ResearchPad - phagocytosis https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Oral administration with a traditional fermented multi-fruit beverage modulates non-specific and antigen-specific immune responses in BALB/c mice]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7730 Fruits have been widely considered as the default “health foods” because they contain numerous vitamins and minerals needed to sustain human health. Fermentation strategies have been utilized to enhance the nutritive and flavor features of healthy and readily consumable fruit products while extending their shelf lives. A traditional fermented multi-fruit beverage was made from five fruits including kiwi, guava, papaya, pineapple, and grape fermented by Saccharomyces cerevisiae along with lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria. The immunomodulatory properties of the fermented multi-fruit beverage, in vivo nonspecific and ovalbumin (OVA)-specific immune response experiments using female BALB/c mice were performed. Administration of the fermented multi-fruit beverage reduced the calorie intake, thus resulting in a less weight gain in mice compared to the water (placebo)-fed mice. In the nonspecific immune study model, the fermented multi-fruit beverage enhanced phagocytosis and T cell proliferation but did not affect B cell proliferation and immunoglobulin G (IgG) production. Analysis of cytokine secretion profile also revealed that the fermented multi-fruit beverage enhanced proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and T helper (Th)1-related cytokine interferon (IFN)-γ production, thus creating an immunostimulatory effect. Nonetheless, in the specific immune study model, the results showed that the fermented multi-fruit beverage decreased the production of proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α production in OVA-immunized mice. Moreover, it also caused a decrease in the production of anti-OVA IgG1, which was accompanied by a decrease in Th2-related cytokines IL-4 and IL-5 production and an increase in Th1-related cytokine IFN-γ production, indicating that it may have the potential to shift the immune system from the allergen‐specific Th2 responses toward Th1-type responses. The results indicate that fermented multi-fruit beverage has the potential to modulate immune responses both in a nonspecific and specific manners.

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<![CDATA[Immune-enhancing effects of anionic macromolecules extracted from Codium fragile on cyclophosphamide-treated mice]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c75ac78d5eed0c484d08831

Immune-regulation and homeostasis are critical in cancer therapy and immunomodulatory biomaterials have been used to decrease side effects of immunosuppressant drugs. Anionic macromolecules (CFAMs) were isolated from the seaweed Codium fragile, and its immune-enhancing biological activities were examined in CY-induced immunosuppressed mice. CFAMs improved the splenic lymphocyte proliferation, NK cell activity, and spleen index. The expression of immune-associated genes was highly upregulated in splenic lymphocytes, and gene expression was differently regulated according to mitogens such as T-cell (Con A) and B-cell (LPS) mitogens. Additionally, CFAMs boosted the proliferation, NO production, and phagocytosis of peritoneal macrophages. CFAMs also considerably stimulated immune-associated gene expression in peritoneal macrophages. Moreover, our results showed CFAMs mediated its immune-enhancing effects via the MAPK pathway. These suggested CFAMs can be used as a potent immunomodulatory material under immune-suppressive condition. Furthermore, CFAMs may also be used as a bio-functional and pharmaceutical material for improving human health and immunity.

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<![CDATA[TRIM2, a novel member of the antiviral family, limits New World arenavirus entry]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c648d3dd5eed0c484c82342

Tripartite motif (TRIM) proteins belong to a large family with many roles in host biology, including restricting virus infection. Here, we found that TRIM2, which has been implicated in cases of Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease (CMTD) in humans, acts by blocking hemorrhagic fever New World arenavirus (NWA) entry into cells. We show that Trim2-knockout mice, as well as primary fibroblasts from a CMTD patient with mutations in TRIM2, are more highly infected by the NWAs Junín and Tacaribe virus than wild-type mice or cells are. Using mice with different Trim2 gene deletions and TRIM2 mutant constructs, we demonstrate that its antiviral activity is uniquely independent of the RING domain encoding ubiquitin ligase activity. Finally, we show that one member of the TRIM2 interactome, signal regulatory protein α (SIRPA), a known inhibitor of phagocytosis, also restricts NWA infection and conversely that TRIM2 limits phagocytosis of apoptotic cells. In addition to demonstrating a novel antiviral mechanism for TRIM proteins, these studies suggest that the NWA entry and phagocytosis pathways overlap.

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<![CDATA[The 5’-nucleotidase S5nA is dispensable for evasion of phagocytosis and biofilm formation in Streptococcus pyogenes]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5ca309d5eed0c48441f036

5’-nucleotidases are widespread among all domains of life. The enzymes hydrolyze phosphate residues from nucleotides and nucleotide derivatives. In some pathobiontic bacteria, 5’-nucleotidases contribute to immune evasion by dephosphorylating adenosine mono-, di-, or tri-phosphates, thereby either decreasing the concentration of pro-inflammatory ATP or increasing the concentration of anti-inflammatory adenosine, both acting on purinergic receptors of phagocytic cells. The strict human pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes expresses a surface-associated 5’-nucleotidase (S5nA) under infection conditions that has previously been discussed as a potential virulence factor. Here we show that deletion of the S5nA gene does not significantly affect growth in human blood, evasion of phagocytosis by neutrophils, formation of biofilms and virulence in an infection model with larvae of the greater wax moth Galleria mellonella in S. pyogenes serotypes M6, M18 and M49. Hence, the surface-associated 5’-nucleotidase S5nA seems dispensable for evasion of phagocytosis and biofilm formation in S. pyogenes.

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<![CDATA[TLR4-interacting SPA4 peptide improves host defense and alleviates tissue injury in a mouse model of Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c58d662d5eed0c484031d4e

Interaction between surfactant protein-A (SP-A) and toll-like receptor (TLR)4 plays a critical role in host defense. In this work, we studied the host defense function of SPA4 peptide (amino acids GDFRYSDGTPVNYTNWYRGE), derived from the TLR4-interacting region of SP-A, against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We determined the binding of SPA4 peptide to live bacteria, and its direct antibacterial activity against P. aeruginosa. Pro-phagocytic and anti-inflammatory effects were investigated in JAWS II dendritic cells and primary alveolar macrophages. The biological relevance of SPA4 peptide was evaluated in a mouse model of acute lung infection induced by intratracheal challenge with P. aeruginosa. Our results demonstrate that the SPA4 peptide does not interact with or kill P. aeruginosa when cultured outside the host. The SPA4 peptide treatment induces the uptake and localization of bacteria in the phagolysosomes of immune cells. At the same time, the secreted amounts of TNF-α are significantly reduced in cell-free supernatants of SPA4 peptide-treated cells. In cells overexpressing TLR4, the TLR4-induced phagocytic response is maintained, but the levels of TLR4-stimulated TNF-α are reduced. Furthermore, our results demonstrate that the therapeutic administration of SPA4 peptide reduces bacterial burden, inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, intracellular signaling, and lactate levels, and alleviates lung edema and tissue damage in P. aeruginosa-infected mice. Together, our results suggest that the treatment with SPA4 peptide can help control the bacterial burden, inflammation, and tissue injury in a P. aeruginosa lung infection model.

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<![CDATA[Differential Effects of p38, MAPK, PI3K or Rho Kinase Inhibitors on Bacterial Phagocytosis and Efferocytosis by Macrophages in COPD]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dadbab0ee8fa60bb9b1c

Pulmonary inflammation and bacterial colonization are central to the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Defects in macrophage phagocytosis of both bacteria and apoptotic cells contribute to the COPD phenotype. Small molecule inhibitors with anti-inflammatory activity against p38 mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs), phosphatidyl-inositol-3 kinase (PI3K) and Rho kinase (ROCK) are being investigated as novel therapeutics in COPD. Concerns exist, however, about off-target effects. We investigated the effect of p38 MAPK inhibitors (VX745 and SCIO469), specific inhibitors of PI3K α (NVS-P13K-2), δ (NVS-P13K-3) or γ (NVS-P13K-5) and a ROCK inhibitor PF4950834 on macrophage phagocytosis, early intracellular killing of bacteria and efferocytosis of apoptotic neutrophils. Alveolar macrophages (AM) obtained from broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) or monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) from COPD patients (GOLD stage II/III) enrolled from a well characterized clinical cohort (MRC COPD-MAP consortium) or from healthy ex-smoker controls were studied. Both COPD AM and MDM exhibited lower levels of bacterial phagocytosis (using Streptococcus pneumoniae and non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae) and efferocytosis than healthy controls. None of the inhibitors altered bacterial internalization or early intracellular bacterial killing in AM or MDM. Conversely PF4950834, but not other inhibitors, enhanced efferocytosis in COPD AM and MDM. These results suggest none of these inhibitors are likely to exacerbate phagocytosis-related defects in COPD, while confirming ROCK inhibitors can enhance efferocytosis in COPD.

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<![CDATA[Commensal Bacteria-Induced Inflammasome Activation in Mouse and Human Macrophages Is Dependent on Potassium Efflux but Does Not Require Phagocytosis or Bacterial Viability]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dab8ab0ee8fa60bad8d3

Gut commensal bacteria contribute to the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease, in part by activating the inflammasome and inducing secretion of interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß). Although much has been learned about inflammasome activation by bacterial pathogens, little is known about how commensals carry out this process. Accordingly, we investigated the mechanism of inflammasome activation by representative commensal bacteria, the Gram-positive Bifidobacterium longum subspecies infantis and the Gram-negative Bacteroides fragilis. B. infantis and B. fragilis induced IL-1ß secretion by primary mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages after overnight incubation. IL-1ß secretion also occurred in response to heat-killed bacteria and was only partly reduced when phagocytosis was inhibited with cytochalasin D. Similar results were obtained with a wild-type immortalized mouse macrophage cell line but neither B. infantis nor B. fragilis induced IL-1ß secretion in a mouse macrophage line lacking the nucleotide-binding/leucine-rich repeat pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome. IL-1ß secretion in response to B. infantis and B. fragilis was significantly reduced when the wild-type macrophage line was treated with inhibitors of potassium efflux, either increased extracellular potassium concentrations or the channel blocker ruthenium red. Both live and heat-killed B. infantis and B. fragilis also induced IL-1ß secretion by human macrophages (differentiated THP-1 cells or primary monocyte-derived macrophages) after 4 hours of infection, and the secretion was inhibited by raised extracellular potassium and ruthenium red but not by cytochalasin D. Taken together, our findings indicate that the commensal bacteria B. infantis and B. fragilis activate the NLRP3 inflammasome in both mouse and human macrophages by a mechanism that involves potassium efflux and that does not require bacterial viability or phagocytosis.

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<![CDATA[Staphylococcal protein Ecb impairs complement receptor-1 mediated recognition of opsonized bacteria]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db50ab0ee8fa60bdbd95

Staphyloccus aureus is a major human pathogen leading frequently to sepsis and soft tissue infections with abscesses. Multiple virulence factors including several immune modulating molecules contribute to its survival in the host. When S. aureus invades the human body, one of the first line defenses is the complement system, which opsonizes the bacteria with C3b and attract neutrophils by release of chemotactic peptides. Neutrophils express Complement receptor-1 [CR1, CD35) that interacts with the C3b-opsonized particles and thereby plays an important role in pathogen recognition by phagocytic cells. In this study we observed that a fraction of S. aureus culture supernatant prevented binding of C3b to neutrophils. This fraction consisted of S. aureus leukocidins and Efb. The C-terminus of Efb is known to bind C3b and shares significant sequence homology to the extracellular complement binding protein [Ecb). Here we show that S. aureus Ecb displays various mechanisms to block bacterial recognition by neutrophils. The presence of Ecb blocked direct interaction between soluble CR1 and C3b and reduced the cofactor activity of CR1 in proteolytic inactivation of C3b. Furthermore, Ecb could dose-dependently prevent recognition of C3b by cell-bound CR1 that lead to impaired phagocytosis of NHS-opsonized S. aureus. Phagocytosis was furthermore reduced in the presence of soluble CR1 [sCR1). These data indicate that the staphylococcal protein Ecb prevents recognition of C3b opsonized bacteria by neutrophil CR1 leading to impaired killing by phagocytosis and thereby contribute to immune evasion of S. aureus.

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<![CDATA[Endogenous Molecules Induced by a Pathogen-Associated Molecular Pattern (PAMP) Elicit Innate Immunity in Shrimp]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dabeab0ee8fa60baf978

Invertebrates rely on an innate immune system to combat invading pathogens. The system is initiated in the presence of cell wall components from microbes like lipopolysaccharide (LPS), β-1,3-glucan (βG) and peptidoglycan (PG), altogether known as pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), via a recognition of pattern recognition protein (PRP) or receptor (PRR) through complicated reactions. We show herein that shrimp hemocytes incubated with LPS, βG, and PG caused necrosis and released endogenous molecules (EMs), namely EM-L, EM-β, and EM-P, and found that shrimp hemocytes incubated with EM-L, EM-β, and EM-P caused changes in cell viability, degranulation and necrosis of hemocytes, and increased phenoloxidase (PO) activity and respiratory burst (RB) indicating activation of immunity in vitro. We found that shrimp receiving EM-L, EM-β, and EM-P had increases in hemocyte count and other immune parameters as well as higher phagocytic activity toward a Vibrio pathogen, and found that shrimp receiving EM-L had increases in proliferation cell ratio and mitotic index of hematopoietic tissues (HPTs). We identified proteins of EMs deduced from SDS-PAGE and LC-ESI-MS/MS analyses. EM-L and EM-P contained damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) including HMGBa, HMGBb, histone 2A (H2A), H2B, and H4, and other proteins including proPO, Rab 7 GPTase, and Rab 11 GPTase, which were not observed in controls (EM-C, hemocytes incubated in shrimp salt solution). We concluded that EMs induced by PAMPs contain DAMPs and other immune molecules, and they could elicit innate immunity in shrimp. Further research is needed to identify which individual molecule or combined molecules of EMs cause the results, and determine the mechanism of action in innate immunity.

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<![CDATA[Identification and Characterization of Two Human Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cell Subpopulations with Different Functions in Dying Cell Clearance and Different Patterns of Cell Death]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da69ab0ee8fa60b927b8

Human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (mdDCs) are versatile cells that are used widely for research and experimental therapies. Although different culture conditions can affect their characteristics, there are no known subpopulations. Since monocytes differentiate into dendritic cells (DCs) in a variety of tissues and contexts, we asked whether they can give rise to different subpopulations. In this work we set out to characterize two human mdDC subpopulations that we identified and termed small (DC-S) and large (DC-L). Morphologically, DC-L are larger, more granular and have a more complex cell membrane. Phenotypically, DC-L show higher expression of a wide panel of surface molecules and stronger responses to maturation stimuli. Transcriptomic analysis confirmed their separate identities and findings were consistent with the phenotypes observed. Although they show similar apoptotic cell uptake, DC-L have different capabilities for phagocytosis, demonstrate better antigen processing, and have significantly better necrotic cell uptake. These subpopulations also have different patterns of cell death, with DC-L presenting an inflammatory, “dangerous” phenotype while DC-S mostly downregulate their surface markers upon cell death. Apoptotic cells induce an immune-suppressed phenotype, which becomes more pronounced among DC-L, especially after the addition of lipopolysaccharide. We propose that these two subpopulations correspond to inflammatory (DC-L) and steady-state (DC-S) DC classes that have been previously described in mice and humans.

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<![CDATA[Treatment of Mycobacterium tuberculosis-Infected Macrophages with Poly(Lactic-Co-Glycolic Acid) Microparticles Drives NFκB and Autophagy Dependent Bacillary Killing]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dacaab0ee8fa60bb3ff2

The emergence of multiple-drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) has pushed our available repertoire of anti-TB therapies to the limit of effectiveness. This has increased the urgency to develop novel treatment modalities, and inhalable microparticle (MP) formulations are a promising option to target the site of infection. We have engineered poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) MPs which can carry a payload of anti-TB agents, and are successfully taken up by human alveolar macrophages. Even without a drug cargo, MPs can be potent immunogens; yet little is known about how they influence macrophage function in the setting of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection. To address this issue we infected THP-1 macrophages with Mtb H37Ra or H37Rv and treated with MPs. In controlled experiments we saw a reproducible reduction in bacillary viability when THP-1 macrophages were treated with drug-free MPs. NFκB activity was increased in MP-treated macrophages, although cytokine secretion was unaltered. Confocal microscopy of immortalized murine bone marrow-derived macrophages expressing GFP-tagged LC3 demonstrated induction of autophagy. Inhibition of caspases did not influence the MP-induced restriction of bacillary growth, however, blockade of NFκB or autophagy with pharmacological inhibitors reversed this MP effect on macrophage function. These data support harnessing inhaled PLGA MP-drug delivery systems as an immunotherapeutic in addition to serving as a vehicle for targeted drug delivery. Such “added value” could be exploited in the generation of inhaled vaccines as well as inhaled MDR-TB therapeutics when used as an adjunct to existing treatments.

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<![CDATA[Characterization of C-type lectins reveals an unexpectedly limited interaction between Cryptococcus neoformans spores and Dectin-1]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db50ab0ee8fa60bdbd6a

Phagocytosis by innate immune cells is an important process for protection against multiple pathologies and is particularly important for resistance to infection. However, phagocytosis has also been implicated in the progression of some diseases, including the dissemination of the human fungal pathogen, Cryptococcus neoformans. Previously, we identified Dectin-1 as a likely phagocytic receptor for C. neoformans spores through the use of soluble components in receptor-ligand blocking experiments. In this study, we used gain-of-function and loss-of-function assays with intact cells to evaluate the in vivo role of Dectin-1 and other C-type lectins in interactions with C. neoformans spores and discovered stark differences in outcome when compared with previous assays. First, we found that non-phagocytic cells expressing Dectin-1 were unable to bind spores and that highly sensitive reporter cells expressing Dectin-1 were not stimulated by spores. Second, we determined that some phagocytes from Dectin-1-/- mice interacted with spores differently than wild type (WT) cells, but the effects varied among assays and were modest overall. Third, while we detected small but statistically significant reductions in phagocytosis by primary alveolar macrophages from Dectin-1-/- mice compared to WT, we found no differences in survival between WT and Dectin-1-/- mice challenged with spores. Further analyses to assess the roles of other C-type lectins and their adapters revealed very weak stimulation of Dectin-2 reporter cells by spores and modest differences in binding and phagocytosis by Dectin-2-/- bone marrow-derived phagocytes. There were no discernable defects in binding or phagocytosis by phagocytes lacking Mannose Receptor, Mincle, Card-9, or FcRγ. Taken together, these results lead to the conclusion that Dectin-1 and other C-type lectins do not individually play a major roles in phagocytosis and innate defense by phagocytes against C. neoformans spores and highlight challenges in using soluble receptor/ligand blocking experiments to recapitulate biologically relevant interactions.

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<![CDATA[Scavenger Receptor C Mediates Phagocytosis of White Spot Syndrome Virus and Restricts Virus Proliferation in Shrimp]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da74ab0ee8fa60b95e0f

Scavenger receptors are an important class of pattern recognition receptors that play several important roles in host defense against pathogens. The class C scavenger receptors (SRCs) have only been identified in a few invertebrates, and their role in the immune response against viruses is seldom studied. In this study, we firstly identified an SRC from kuruma shrimp, Marsupenaeus japonicus, designated MjSRC, which was significantly upregulated after white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) challenge at the mRNA and protein levels in hemocytes. The quantity of WSSV increased in shrimp after knockdown of MjSRC, compared with the controls. Furthermore, overexpression of MjSRC led to enhanced WSSV elimination via phagocytosis by hemocytes. Pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated the interaction between MjSRC and the WSSV envelope protein. Electron microscopy observation indicated that the colloidal gold-labeled extracellular domain of MjSRC was located on the outer surface of WSSV. MjSRC formed a trimer and was internalized into the cytoplasm after WSSV challenge, and the internalization was strongly inhibited after knockdown of Mjβ-arrestin2. Further studies found that Mjβ-arrestin2 interacted with the intracellular domain of MjSRC and induced the internalization of WSSV in a clathrin-dependent manner. WSSV were co-localized with lysosomes in hemocytes and the WSSV quantity in shrimp increased after injection of lysosome inhibitor, chloroquine. Collectively, this study demonstrated that MjSRC recognized WSSV via its extracellular domain and invoked hemocyte phagocytosis to restrict WSSV systemic infection. This is the first study to report an SRC as a pattern recognition receptor promoting phagocytosis of a virus.

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<![CDATA[Membrane Transfer from Mononuclear Cells to Polymorphonuclear Neutrophils Transduces Cell Survival and Activation Signals in the Recipient Cells via Anti-Extrinsic Apoptotic and MAP Kinase Signaling Pathways]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db01ab0ee8fa60bc6d28

The biological significance of membrane transfer (trogocytosis) between polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) and mononuclear cells (MNCs) remains unclear. We investigated the biological/immunological effects and molecular basis of trogocytosis among various immune cells in healthy individuals and patients with active systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). By flow cytometry, we determined that molecules in the immunological synapse, including HLA class-I and-II, CD11b and LFA-1, along with CXCR1, are exchanged among autologous PMNs, CD4+ T cells, and U937 cells (monocytes) after cell-cell contact. Small interfering RNA knockdown of the integrin adhesion molecule CD11a in U937 unexpectedly enhanced the level of total membrane transfer from U937 to PMN cells. Functionally, phagocytosis and IL-8 production by PMNs were enhanced after co-culture with T cells. Total membrane transfer from CD4+ T to PMNs delayed PMN apoptosis by suppressing the extrinsic apoptotic molecules, BAX, MYC and caspase 8. This enhancement of activities of PMNs by T cells was found to be mediated via p38- and P44/42-Akt-MAP kinase pathways and inhibited by the actin-polymerization inhibitor, latrunculin B, the clathrin inhibitor, Pitstop-2, and human immunoglobulin G, but not by the caveolin inhibitor, methyl-β-cyclodextrin. In addition, membrane transfer from PMNs enhanced IL-2 production by recipient anti-CD3/anti-CD28 activated MNCs, and this was suppressed by inhibitors of mitogen-activated protein kinase (PD98059) and protein kinase C (Rottlerin). Of clinical significance, decreased total membrane transfer from PMNs to MNCs in patients with active SLE suppressed mononuclear IL-2 production. In conclusion, membrane transfer from MNCs to PMNs, mainly at the immunological synapse, transduces survival and activation signals to enhance PMN functions and is dependent on actin polymerization, clathrin activation, and Fcγ receptors, while membrane transfer from PMNs to MNCs depends on MAP kinase and PKC signaling. Defective membrane transfer from PMNs to MNCs in patients with active systemic lupus erythematous suppressed activated mononuclear IL-2 production.

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<![CDATA[EhNPC1 and EhNPC2 Proteins Participate in Trafficking of Exogenous Cholesterol in Entamoeba histolytica Trophozoites: Relevance for Phagocytosis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dab7ab0ee8fa60bad43a

Entamoeba histolytica, the highly phagocytic protozoan causative of human amoebiasis lacks the machinery to synthesize cholesterol. Here, we investigated the presence of NPC1 and NPC2 proteins in this parasite, which are involved in cholesterol trafficking in mammals. Bioinformatics analysis revealed one Ehnpc1 and two Ehnpc2 genes. EhNPC1 appeared as a transmembrane protein and both EhNPC2 as peripheral membrane proteins. Molecular docking predicted that EhNPC1 and EhNPC2 bind cholesterol and interact with each other. Genes and proteins were identified in trophozoites. Serum pulse-chase and confocal microscopy assays unveiled that after trophozoites sensed the cholesterol source, EhNPC1 and EhNPC2 were organized around the plasma membrane in a punctuated pattern. Vesicles emerged and increased in number and size and some appeared full of cholesterol with EhNPC1 or EhNPC2 facing the extracellular space. Both proteins, but mostly EhNPC2, were found out of the cell associated with cholesterol. EhNPC1 and cholesterol formed networks from the plasma membrane to the nucleus. EhNPC2 appeared in erythrocytes that were being ingested by trophozoites, co-localizing with cholesterol of erythrocytes, whereas EhNPC1 surrounded the phagocytic cup. EhNPC1 and EhNPC2 co-localized with EhSERCA in the endoplasmic reticulum and with lysobisphosphatidic acid and EhADH (an Alix protein) in phagolysosomes. Immunoprecipitation assays confirmed the EhNPC1 and EhNPC2 association with cholesterol, EhRab7A and EhADH. Serum starved and blockage of cholesterol trafficking caused a low rate of phagocytosis and incapability of trophozoites to produce damage in the mouse colon. Ehnpc1 and Ehnpc2 knockdown provoked in trophozoites a lower intracellular cholesterol concentration and a diminished rate of phagocytosis; and Ehnpc1 silencing also produced a decrease of trophozoites movement. Trafficking of EhNPC1 and EhNPC2 during cholesterol uptake and phagocytosis as well as their association with molecules involved in endocytosis strongly suggest that these proteins play a key role in cholesterol uptake.

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<![CDATA[Leishmania donovani Utilize Sialic Acids for Binding and Phagocytosis in the Macrophages through Selective Utilization of Siglecs and Impair the Innate Immune Arm]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da9aab0ee8fa60ba372c

Background

Leishmania donovani, belonging to a unicellular protozoan parasite, display the differential level of linkage-specific sialic acids on their surface. Sialic acids binding immunoglobulin-like lectins (siglecs) are a class of membrane-bound receptors present in the haematopoetic cell lineages interact with the linkage-specific sialic acids. Here we aimed to explore the utilization of sialic acids by Leishmania donovani for siglec-mediated binding, phagocytosis, modulation of innate immune response and signaling pathways for establishment of successful infection in the host.

Methodology/Principle Findings

We have found enhanced binding of high sialic acids containing virulent strains (AG83+Sias) with siglec-1 and siglec-5 present on macrophages compared to sialidase treated AG83+Sias (AG83-Sias) and low sialic acids-containing avirulent strain (UR6) by flow cytometry. This specific receptor-ligand interaction between sialic acids and siglecs were further confirmed by confocal microscopy. Sialic acids-siglec-1-mediated interaction of AG83+Sias with macrophages induced enhanced phagocytosis. Additionally, sialic acids-siglec-5 interaction demonstrated reduced ROS, NO generation and Th2 dominant cytokine response upon infection with AG83+Sias in contrast to AG83-Sias and UR6. Sialic acids-siglecs binding also facilitated multiplication of intracellular amastigotes. Moreover, AG83+Sias induced sialic acids-siglec-5-mediated upregulation of host phosphatase SHP-1. Such sialic acids-siglec interaction was responsible for further downregulation of MAPKs (p38, ERK and JNK) and PI3K/Akt pathways followed by the reduced translocation of p65 subunit of NF-κβ to the nucleus from cytosol in the downstream signaling pathways. This sequence of events was reversed in AG83-Sias and UR6-infected macrophages. Besides, siglec-knockdown macrophages also showed the reversal of AG83+Sias infection-induced effector functions and downstream signaling events.

Conclusions/Significances

Taken together, this study demonstrated that virulent parasite (AG83+Sias) establish a unique sialic acids-mediated binding and subsequent phagocytosis in the host cell through the selective exploitation of siglec-1. Additionally, sialic acids-siglec-5 interaction altered the downstream signaling pathways which contributed impairment of immune effector functions of macrophages. To the best of our knowledge, this is a comprehensive report describing sialic acids-siglec interactions and their role in facilitating uptake of the virulent parasite within the host.

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<![CDATA[Transcriptional Analysis of PRRSV-Infected Porcine Dendritic Cell Response to Streptococcus suis Infection Reveals Up-Regulation of Inflammatory-Related Genes Expression]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db4aab0ee8fa60bd9f7a

The porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is one of the most important swine pathogens and often serves as an entry door for other viral or bacterial pathogens, of which Streptococcus suis is one of the most common. Pre-infection with PRRSV leads to exacerbated disease caused by S. suis infection. Very few studies have assessed the immunological mechanisms underlying this higher susceptibility. Since antigen presenting cells play a major role in the initiation of the immune response, the in vitro transcriptional response of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) and monocytes in the context of PRRSV and S. suis co-infection was investigated. BMDCs were found to be more permissive than monocytes to PRRSV infection; S. suis phagocytosis by PRRSV-infected BMDCs was found to be impaired, whereas no effect was found on bacterial intracellular survival. Transcription profile analysis, with a major focus on inflammatory genes, following S. suis infection, with and without pre-infection with PRRSV, was then performed. While PRRSV pre-infection had little effect on monocytes response to S. suis infection, a significant expression of several pro-inflammatory molecules was observed in BMDCs pre-infected with PRRSV after a subsequent infection with S. suis. While an additive effect could be observed for CCL4, CCL14, CCL20, and IL-15, a distinct synergistic up-regulatory effect was observed for IL-6, CCL5 and TNF-α after co-infection. This increased pro-inflammatory response by DCs could participate in the exacerbation of the disease observed during PRRSV and S. suis co-infection.

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<![CDATA[A Comparison of Human Neutrophils Acquired from Four Experimental Models of Inflammation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db3bab0ee8fa60bd4bce

Defects in neutrophil function have been implicated in a wide spectrum of clinical conditions. Several models are employed to study activated human neutrophils akin to those found at a site of inflammation. These include whole blood (WB) ex vivo stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and in vivo techniques: cantharidin blister, skin windows and intra-dermal injection of UV-killed E.coli (UVKEc). Neutrophils obtained from these have never been compared. We compared the activation status of neutrophils from each technique in order to inform the optimal model for use in human studies. Healthy male volunteers were randomised to undergo one of the four techniques (n = 5/group). LPS: WB stimulated with 1ng/ml of LPS for 4 hours. Cantharidin: 12.5μl of 0.1% cantharidin elicited a single blister, aspirated at 24 hours. Skin windows: four 6mm mechanical-suction blisters created, de-roofed and an exudate-collection chamber placed over the windows for 4 hours before aspiration. UVKEc: 1.5 x 107 UVKEc injected intra-dermally. A single 10mm mechanical-suction blister formed and aspirated at 4 hours. Unstimulated WB used as the control. Flow cytometry was used to determine activation status using CD16, CD11b, CD54, CD62L and CD88. Functional status was assessed with a phagocytosis assay. The pattern of neutrophil activation was similar in all models. Neutrophil CD11b was elevated in all models, most markedly in UVKEc (p<0.0001), and CD54 was also elevated but only significant in the LPS model (p = 0.001). CD62L was significantly reduced in all 4 models (p<0.0001) and CD88 was also suppressed in all. There were no changes in CD16 in any model, neither was there any significant difference in the phagocytic capacity of the neutrophils. In summary, there are no significant differences in activation marker expression or phagocytic capacity in the neutrophils obtained from each technique. Therefore we believe whole blood stimulation is the best model in experimentally challenging inpatient populations.

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<![CDATA[Phosphatidylserine externalization, “necroptotic bodies” release, and phagocytosis during necroptosis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db5fab0ee8fa60be13d8

Necroptosis is a regulated, nonapoptotic form of cell death initiated by receptor-interacting protein kinase-3 (RIPK3) and mixed lineage kinase domain-like (MLKL) proteins. It is considered to be a form of regulated necrosis, and, by lacking the “find me” and “eat me” signals that are a feature of apoptosis, necroptosis is considered to be inflammatory. One such “eat me” signal observed during apoptosis is the exposure of phosphatidylserine (PS) on the outer plasma membrane. Here, we demonstrate that necroptotic cells also expose PS after phosphorylated mixed lineage kinase-like (pMLKL) translocation to the membrane. Necroptotic cells that expose PS release extracellular vesicles containing proteins and pMLKL to their surroundings. Furthermore, inhibition of pMLKL after PS exposure can reverse the process of necroptosis and restore cell viability. Finally, externalization of PS by necroptotic cells drives recognition and phagocytosis, and this may limit the inflammatory response to this nonapoptotic form of cell death. The exposure of PS to the outer membrane and to extracellular vesicles is therefore a feature of necroptotic cell death and may serve to provide an immunologically-silent window by generating specific “find me” and “eat me” signals.

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<![CDATA[The lack of BTK does not impair monocytes and polymorphonuclear cells functions in X-linked agammaglobulinemia under treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin replacement]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db52ab0ee8fa60bdc96a

The lack of BTK in X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) patients does not affect monocytes and polymorphonuclear cells (PMN) phenotype and functions. In this study, we show that XLA patients had an increased frequency of the intermediate monocytes subset and that BTK-deficient monocytes and PMN had a normal expression of receptors involved in the activation and cellular responses. We demonstrate that BTK is not required for migration, phagocytosis and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) following engagement of FC gamma receptors (FcγR). XLA monocytes and PMN showed an efficient calcium (Ca2+)-independent activation of oxidative burst, suggesting that oxidative burst is less dependent by Ca2+ mobilization. The phagocytosis was functional and it remained unaltered also after Ca2+ chelation, confirming the independence of phagocytosis on Ca2+ mobilization. Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) infusion exerted an anti-inflammatory effect by reducing the frequency of pro-inflammatory monocytes. In monocytes, the IVIg reduce the oxidative burst and phagocytosis even if these functions remained efficient.

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