ResearchPad - pest-control https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[A biological control model to manage the vector and the infection of <i>Xylella fastidiosa</i> on olive trees]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_11237 Xylella fastidiosa pauca ST53 is the bacterium responsible for the Olive Quick Decline Syndrome that has killed millions of olive trees in Southern Italy. A recent work demonstrates that a rational integration of vector and transmission control measures, into a strategy based on chemical and physical control means, can manage Xylella fastidiosa invasion and impact below an acceptable economic threshold. In the present study, we propose a biological alternative to the chemical control action, which involves the predetermined use of an available natural enemy of Philaenus spumarius, i.e., Zelus renardii, for adult vector population and infection biocontrol. The paper combines two different approaches: a laboratory experiment to test the predation dynamics of Zelus renardii on Philaenus spumarius and its attitude as candidate for an inundation strategy; a simulated experiment of inundation, to preliminary test the efficacy of such strategy, before eventually proceeding to an in-field experimentation. With this double-fold approach we show that an inundation strategy with Zelus renardii has the potential to furnish an efficient and “green” solution to Xylella fastidiosa invasion, with a reduction of the pathogen incidence below 10%. The biocontrol model presented here could be promising for containing the impact and spread of Xylella fastidiosa, after an in-field validation of the inundation technique. Saving the fruit orchard, the production and the industry in susceptible areas could thus become an attainable goal, within comfortable parameters for sustainability, environmental safety, and effective plant health protection in organic orchard management.

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<![CDATA[A field test on the effectiveness of male annihilation technique against Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) at varying application densities]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c8c1939d5eed0c484b4d1d4

Male Annihilation Technique (MAT) is a key tool to suppress or eradicate pestiferous tephritid fruit flies for which there exist powerful male lures. In the case of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), a highly invasive and destructive species, current implementations of MAT utilize a combination of the male attractant methyl eugenol (ME) and a toxicant such as spinosad (“SPLAT-MAT-ME”) applied at a high density with the goal of attracting and killing an extremely high proportion of males. We conducted direct comparisons of trap captures of marked B. dorsalis males released under three experimental SPLAT-MAT-ME site densities (110, 220, and 440 per km2) near Hilo, Hawaii using both fresh and aged traps to evaluate the effectiveness of varying densities and how weathering of the SPLAT-MAT-ME formulation influenced any density effects observed. Counterintuitively, we observed decreasing effectiveness (percent kill) with increasing application density. We also estimated slightly higher average kill for any given density for weathered grids compared with fresh. Spatial analysis of the recapture patterns of the first trap service per replicate x treatment reveals similar positional effects for all grid densities despite differences in overall percent kill. This study suggests that benefits for control and eradication programs would result from reducing the application density of MAT against B. dorsalis through reduced material use, labor costs, and higher effectiveness. Additional research in areas where MAT programs are currently undertaken would be helpful to corroborate this study’s findings.

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<![CDATA[Pesticide distribution and depletion kinetic determination in honey and beeswax: Model for pesticide occurrence and distribution in beehive products]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c76fe5bd5eed0c484e5b94e

Beehive products such as honey, beeswax and recently pollen have been regarded for many years as appropriate sentinels for environmental pesticide pollutions. However, despite yearly application of hundreds of approved pesticides in agricultural fields, only a minor fraction of these organic compounds were actually detected in honey and beeswax samples. This observation has led us to question the general suitability of beehive products as a sentinel for synthetic organic pesticides applied in the field. The aim of the present study was to experimentally determine the distribution (logarithmic ratio of beeswax to honey pesticide concentration, LogD) and depletion kinetics (half-life) of selected pesticides in honey and beeswax as a measure of the latter matrixes to serve as a pesticide sentinel. The obtained parameters were used to extrapolate to pesticide burden in honey and beeswax samples collected from German and Israeli apiaries. In addition, we aimed to establish a mathematical model, enabling us to predict distribution of selected pesticides between honey to beeswax, by utilizing simple substance descriptors, namely, octanol/water partitioning coefficient, molar weight and Henry coefficient. Based on the present results, it appears that pesticides with LogD values > 1 and half-life in beeswax > 1 day, were likely to accumulate and detected in beeswax samples, and less likely to be found in honey. On the other hand, pesticides with negative LogD values were highly likely to be found in honey and less so in beeswax samples. Finally, pesticides with LogD values between 0–1 were expected to be found in both matrixes. The developed model was successfully applied to predict LogD values, thereby identifying octanol/water partitioning and molar weight as the most prominent substance descriptors, which affect pesticide distribution between honey and beeswax.

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<![CDATA[Thermotolerant isolates of Beauveria bassiana as potential control agent of insect pest in subtropical climates]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5df31dd5eed0c484580d3c

The use of Beauveria bassiana in biological control of agricultural pests is mainly hampered by environmental factors, such as elevated temperatures and low humidity. These limitations, further amplified in a global warming scenario, could nullify biological control strategies based on this fungus. The identification of thermotolerant B. bassiana isolates represents a possible strategy to overcome this problem. In this study, in order to maximize the probability in the isolation of thermotolerant B. bassiana, soil samples and infected insects were collected in warm areas of Syria. The obtained fungal isolates were tested for different biological parameters (i.e., growth rate, sporulation and spore germination) at growing temperatures ranging from 20°C to 35°C. Among these isolates (eight from insects and 11 from soil samples), the five with the highest growth rate, spore production and germination at 30°C were tested for their entomopathogenicity through in vivo assays on Ephestia kuehniella larvae. Insect mortality induced by the five isolates ranged from 31% to 100%. Two isolates, one from Phyllognathus excavatus and one from soil, caused 50% of the larval mortality in less than four days, reaching values exceeding 92% in ten days. These two isolates were molecularly identified as B. bassiana sensu stricto by using three markers (i.e., ITS, Bloc and EF1-α). Considering these promising results, further studies are ongoing, testing their efficiency in field conditions as control agents for agricultural insect pests in Mediterranean and Subtropical regions.

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<![CDATA[Cryopreservation of the Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) VIENNA 8 genetic sexing strain: No effect on large scale production of high quality sterile males for SIT applications]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c57e685d5eed0c484ef3571

The sterile insect technique (SIT) integrated in area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programmes is being used for the successful management of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) which is a horticultural pest of economic importance in tropical and subtropical countries. All programmes with an SIT component are using the VIENNA genetic sexing strains (GSS), mainly the VIENNA 8 GSS, which have been developed by applying classical genetic approaches. The VIENNA 8 GSS carries two selectable markers, the white pupae and the temperature sensitive lethal genes, which allows the production and release of only males thus increasing the biological efficiency and cost effectiveness of SIT applications. However, mass rearing may affect quality traits of the GSS, in which case replenishment of the colony with wild flies is recommended, a process which is tedious and time consuming. We previously reported the development of a cryopreservation protocol for the VIENNA 8D53+ strain. In the present study, we report on the evaluation of the cryopreserved strain VIENNA 8D53+/Cryo-228L, reared under semi mass rearing conditions, for production parameters, quality control indices and mating competitiveness of males, in a comparative way with the non-cryopreserved VIENNA 8D53+ strain, against wild type males. The VIENNA 8D53+ and VIENNA 8D53+/Cryo-228L strains were similar for production parameters viz. egg production, pupal production, pupal recovery, and quality control indices like fly emergence, sex ratio and flight ability. Males from both strains were equally competitive with males of the wild type strain in achieving mating with wild type females under field cage conditions. Results are discussed in the context of cryopreservation as a potential backup strategy for refreshing the mass rearing colony with biological material from a cryopreserved stock.

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<![CDATA[Production of santalenes and bergamotene in Nicotiana tabacum plants]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c390bcad5eed0c48491e5a0

Terpenes play an important role in plant–insect relationships, and these relationships can potentially be modified by altering the profile of terpenes emitted from plants using metabolic engineering methods. Transgenic plants generated by employing such methods offer the prospect of low-cost sustainable pest management; in this regard, we used chloroplast targeting and cytosolic mevalonic acid pathway enhancement in this study to investigate the interaction of santalenes and bergamotene with insects. The santalene- and bergamotene-emitting transgenic tobacco plants thus generated were utilized to study host preference in the green peach aphid (Myzus persicae (Sulzer)). The results showed that co-expression of either 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR) or truncated HMGR with santalene synthase led to the production of higher amounts of santalenes and bergamotene in transgenic tobacco plants, and that these santalene- and bergamotene-emitting plants were attractive to green peach aphids. We accordingly propose that such transgenic plants may have potential application in pest management as a trap crop to prevent green peach aphid infestation of wild-type tobacco plants.

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<![CDATA[Variation in the susceptibility of Anopheles gambiae to botanicals across a metropolitan region of Nigeria]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c3fa595d5eed0c484ca6104

Pesticide resistance is normally associated with genetic changes, resulting in varied responses to insecticides between different populations. There is little evidence of resistance to plant allelochemicals; it is likely that their efficacy varies between genetically diverse populations, which may lead to the development of resistance in the future. This study evaluated the response of Anopheles gambiae (larvae and adults) from spatially different populations to acetone extracts of two botanicals, Piper guineense and Eugenia aromatica. Mosquito samples from 10 locations within Akure metropolis in Southwest Nigeria were tested for variation in susceptibility to the toxic effect of botanical extracts. The spatial distribution of the tolerance magnitude (T.M.) of the mosquito populations to the botanicals was also mapped. The populations of An. gambiae manifested significant differences in their level of tolerance to the botanicals. The centre of the metropolis was the hot spot of tolerance to the botanicals. There was a significant positive correlation between the adulticidal activities of both botanicals and initial knockdown. Hence, knockdown by these botanicals could be a predictor of their subsequent mortality. In revealing variation in response to botanical pesticides, our work has demonstrated that any future use of botanicals as alternative environmentally friendly vector control chemicals needs to be closely monitored to ensure that resistance does not develop.

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<![CDATA[Association between pesticide exposure intensity and self-rated health among greenhouse vegetable farmers in Ningxia, China]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c269776d5eed0c48470f987

Background

Self-rated health (SRH) has been shown to be a stronger comprehensive predictor of health status than the clinical record. Although an association between specific pesticide exposures and health conditions has been reported in different populations, data on the relationship between pesticides exposure intensity (PEI) and SRH in greenhouse farmers is scarce. The aim of the current study was to evaluate this association among vegetable greenhouse farmers in Yinchuan City, western China.

Methods

Three consecutive cross-sectional studies were conducted in the years 2015, 2016 and 2017. Face-to-face interviews by trained investigators, using questionnaires, were performed. PEI was calculated by a validated method and then categorized into high, middle and low groups. SRH was measured via a single ten-point scale question and then divided into excellent (score >5) and poor SRH (score ≤5). A multivariable logistic regression model was used to evaluate the association. Meanwhile, the dose-response and interaction effects were estimated.

Results

A steady association between high PEI and poor SRH (OR: 1.55, 95% CI: 1.05–2.28 in the full model) was identified. Although high PEI was significantly associated with poor SRH in males and the Han ethnicity group, no significant association was found with poor SRH in females or those of Hui ethnicity. Interaction effects of education level and frequency of breakfast with PEI were determined (Pinteraction = 0.04 and 0.02, respectively); synergistic enhanced effects for poor SRH were observed.

Conclusion

These findings indicate that high PEI might be associated with poor SRH among vegetable greenhouse farmers. A lower education level and never eating breakfast contributed to an increased likelihood of poor SRH in those with high PEI. The local government should be making great efforts to promote healthy behaviors and improve protection awareness.

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<![CDATA[Risk assessment and predation potential of Stratiolaelaps scimitus (Acari: Laelapidae) to control Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae) in honey bees]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c141eb8d5eed0c484d27f19

The biocontrol of the honey bee ectoparasite Varroa destructor is an underexploited but promising avenue that would benefit from being integrated in a Varroa management program. Our study aimed to investigate the potential of the predatory mite Stratiolaelaps scimitus to control Varroa infestations in honey bees. Tests on safety and predation were carried out to: (1) assess the risk of predation of the honey bee brood by S. scimitus under laboratory conditions and within the colony, and (2) evaluate the predation potential of S. scimitus on phoretic Varroa mites. Under laboratory conditions, S. scimitus was able to feed upon free Varroa mites, but also attacked every unprotected honey bee brood stages with a strong preference for bee eggs. When introduced inside colonies, however, S. scimitus does not have negative effects on the survival of the bee brood. Moreover, observations made in the laboratory revealed that S. scimitus does not attack Varroa mites when they are attached to the body of bees. However, all Varroa mites that had naturally fallen from the bees were predated upon by S. scimitus and died in less than 24h. This study provides evidence that S. scimitus does not represent a significant threat to the bee brood, but also suggests that its effect in Varroa control will probably be limited as it does not attack phoretic Varroa mites. Our results represent a first step in assessing the potential of S. scimitus to control V. destructor and provide novel information about the predator’s behavior inside the honey bee colony.

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<![CDATA[Parasitism, sexual dimorphism and effect of host size on Apocephalus attophilus offspring, a parasitoid of the leaf-cutting ant Atta bisphaerica]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c0ed787d5eed0c484f1432c

Atta bisphaerica (Forel) is a leaf-cutting ant that specializes on grass and causes productivity losses in sugar cane fields and pastures. Three phorid species, Apocephalus attophilus (Borgmeier), Myrmosicarius grandicornis (Borgmeier) and Eibesfeldtphora bragancai (Brown), have been found parasitizing A. bisphaerica workers. These parasitoids can reduce plant material transported into the nests and ant traffic on the trails. Therefore, phorid flies have been considered potential biological control agents for leaf-cutting ants. Here, we evaluated which parasitoid species attack the leaf-cutting ant A. bisphaerica in pasture areas of a Brazilian Savannah-Atlantic Forest ecotone, parasitism rate, effect of host size, sexual dimorphism and sex ratio of the emerged parasitoids. Four nests of A. bisphaerica were selected in pasture areas from August 2016 to August 2017, with 400 workers collected from each colony monthly. A total of 23,714 A. bisphaerica workers were collected during the study, of which 236 (0.99%) were parasitized by phorid parasitoids. Apocephalus attophilus, E. bragancai and M. grandicornis parasitized 217, 17 and 2 ants, respectively. The higher parasitism rate was found in the hottest/rainy season of the year. Non-parasitized ants survived longer than those parasitized by A. attophilus. The larval and pupal periods of this parasitoid were 2.2 ± 0.8 and 16 ± 1.4 days, respectively, and the number of pupae per parasitized ant ranged from 1 to 7. The number of A. attophilus pupae per host increased with the host head size. Likewise, the size of the adult parasitoids also increased according to the host ant. Apocephalus attophilus females were larger than males and the sex ratio (male: female) did not differ from 1: 1. Our results showed that A. attophilus would be a potential biocontrol agent of leaf-cutting ants because it produces multiple larvae per host, allowing a great production of parasitoids with short developmental time and kills the host ant faster than other phorids.

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<![CDATA[Evaluation of horizontal gene transfer risk between the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Tephritidae) and its parasitoid Fopius ceratitivorus (Braconidae)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c10289cd5eed0c4842479e5

The transgenic strain of the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) VIENNA 8 1260, developed from the classical genetic sexing strain VIENNA 8, has two molecular markers that exhibit red fluorescence in the body and green fluorescence in testicles and sperm. These traits offer a precise tool to discriminate between mass-reared sterile males and wild fertile males, and they could potentially increase the effectiveness of control programs for this pest. To assess the risk of horizontal transfer of the fluorescence transgenes in natural ecosystems, we used the VIENNA 8 1260 strain and the medfly parasitoid Fopius ceratitivorus. The fluorescence signal and the inheritance of the fluorescence gene markers were monitored for over 16 generations (about two years) in both species using fluorescence microscopy and a PCR-based assay. The PCR analysis was performed in four independent laboratories. Both fluorescence microscopy and PCR analysis indicated that no horizontal gene transfer of the DsRed transgene occurred during 16 generations of medfly parasitoid rearing under experimental conditions.

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<![CDATA[The burden of dyslipidaemia and factors associated with lipid levels among adults in rural northern Ghana: An AWI-Gen sub-study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c23ffa5d5eed0c484092f10

Dyslipidaemia is a primary risk factor for cardiometabolic disease, causing over 17 million deaths globally in 2015. However, the burden of dyslipidaemia and factors associated with lipid levels remain unknown in many rural African populations. Therefore, this study evaluated the association of socio-demographic, anthropometric and behavioural factors with lipid levels in rural Ghana. The prevalence of hypercholesterolaemia, hypertriglyceridaemia and elevated LDL-C in the total population of 1839 (846 men and 993 women) was 4.02%, 2.12%, and 5.55% respectively and did not differ between genders. The prevalence of low HDL-C levels was 60.30% and differed (p = 0.005) between men (56.86%) and women (63.24%). Subcutaneous abdominal fat was associated with TC (β = 0.067, p = 0.015) and TG (β = 0.137, p<0.001) among women and LDL-C (β = 0.139, p = 0.006) and TC (β = 0.071, p = 0.048) among men. Body mass index was associated with TC (β = 0.010, p = 0.043) among men while waist circumference was associated with LDL-C (β = 0.116, p<0.001) and TG (β = 0.094, p<0.001) among women. Hip circumference was negatively associated (β = -0.053, p = 0.043) while visceral fat was positively associated with TG (β = 0.033, p = 0.022) among women. Socioeconomic status, education, being unmarried and employment were associated with HDL-C (β = 0.081, p = 0.004), LDL-C (β = 0.095, p = 0.004) and TG (β = 0.095, p = 0.001) all among women, and TC (β = 0.070, p = 0.010) among men, respectively. Nankana women had lower TC (β = -0.069, p = 0.001), and men lower TG levels (β = -0.084, p = 0.008) than the other ethnic groups. Tobacco smoking (β = 0.066, p = 0.024) and alcohol intake (β = 0.084, p = 0.001) were associated with HDL-C levels among men and women respectively. Further studies are required to investigate whether high prevalence of low HDL-C levels in this population presents with any adverse cardiovascular disease outcomes. Associations of education, employment and adiposity with lipid levels suggest that future societal advances and increases in the prevalence of obesity may lead to associated adverse health consequences. Monitoring and interventions are required to limit these effects.

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<![CDATA[Organization of oversight for integrated control of neglected tropical diseases within Ministries of Health]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5bff05c7d5eed0c484a33b5b

Background

Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are communicable diseases that impact approximately 1 billion people, but receive relatively little research, funding, and attention. Many NTDs have similar treatments, epidemiology, and geographic distribution, and as a result, the integration of control efforts can improve accountability, efficiency, and cost-effectiveness of programs. Here, we examine the landscape of efforts towards NTD integration across countries with the highest burden of disease, and review the administrative management of integration in order to identify approaches and pathways for integration.

Methodology and principal findings

We utilized a standardized system to score countries for NTD endemnicity to create a list of 25 countries with the highest overall burden of NTDs. We then conducted a literature review to characterize the NTD control programs in the focus countries. Six countries were selected for key informant interviews to validate literature review results and gather additional data on opportunities and obstacles to NTD integration, from an administrative perspective. The majority of countries included in the study were located in Africa, with the remainder from Asia, North America, and South America. Multiple models and pathways were observed for the integration of NTD programs, in combination with other NTD programs, other diseases, or other health programs. Substantial heterogeneity existed with respect to the NTD control programs, and no country had integrated all of their NTD control efforts into a single program. NTDs that can be treated with preventative chemotherapy were frequently integrated into a single program. Leprosy control was also frequently integrated with those of other communicable diseases, and notably tuberculosis. Barriers to NTD integration may result from internal administrative obstacles or external obstacles.

Conclusions

Although many countries have begun to integrate NTD control efforts, additional work will be required to realize the full benefits of integration in most of the countries examined here. Moving forward, NTD integration efforts must ensure that administrative structures are designed to maximize the potential success of integrated programs and account for existing administrative processes.

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<![CDATA[Association of colorectal polyps and cancer with low-dose persistent organic pollutants: A case-control study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c12cf1bd5eed0c484913f1d

Background

Low-dose persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have recently been linked to immunosenescence, a key mechanism in carcinogenesis, as well as many aging-related chronic diseases. Since feces are the main excretion route of POPs, the large intestine is a potential target organ for these pollutants. We performed a case-control study to evaluate whether exposure to low-dose POPs is related to the risk of colorectal polyps and cancer.

Methods

A total of 277 participants were recruited from one hospital: 99 cancer patients, 102 polyp patients, and 76 control subjects. As typical examples of POPs, we measured the serum concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs).

Results

Across the tertiles of the summary measure of POPs, the adjusted odds ratios (ORs) of colorectal polyps and cancer were 2.8 (1.2–6.8) (Ptrend = 0.01) and 3.0 (1.0–8.8) (Ptrend = 0.02), respectively, for subjects in the highest tertile. When OCPs and PCBs were analyzed separately, OCPs were linked to an increased risk of both polyps and cancer; the adjusted ORs were 2.3 (0.9–5.7) (Ptrend = 0.05) for polyps and 3.6 (1.1–11.8) (Ptrend< 0.01) for cancer. However, PCBs were only significantly associated with a high risk of polyps but not cancer; the adjusted OR was 2.8 (1.2–6.6) (Ptrend = 0.01).

Conclusion

Chronic exposure to low-dose POPs may be associated with an increased risk of colorectal polyps and cancer. Our findings suggest the carcinogenic potential of strong lipophilic chemical mixtures such as POPs which are accumulated in adipose tissue, released to circulation, and eliminated through feces.

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<![CDATA[The next generation of natural history collections]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b60074f463d7e39c5526202

The last 50 years have witnessed rapid changes in the ways that natural history specimens are collected, preserved, analyzed, and documented. Those changes have produced unprecedented access to specimens, images, and data as well as impressive research results in organismal biology. The stage is now set for a new generation of collecting, preserving, analyzing, and integrating biological samples—a generation devoted to interdisciplinary research into complex biological interactions and processes. Next-generation collections may be essential for breakthrough research on the spread of infectious diseases, feeding Earth's growing population, adapting to climate change, and other grand research challenges. A decade-long investment in research collection infrastructure will be needed.

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<![CDATA[Pesticide residue survey of pollen loads collected by honeybees (Apis mellifera) in daily intervals at three agricultural sites in South Germany]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b4a2886463d7e4513b897fd

In agricultural landscapes honeybees and other pollinators are exposed to pesticides, often surveyed by residue analysis of bee bread. However, bee bread is a mixture of pollen pellets of different plants collected over a longer time period. Therefore, pesticide content in the hive varies with plant species and time of pollen collection. Hence, the analysis of bee bread is an approximate approach to gain information on detailed pesticide exposure during the agronomic active season. As high-resolution data is missing, we carried out a pesticide residue survey over five years (2012–2016) of daily collected pollen pellets at three agricultural distinct sites in southern Germany. 281 single day pollen samples were selected and subjected to a multi-pesticide residue analysis. Pesticide contaminations of pollen differed between the sites. Intensive pesticide exposure can be seen by high pesticide concentrations as well as a high amount of different pesticides detected. During the five years of observation 73 different pesticides were found, of which 84% are characterized as non-harmful to honeybees. To estimate pesticide risks for honeybees, the pollen hazard quotient (PHQ) was calculated. Even though pesticides were detected in sublethal concentrations, we found substances not supposed to be exposed to honey bees, indicating the necessity for further improvement of seed treatments and increasing awareness of flowering shrubs, field margins and pesticide drift. Additionally, an in-depth analysis of nine pollen samples, divided into sub-fractions dominated by single plant species, revealed even higher concentrations in single crops for some pesticides. We give precise residue data of 1,657 single pesticide detections, which should be used for realistic laboratory and field tests.

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<![CDATA[Effect of soil fumigants on degradation of abamectin and their combination synergistic effect to root-knot nematode]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b28b9ea463d7e1564977036

Background

Root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne spp., RKN) causes a disease that significantly reduces the yield of greenhouse cucumber crops year after year. Chemical control based on a single pesticide is now unreliable mainly due to pest resistance. Fumigant and non-fumigant pesticide combinations can potentially result in effective and economic RKN control.

Results

Combining the insecticide abamectin (ABM) with fumigants dazomet (DZ) or chloropicrin (CP) significantly extended the half-life of ABM by an average of about 1.68 and 1.56 times respectively in laboratory trials, and by an average of about 2.02 and 1.69 times respectively in greenhouse trials. Laboratory experiments indicated that all the low rate ABM combination treatments controlled RKN through a synergistic effect. ABM diffused into the nematode epidermis more rapidly when ABM was combined with DZ and CP, giving effective nematode control and an increase cucumber total yield, compared to the use of these products alone. ABM combined with CP or DZ produced significantly higher total cucumber yield than when these products were used alone.

Conclusions

A low concentration of ABM combined with DZ in preference to CP would be an economic and practical way to control nematode and soilborne fungi in a greenhouse producing cucumbers.

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<![CDATA[Climate variability, perceptions and political ecology: Factors influencing changes in pesticide use over 30 years by Zimbabwean smallholder cotton producers]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b03d26f463d7e6e6b5b7906

Pesticides represent a potential public health hazard of note in farming communities. Accumulating evidence indicates that some pesticides used in agriculture act as hormone disrupters, with the potential to result in chronic health effects. Despite such a growing evidence base, pesticides remain the preferred method of pest control in agriculture worldwide. In many parts of Sub-Saharan Africa, usage is on the increase. This qualitative study assessed changes in the usage of pesticides by Zimbabwean smallholder cotton farmers in the past 30 years. Farmers reported an increase in the usage of pesticides, specifically insecticides, since the early 1980s. An increase in pest populations was also reported. The findings suggested a bi-directional causal relationship between the increase in pest population and the increase in pesticide use. Factors which emerged to have collectively impacted on the changes include climate variability, limited agency on the part of farmers, power dynamics involving the government and private cotton companies and farmers’ perceptions and practices. An Integrated Pest Management Policy for Zimbabwe is recommended to facilitate integration of chemical controls with a broad range of other pest control tactics. Continuous farmer education and awareness raising is further recommended, since farmers’ perceptions can influence their practices.

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<![CDATA[Pinpointing P450s Associated with Pyrethroid Metabolism in the Dengue Vector, Aedes aegypti: Developing New Tools to Combat Insecticide Resistance]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9f2ab0ee8fa60b6ebf1

Background

Pyrethroids are increasingly used to block the transmission of diseases spread by Aedes aegypti such as dengue and yellow fever. However, insecticide resistance poses a serious threat, thus there is an urgent need to identify the genes and proteins associated with pyrethroid resistance in order to produce effective counter measures. In Ae. aegypti, overexpression of P450s such as the CYP9J32 gene have been linked with pyrethroid resistance. Our aim was to confirm the role of CYP9J32 and other P450s in insecticide metabolism in order to identify potential diagnostic resistance markers.

Methodology/Principal Findings

We have expressed CYP9J32 in Escherichia coli and show that the enzyme can metabolize the pyrethroids permethrin and deltamethrin. In addition, three other Ae. aegypti P450s (CYP9J24, CYP9J26, CYP9J28) were found capable of pyrethroid metabolism, albeit with lower activity. Both Ae. aegypti and Anopheles gambiae P450s (CYP's 6M2, 6Z2, 6P3) were screened against fluorogenic and luminescent substrates to identify potential diagnostic probes for P450 activity. Luciferin-PPXE was preferentially metabolised by the three major pyrethroid metabolisers (CYP9J32, CYP6M2 and CYP6P3), identifying a potential diagnostic substrate for these P450s.

Conclusions/Significance

P450s have been identified with the potential to confer pyrethroid resistance in Ae.aegypti. It is recommended that over expression of these enzymes should be monitored as indicators of resistance where pyrethroids are used.

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<![CDATA[Contrasting Population Structures of Two Vectors of African Trypanosomoses in Burkina Faso: Consequences for Control]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db06ab0ee8fa60bc8466

Background

African animal trypanosomosis is a major obstacle to the development of more efficient and sustainable livestock production systems in West Africa. Riverine tsetse species such as Glossina palpalis gambiensis Vanderplank and Glossina tachinoides Westwood are the major vectors. A wide variety of control tactics is available to manage these vectors, but their removal will in most cases only be sustainable if the control effort is targeting an entire tsetse population within a circumscribed area.

Methodology/Principal Findings

In the present study, genetic variation at microsatellite DNA loci was used to examine the population structure of G. p. gambiensis and G. tachinoides inhabiting four adjacent river basins in Burkina Faso, i.e. the Mouhoun, the Comoé, the Niger and the Sissili River Basins. Isolation by distance was significant for both species across river basins, and dispersal of G. tachinoides was ∼3 times higher than that of G. p. gambiensis. Thus, the data presented indicate that no strong barriers to gene flow exists between riverine tsetse populations in adjacent river basins, especially so for G. tachinoides.

Conclusions/Significance

Therefore, potential re-invasion of flies from adjacent river basins will have to be prevented by establishing buffer zones between the Mouhoun and the other river basin(s), in the framework of the PATTEC (Pan African Tsetse and Trypanosomosis Eradication Campaign) eradication project that is presently targeting the northern part of the Mouhoun River Basin. We argue that these genetic analyses should always be part of the baseline data collection before any tsetse control project is initiated.

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