ResearchPad - perspective-piece https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[How Is the World Responding to the Novel Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Compared with the 2014 West African Ebola Epidemic? The Importance of China as a Player in the Global Economy]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nff9a0d4b-bba9-4633-a3b5-8103c7a6c069 This article describes similarities and differences in the response of governments and the international community to the current 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and the 2014 West African Ebola epidemic. It expresses the opinion that the speed and scale of the response to COVID-19 are affected by the important role that China plays in the global economy. By contrast, insufficient and less timely action was initially undertaken in West African countries during the 2014 Ebola epidemic. It concludes by stating why preparedness for and response to all disease outbreaks, also in countries of lower economic importance, should become a priority in the global health agenda.

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<![CDATA[A Call for Randomized Controlled Trials to Test the Efficacy of Chloroquine and Hydroxychloroquine as Therapeutics against Novel Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N32551b8d-4fcd-4675-8278-7eaf16e9a1b6 <![CDATA[Advanced Preparation Makes Research in Emergencies and Isolation Care Possible: The Case of Novel Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N33629af1-3e13-48f9-9a6a-9ec1171f1c3f The optimal time to initiate research on emergencies is before they occur. However, timely initiation of high-quality research may launch during an emergency under the right conditions. These include an appropriate context, clarity in scientific aims, preexisting resources, strong operational and research structures that are facile, and good governance. Here, Nebraskan rapid research efforts early during the 2020 coronavirus disease pandemic, while participating in the first use of U.S. federal quarantine in 50 years, are described from these aspects, as the global experience with this severe emerging infection grew apace. The experience has lessons in purpose, structure, function, and performance of research in any emergency, when facing any threat.

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<![CDATA[Auditing Preparedness for Vector Control Field Studies]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Na2625713-ea5f-453a-b57b-a57e6feabe4b

Abstract.

The value of baseline entomological data to any future area-wide release campaign relies on the application of consistent methods to produce results comparable across different times and places in a stepwise progression to larger releases. Traditionally, standard operating procedures (SOPs) and operational plans support this consistency and, thus, the validity of emergent data. When release plans include transgenic mosquitoes for vector control or other novel beneficial insects, additional factors come into play such as biosafety permits, stakeholder acceptance, and ethics approval, which require even greater coordination and thoroughness. An audit approach was developed to verify the correct use of SOPs and appropriate performance of tasks during mosquito mark, release, recapture (MRR) studies. Audit questions matched SOPs, permit terms and conditions, and other key criteria, and can be used to support subsequent “spot check” verification by field teams. An external team of auditors, however, was found to be effective for initial checks in this example before the use of a transgenic strain of laboratory mosquitoes. We recommend similar approaches for field studies using release of novel beneficial insects, to ensure useful and valid data as an outcome and to support confidence in the rigor of the step-wise process.

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<![CDATA[Lessons Learned from Enhancing Sentinel Surveillance for Cholera in Post-Earthquake Nepal in 2016]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c9d28d8d5eed0c4840ad9a6

Abstract.

A major earthquake in 2015 that struck Nepal created a favorable environment for the rapid spread of infectious diseases. In anticipation of a cholera outbreak in 2016, UNICEF, Johns Hopkins University, and the Group for Technical Assistance, Nepal, collaborated to assist the government of Nepal to strengthen early warning surveillance, laboratory-based diagnosis, and field investigation. This article outlines the challenges and lessons learned in cholera prevention and control based on the authors’ experiences in 2016. Priorities for the future plan should include sustaining the enhanced surveillance system for acute gastroenteritis and cholera, rolling out a rapid diagnostic test, and ensuring rapid and systematic epidemiological investigation and environmental testing.

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<![CDATA[The Year That Ebola Virus Took Over West Africa: Missed Opportunities for Prevention]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5ae44ec4463d7e084cf0cc21 ]]>