteomes and in-cell NMR data show further that the “nonconserved” protein surfaces are by no means passive but chemically biased to varying degree of net-negative repulsion across organisms. Finally, this electrostatic control explains how protein crowding is spontaneously maintained at a constant level through the intracellular osmotic pressure and leads to the prediction that the “extreme” in halophilic adaptation is not the ionic-liquid conditions per se but the evolutionary barrier of crossing its physicochemical boundaries.

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<![CDATA[Premature Deaths, Statistical Lives, and Years of Life Lost: Identification, Quantification, and Valuation of Mortality Risks]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_8263 Mortality effects of exposure to air pollution and other environmental hazards are often described by the estimated number of “premature” or “attributable” deaths and the economic value of a reduction in exposure as the product of an estimate of “statistical lives saved” and a “value per statistical life.” These terms can be misleading because the number of deaths advanced by exposure cannot be determined from mortality data alone, whether from epidemiology or randomized trials (it is not statistically identified). The fraction of deaths “attributed” to exposure is conventionally derived as the hazard fraction (R – 1)/R, where R is the relative risk of mortality between high and low exposure levels. The fraction of deaths advanced by exposure (the “etiologic” fraction) can be substantially larger or smaller: it can be as large as one and as small as 1/e (≈0.37) times the hazard fraction (if the association is causal and zero otherwise). Recent literature reveals misunderstanding about these concepts. Total life years lost in a population due to exposure can be estimated but cannot be disaggregated by age or cause of death. Economic valuation of a change in exposure‐related mortality risk to a population is not affected by inability to know the fraction of deaths that are etiologic. When individuals facing larger or smaller changes in mortality risk cannot be identified, the mean change in population hazard is sufficient for valuation; otherwise, the economic value can depend on the distribution of risk reductions.

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<![CDATA[Glass: Home of the Periodic Table]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7617 Glass is the most common material around us, and humankind uses it every day for more than 5000 years. However, from the chemical point of view, glass is the only material that could represent almost all elements of the Periodic Table inside itself, showing the effect of the Periodic Law on properties of the final material. In this paper, we show the most remarkable examples demonstrating that glass can rightfully be called “home” for all chemical elements providing different properties depending on its composition. We gave a new look at the Periodic Table and described how a small number of glass-forming components creates unique glass structure which could enclose almost all remaining elements including transition and noble metals, lanthanides and actinides as modifying components providing an inconceivable number of discoveries in material science. Moreover, we reviewed a series of studies on the direct femtosecond laser writing in glasses which paves the way for a redistribution of chemical elements in the spatially confined nanosized zone in glass volume providing unique properties of laser-induced structures. Finally, for the first time, we reproduce the Periodic Table in birefringence colors in the bulk of silica glass using a direct laser writing technique. This image of 3.6 × 2.4 mm size can withstand temperature up to 900°C, humidity, electromagnetic fields, powerful cosmic and reactor radiation and other environmental factors and demonstrates both the art of direct laser writing and symbolic role of glass as the safest and eternal home for the Periodic Table.

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<![CDATA[Opportunities and Challenges for Using Automatic Human Affect Analysis in Consumer Research]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7561 The ability to automatically assess emotional responses via contact-free video recording taps into a rapidly growing market aimed at predicting consumer choices. If consumer attention and engagement are measurable in a reliable and accessible manner, relevant marketing decisions could be informed by objective data. Although significant advances have been made in automatic affect recognition, several practical and theoretical issues remain largely unresolved. These concern the lack of cross-system validation, a historical emphasis of posed over spontaneous expressions, as well as more fundamental issues regarding the weak association between subjective experience and facial expressions. To address these limitations, the present paper argues that extant commercial and free facial expression classifiers should be rigorously validated in cross-system research. Furthermore, academics and practitioners must better leverage fine-grained emotional response dynamics, with stronger emphasis on understanding naturally occurring spontaneous expressions, and in naturalistic choice settings. We posit that applied consumer research might be better situated to examine facial behavior in socio-emotional contexts rather than decontextualized, laboratory studies, and highlight how AHAA can be successfully employed in this context. Also, facial activity should be considered less as a single outcome variable, and more as a starting point for further analyses. Implications of this approach and potential obstacles that need to be overcome are discussed within the context of consumer research.

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