ResearchPad - pharmacology-and-physiology https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Stem-leaf saponins from <i>Panax notoginseng</i> counteract aberrant autophagy and apoptosis in hippocampal neurons of mice with cognitive impairment induced by sleep deprivation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nad2f1794-8045-4b03-b383-eba6851637c6 Sleep deprivation (SD) impairs learning and memory by inhibiting hippocampal functioning at molecular and cellular levels. Abnormal autophagy and apoptosis are closely associated with neurodegeneration in the central nervous system. This study is aimed to explore the alleviative effect and the underlying molecular mechanism of stem–leaf saponins of Panax notoginseng (SLSP) on the abnormal neuronal autophagy and apoptosis in hippocampus of mice with impaired learning and memory induced by SD.MethodsMouse spatial learning and memory were assessed by Morris water maze test. Neuronal morphological changes were observed by Nissl staining. Autophagosome formation was examined by transmission electron microscopy, immunofluorescent staining, acridine orange staining, and transient transfection of the tf-LC3 plasmid. Apoptotic event was analyzed by flow cytometry after PI/annexin V staining. The expression or activation of autophagy and apoptosis-related proteins were detected by Western blotting assay.ResultsSLSP was shown to improve the spatial learning and memory of mice after SD for 48 h, accomanied with restrained excessive autophage and apoptosis, whereas enhanced activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B/mammalian target of rapamycin signaling pathway in hippocampal neurons. Meanwhile, it improved the aberrant autophagy and apoptosis induced by rapamycin and re-activated phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin signaling transduction in HT-22 cells, a hippocampal neuronal cell line.ConclusionSLSP could alleviate cognitive impairment induced by SD, which was achieved probably through suppressing the abnormal autophagy and apoptosis of hippocampal neurons. The findings may contribute to the clinical application of SLSP in the prevention or therapy of neurological disorders associated with SD. ]]> <![CDATA[Comparative transcriptome analysis of the protective effects of Korean Red Ginseng against the influence of bisphenol A in the liver and uterus of ovariectomized mice]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N5ca14d0d-7c8f-4e10-b341-e4fc1e38a2a0 Bisphenol A (BPA), known as an endocrine disruptor, is widely used in the world. BPA is reported to cause inflammation-related diseases. Korean Red Ginseng (KRG) has been used safely in human for a long time for the treatment of diverse diseases. KRG has been reported of its mitigating effect on menopausal symptoms and suppress adipose inflammation. Here, we investigate the protective effect of orally administered KRG on the impacts of BPA in the liver and uterus of menopausal mice model.MethodsThe transcriptome analysis for the effects of BPA on mice liver was evaluated by Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database–based data (GSE26728). In vivo assay to evaluate the protective effect of KRG on BPA impact in ovariectomized (OVX) mice were designed and analyzed by RNA sequencing.ResultsWe first demonstrated that BPA induced 12 kinds of gene set in the liver of normal mice. The administration of BPA and KRG did not change body, liver, and uterine weight in OVX mice. KRG downregulated BPA-induced inflammatory response and chemotaxis-related gene expression. Several gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA)–derived inflammatory response genes increased by BPA were inhibited by KRG in OVX mice.ConclusionOur data suggest that BPA has commonly influenced inflammatory response effects on both normal and OVX mice. KRG protects against BPA impact of inflammatory response and chemotaxis in OVX mouse models. Our comparative analysis will provide new insight into the efficacy of KRG on endocrine disrupting chemicals and OVX mouse. ]]> <![CDATA[Korean Red Ginseng enhances cardiac hemodynamics on doxorubicin-induced toxicity in rats]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N471eb517-2c0d-40ec-860b-113670066e81 Korean Red Ginseng (KRG) has been known to possess many ginsenosides. These ginsenosides are used for curing cardiovascular problems. The present study show the protective potential of KRG against doxorubicin (DOX)–induced myocardial dysfunction, by assessing electrocardiographic, hemodynamic, and biochemical parameters and histopathological findings.MethodsAnimals were fed a standard chow and adjusted to their environment for 3 days before the experiments. Next, the rats were equally divided into five groups (n = 9, each group). The animals were administered with KRG (250 and 500 mg/kg) for 10 days and injected with DOX (20 mg/kg, subcutaneously, twice at a 24-h interval) on the 8th and 9th day. Electrocardiography and echocardiography were performed to study hemodynamics. Plasma levels of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and malondialdehyde were measured. In addition, the dose of troponin I and activity of myeloperoxidase in serum and cardiac tissue were analyzed, and the histopathological findings were evaluated using light microscopy.ResultsAdministration of KRG at a dose of 250 and 500 mg/kg recovered electrocardiographic changes, ejection fraction, fractional shortening, left ventricular systolic pressure, the maximal rate of change in left ventricle contraction (+dP/dtmax), and left ventricle relaxation (-dP/dtmax). In addition, KRG treatment significantly normalized the oxidative stress markers in plasma, dose dependently. In addition, the values of troponin I and myeloperoxidase were ameliorated by KRG treatment, dose dependently. And, KRG treatment showed better histopathological findings when compared with the DOX control group.ConclusionThese mean that KRG mitigates myocardial damage by modulating the hemodynamics, histopathological abnormality, and oxidative stress related to DOX-induced cardiomyopathy in rats. The results of the present study show protective effects of KRG on cardiac toxicity. ]]> <![CDATA[Ginsenoside Rk1 is a novel inhibitor of NMDA receptors in cultured rat hippocampal neurons]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N3665ee69-5e72-484e-a183-9b4960312fc8

Background

Ginsenoside Rk1, a saponin component isolated from heat-processed Panax ginseng Meyer, has been implicated in the regulation of antitumor and anti-inflammatory activities. Although our previous studies have demonstrated that ginsenoside Rg3 significantly attenuated the activation of NMDA receptors (NMDARs) in hippocampal neurons, the effects of ginsenosides Rg5 and Rk1, which are derived from heat-mediated dehydration of ginsenoside Rg3, on neuronal NMDARs have not yet been elucidated.

Methods

We examined the regulation of NMDARs by ginsenosides Rg5 and Rk1 in cultured rat hippocampal neurons using fura-2–based calcium imaging and whole-cell patch-clamp recordings.

Results

The results from our investigation showed that ginsenosides Rg3 and Rg5 inhibited NMDARs with similar potencies. However, ginsenoside Rk1 inhibited NMDARs most effectively among the five compounds (Rg3, Rg5, Rk1, Rg5/Rk1 mixture, and protopanaxadiol) tested in cultured hippocampal neurons. Its inhibition is independent of the NMDA- and glycine-binding sites, and its action seems to involve in an interaction with the polyamine-binding site of the NMDAR channel complex.

Conclusion

Taken together, our results suggest that ginsenoside Rk1 might be a novel component contributable to the development of ginseng-based therapeutic treatments for neurodegenerative diseases.

]]>
<![CDATA[Korean Red Ginseng extract ameliorates melanogenesis in humans and induces antiphotoaging effects in ultraviolet B–irradiated hairless mice]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N27cb4b33-7659-4db1-9c2b-8ac0bd58ef77

Background

Panax ginseng is a marvelous herbal remedy for all ailments of body. That may be why it is called Panax, which means “cure for all”. Melanin is a pigment that gives color to our skin; however, increased melanin production can lead to tumor formation. Human exposure to ultraviolet B radiation has increased extensively owing to the increased sunlight due to global warming. Consequently, a phenomenon called photoaging has been observed for all skin colors and types. As a result of this phenomenon, a set of enzymes called matrix metalloproteinases, which serve as degradation enzymes for extracellular matrix proteins, mainly collagen, is increased, causing depletion of collagen and resulting in early wrinkle formation.

Methods

Therefore, in our study, we used the murine melanoma cell line B16/F10 to study the inhibition of melanogenesis by Korean Red Ginseng (KRG) extract in vitro and HRM-2 hairless mice exposed to artificial ultraviolet B to examine the efficacy of KRG in vivo. We prepared a 3% red ginseng extract cream and evaluated its effects on human skin.

Results

Our results demonstrated that KRG induced potent suppression of tyrosinase activity and melanin production in B16/F10 cells; moreover, it reduced the transcription and translation of components involved in the melanin production pathway. In the in vivo experiments, KRG potently suppressed the expression of matrix metalloproteinases, reduced wrinkle formation, and inhibited collagen degradation. On human skin, ginseng cream increased skin resilience and skin moisture and enhanced skin tone.

Conclusion

Therefore, we conclude that KRG is an excellent skin whitening and antiaging product.

]]>
<![CDATA[Ginsenoside Rb1 and Rb2 upregulate Akt/mTOR signaling–mediated muscular hypertrophy and myoblast differentiation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nb99c104f-b92d-4621-bb63-c6854aff567d

Background

As a process of aging, skeletal muscle mass and function gradually decrease. It is reported that ginsenoside Rb1 and Rb2 play a role as AMP-activated protein kinase activator, resulting in regulating glucose homeostasis, and Rb1 reduces oxidative stress in aged skeletal muscles through activating the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt/Nrf2 pathway. We examined the effects of Rb1 and Rb2 on differentiation of the muscle stem cells and myotube formation.

Methods

C2C12 myoblasts treated with Rb1 and/or Rb2 were differentiated and induced to myotube formation, followed by immunoblotting for myogenic marker proteins, such as myosin heavy chain, MyoD, and myogenin, or immunostaining for myosin heavy chain or immunoprecipitation analysis for heterodimerization of MyoD/E-proteins.

Results

Rb1 and Rb2 enhanced myoblast differentiation through accelerating MyoD/E-protein heterodimerization and increased myotube hypertrophy, accompanied by activation of Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin signaling. In addition, Rb1 and Rb2 induced the MyoD-mediated transdifferentiation of the rhabdomyosarcoma cells into myoblasts. Furthermore, co-treatment with Rb1 and Rb2 had synergistically enhanced myoblast differentiation through Akt activation.

Conclusion

Rb1 and Rb2 upregulate myotube growth and myogenic differentiation through activating Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin signaling and inducing myogenic conversion of fibroblasts. Thus, our first finding indicates that Rb1 and Rb2 have strong potential as a helpful remedy to prevent and treat muscle atrophy, such as age-related muscular dystrophy.

]]>
<![CDATA[Protein target identification of ginsenosides in skeletal muscle tissues: discovery of natural small-molecule activators of muscle-type creatine kinase]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N9ec7b143-4a3e-47ea-8d3d-08cc81ec7f19

Background

Ginseng effectively reduces fatigue in both animal models and clinical trials. However, the mechanism of action is not completely understood, and its molecular targets remain largely unknown.

Methods

By screening for proteins that interact with the primary components of ginseng (ginsenosides) in an affinity chromatography assay, we have identified muscle-type creatine kinase (CK-MM) as a potential target in skeletal muscle tissues.

Results

Biolayer interferometry analysis showed that ginsenoside metabolites, instead of parent ginsenosides, had direct interaction with recombinant human CK-MM. Subsequently, 20(S)-protopanaxadiol (PPD), which is a ginsenoside metabolite and displayed the strongest interaction with CK-MM in the study, was selected as a representative to confirm direct binding and its biological importance. Biolayer interferometry kinetics analysis and isothermal titration calorimetry assay demonstrated that PPD specifically bound to human CK-MM. Moreover, the mutation of key amino acids predicted by molecular docking decreased the affinity between PPD and CK-MM. The direct binding activated CK-MM activity in vitro and in vivo, which increased the levels of tissue phosphocreatine and strengthened the function of the creatine kinase/phosphocreatine system in skeletal muscle, thus buffering cellular ATP, delaying exercise-induced lactate accumulation, and improving exercise performance in mice.

Conclusion

Our results suggest a cellular target and an initiating molecular event by which ginseng reduces fatigue. All these findings indicate PPD as a small molecular activator of CK-MM, which can help in further developing better CK-MM activators based on the dammarane-type triterpenoid structure.

]]>
<![CDATA[20(S)-protopanaxadiol promotes the migration, proliferation, and differentiation of neural stem cells by targeting GSK-3β in the Wnt/GSK-3β/β-catenin pathway]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nf7712e17-0e4b-4610-b110-1a6c411d1819

Background

Active natural ingredients, especially small molecules, have recently received wide attention as modifiers used to treat neurodegenerative disease by promoting neurogenic regeneration of neural stem cell (NSC) in situ. 20(S)-protopanaxadiol (PPD), one of the bioactive ingredients in ginseng, possesses neuroprotective properties. However, the effect of PPD on NSC proliferation and differentiation and its mechanism of action are incompletely understood.

Methods

In this study, we investigated the impact of PPD on NSC proliferation and neuronal lineage differentiation through activation of the Wnt/glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3β/β-catenin pathway. NSC migration and proliferation were investigated by neurosphere assay, Cell Counting Kit-8 assay, and EdU assay. NSC differentiation was analyzed by Western blot and immunofluorescence staining. Involvement of the Wnt/GSK3β/β-catenin pathway was examined by molecular simulation and Western blot and verified using gene transfection.

Results

PPD significantly promoted neural migration and induced a significant increase in NSC proliferation in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, a remarkable increase in antimicrotubule-associated protein 2 expression and decrease in nestin protein expression were induced by PPD. During the differentiation process, PPD targeted and stimulated the phosphorylation of GSK-3β at Ser9 and the active forms of β-catenin, resulting in activation of the Wnt/GSK-3β/β-catenin pathway. Transfection of NSCs with a constitutively active GSK-3β mutant at S9A significantly hampered the proliferation and neural differentiation mediated by PPD.

Conclusion

PPD promotes NSC proliferation and neural differentiation in vitro via activation of the Wnt/GSK-3β/β-catenin pathway by targeting GSK-3β, potentially having great significance for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.

]]>
<![CDATA[Panax ginseng–derived fraction BIOGF1K reduces atopic dermatitis responses via suppression of mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N12fe31c8-1bea-407e-bc93-837206328b13

Background

BIOGF1K, a fraction of Panax ginseng, has desirable antimelanogenic, anti-inflammatory, and antiphotoaging properties that could be useful for treating skin conditions. Because its potential positive effects on allergic reactions in skin have not yet been described in detail, this study's main objective was to determine its efficacy in the treatment of atopic dermatitis (AD).

Methods

High-performance liquid chromatography was used to verify the compounds in BIOGF1K, and we used the (3-4-5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2-5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide method to determine its cytotoxicity in RBL-2H3 and HMC-1 cell lines. RBL-2H3 cells were induced using both anti–DNP-IgE/DNP-BSA and calcium ionophore (A2187) treatments, whereas HMC-1 cells were induced using A2187 alone. To measure mast cell degranulation, we performed histamine (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) and β-hexosaminidase assays. To quantify interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, and IL-13 levels in RBL-2H3 cells, we performed quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR); to quantify expression levels of IL-4 and IL-13 in HMC-1 cells, we used semiquantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Finally, we detected the total and phosphorylated forms of extracellular signal-regulated kinase, p-38, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase proteins by immunoblotting.

Results

BIOGF1K decreased the AD response by reducing both histamine and β-hexosaminidase release as well as reducing the secretion levels of IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 in RBL-2H3 cells and IL-4 and IL-13 in HMC-1 cells. In addition, BIOGF1K decreased MAPK pathway activation in RBL-2H3 and HMC-1 cells.

Conclusions

BIOGF1K attenuated the AD response, hence supporting its use as a promising and natural approach for treating AD.

]]>
<![CDATA[The role of ginsenoside Rb1, a potential natural glutathione reductase agonist, in preventing oxidative stress-induced apoptosis of H9C2 cells]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N376017ec-e5ae-421f-96b3-449a59c5cf1b

Background

Oxidative stress-induced cardiomyocytes apoptosis is a key pathological process in ischemic heart disease. Glutathione reductase (GR) reduces glutathione disulfide to glutathione (GSH) to alleviate oxidative stress. Ginsenoside Rb1 (GRb1) prevents the apoptosis of cardiomyocytes; however, the role of GR in this process is unclear. Therefore, the effects of GRb1 on GR were investigated in this study.

Methods

The antiapoptotic effects of GRb1 were evaluated in H9C2 cells by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, annexin V/propidium iodide staining, and Western blotting. The antioxidative effects were measured by a reactive oxygen species assay, and GSH levels and GR activity were examined in the presence and absence of the GR inhibitor 1,3-bis-(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea. Molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulations were used to investigate the binding of GRb1 to GR. The direct influence of GRb1 on GR was confirmed by recombinant human GR protein.

Results

GRb1 pretreatment caused dose-dependent inhibition of tert-butyl hydroperoxide-induced cell apoptosis, at a level comparable to that of the positive control N-acetyl-L-cysteine. The binding energy between GRb1 and GR was positive (−6.426 kcal/mol), and the binding was stable. GRb1 significantly reduced reactive oxygen species production and increased GSH level and GR activity without altering GR protein expression in H9C2 cells. Moreover, GRb1 enhanced the recombinant human GR protein activity in vitro, with a half-maximal effective concentration of ≈2.317 μM. Conversely, 1,3-bis-(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea co-treatment significantly abolished the GRb1's apoptotic and antioxidative effects of GRb1 in H9C2 cells.

Conclusion

GRb1 is a potential natural GR agonist that protects against oxidative stress–induced apoptosis of H9C2 cells.

]]>
<![CDATA[Ginsenoside Rg5 overcomes chemotherapeutic multidrug resistance mediated by ABCB1 transporter: in vitro and in vivo study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N0661a3bb-6452-4260-9f12-6e8a9e9b2236

Background

Multidrug resistance (MDR) to chemotherapy drugs remains a major challenge in clinical cancer treatment. Here we investigated whether and how ginsenoside Rg5 overcomes the MDR mediated by ABCB1 transporter in vitro and in vivo.

Methods

Cytotoxicity and colon formation as well as the intracellular accumulation of ABCB1 substrates were carried out in MDR cancer cells A2780/T and A549/T for evaluating the reversal effects of Rg5. The expressions of ABCB1 and Nrf2/AKT pathway were determined by Western blotting. An A549/T cell xenograft model was established to investigate the MDR reversal activity of Rg5 in vivo.

Results

Rg5 significantly reversed ABCB1-mediated MDR by increasing the intracellular accumulation of ABCB1 substrates without altering protein expression of ABCB1. Moreover, Rg5 activated ABCB1 ATPase and reduced verapamil-stimulated ATPase activity, suggesting a high affinity of Rg5 to ABCB1 binding site which was further demonstrated by molecular docking analysis. In addition, co-treatment of Rg5 and docetaxel (TXT) suppressed the expression of Nrf2 and phosphorylation of AKT, indicating that sensitizing effect of Rg5 associated with AKT/Nrf2 pathway. In nude mice bearing A549/T tumor, Rg5 and TXT treatment significantly suppressed the growth of drug-resistant tumors without increase in toxicity when compared to TXT given alone at same dose.

Conclusion

Therefore, combination therapy of Rg5 and chemotherapy drugs is a strategy for the adjuvant chemotherapy, which encourages further pharmacokinetic and clinical studies.

]]>
<![CDATA[Compatibility effects of ginseng and Ligustrum lucidum Ait herb pair on hematopoietic recovery in mice with cyclophosphamide-induced myelosuppression and its material basis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N95d5eac3-275c-4aff-ac15-455910818ac8

Background

Ginseng (G) and Ligustrum lucidum Ait (LLA) are core traditional Chinese medicines in treating myelosuppression formula. The present study was designed to profile effect of G and LLA herb pair (G-LLA) on myelosuppressed mice.

Methods

The mice myelosuppression model was established by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of cyclophosphamide (Cy). Hematopoietic function of bone marrow was measured by hemopoietic progenitor cell culture and peripheral blood count, and serum hemopoietic factors were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Bone marrow cell cycle was performed by flow cytometry. HPLC was used to measure 20 potential chemical components related to myelosuppression, including ginsenoside Rg1, Re, Rb1, Rc, Rb2, Rb3, Rd, Rk3, Rh4, 20 (S)-Rg3, 20 (R)-Rg3, Rk1, Rg5, salidroside, and so on.

Results

G, LLA, and G-LLA improved the amount of peripheral blood cells and bone marrow cells of myelosuppressed mice (P < 0.01). They significantly increased the colony quantity of colony-forming unit–granulocyte macrophage, burst-forming unit−erythroid, colony-forming unit−erythroid, and colony-forming unit−megakaryocyte and amount of G2/M and S phase cells (P < 0.01). They also significantly decreased the amount of hematopoiesis-related cytokines (P < 0.01). The content of chemical components in G-LLA changed, and the change of rare saponin was the most obvious.

Conclusion

These results show that G-LLA herb pair might produce synergistic or complementary compatibility effects on bone marrow suppression after chemotherapy. It suggests that the substance basis of G-LLA for treating bone marrow suppression may be effective chemical components.

]]>
<![CDATA[Ginseng berry polysaccharides on inflammation-associated colon cancer: inhibiting T-cell differentiation, promoting apoptosis, and enhancing the effects of 5-fluorouracil]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N563769e4-9186-4263-85dc-44af5ce51077

Background

Ginseng is a commonly used herbal medicine in treating various medical conditions. Chronic gut inflammation is a recognized factor for the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). In this project, Asian ginseng berry polysaccharide preparations were used to assess their effects on CRC and related immune regulation mechanisms.

Methods

Ginseng berry polysaccharide extract (GBPE) and purified ginseng berry polysaccharide portion (GBPP) were used to evaluate their activities on human HCT-116 and HT-29 CRC cell proliferation. Interleukin-8 secretion analysis was performed on HT-29 cells. Naive CD4 cell isolation and T-helper cell differentiation were performed and determined using flow cytometry for Th1 and Treg in addition to cell cycle and apoptotic investigation.

Results

GBPE and GBPP significantly inhibited interleukin-8 secretion and cancer cell proliferation, inhibited CD4+IFN-γ+ cell (Th1) differentiation, and decreased CD4+FoxP3+ cell (Treg) differentiation. Compared to the GBPE, GBPP showed more potent antiinflammatory activities on the malignant cells. This is consistent with the observation that GBPP can also inhibit Th1-cell differentiation better, suggesting that it has an important role in antiinflammation, whereas Treg cells hinder the body's immune response against malignancies. Supported by cell cycle and apoptosis data, GBPE and GBPP, at various degrees, remarkably enhanced the anticancer activities of 5-fluorouracil.

Conclusion

Data from this project suggested that Asian ginseng berry potentially has clinical utility in managing enteric inflammation and suppressing CRC through immunomodulation mechanisms.

]]>
<![CDATA[Ameliorative effects of black ginseng on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in free fatty acid–induced HepG2 cells and high-fat/high-fructose diet-fed mice]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N41ba4ca9-3df5-4003-9f64-f77cc30a10c6

Background

Black ginseng (BG) is a type of Korean ginseng prepared by steaming and drying raw ginseng to improve the saponin content. This study examined the effects of BG on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in HepG2 cells and diet-induced obese mice.

Methods

HepG2 cells were treated with free fatty acids to induce lipid accumulation before supplementation with BG. NAFLD-induced mice were fed different doses (0.5%, 1%, and 2%) of BG for 8 weeks.

Results

BG significantly reduced lipid accumulation and expression of lipogenic genes, peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor gamma, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha, sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c, and fatty acid synthase in HepG2 cells, and the livers of mice fed a 45% high-fat diet with 10% fructose in the drinking water (HFHF diet). BG supplementation caused a significant reduction in levels of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase, while antioxidant enzymes activities were significantly increased in 45% high-fat diet with 10% fructose in the drinking water diet-fed mice. Expression of proliferator-activated receptor alpha and carnitine palmitoyltransferase I were upregulated at the transcription and translation levels in both HepG2 cells and diet-induced obese mice. Furthermore, BG-induced phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase and acetyl CoA carboxylase in both models, suggesting its role in AMP-activated protein kinase activation and the acetyl CoA carboxylase signaling pathway.

Conclusion

Our results indicate that BG may be a potential therapeutic agent for the prevention of NAFLD.

]]>
<![CDATA[Ginseng-plus-Bai-Hu-Tang ameliorates diet-induced obesity, hepatic steatosis, and insulin resistance in mice]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nffc235ff-d5dc-423a-91fe-20c9e398c756

Background

Dietary fat has been suggested to be the cause of various health issues. Obesity, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and kidney disease are known to be associated with a high-fat diet (HFD). Obesity and associated conditions, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), are currently a worldwide health problem. Few prospective pharmaceutical therapies that directly target NAFLD are available at present. A Traditional Chinese Medicine, ginseng-plus-Bai-Hu-Tang (GBHT), is widely used by diabetic patients to control glucose level or thirst. However, whether it has therapeutic effects on fat-induced hepatic steatosis and metabolic syndrome remains unclear.

Methods

This study was conducted to examine the therapeutic effect of GBHT on fat-induced obesity, hepatic steatosis, and insulin resistance in mice.

Results

GBHT protected mice against HFD-induced body weight gain, hyperlipidemia, and hyperglycemia compared with mice that were not treated. GBHT inhibited the expansion of adipose tissue and adipocyte hypertrophy. No ectopic fat deposition was found in the livers of HFD mice treated with GBHT. In addition, glucose intolerance and insulin sensitivity in HFD mice was also improved by GBHT.

Conclusion

GBHT prevents changes in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism in a HFD mouse model. Our findings provide evidence for the traditional use of GBHT as therapy for the management of metabolic syndrome.

]]>
<![CDATA[Tolerability and pharmacokinetics of ginsenosides Rb1, Rb2, Rc, Rd, and compound K after single or multiple administration of red ginseng extract in human beings]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nbc573f8f-a75b-4251-b0d5-c132d9f7a61e

Background

We investigated the tolerability and pharmacokinetic properties of various ginsenosides, including Rb1, Rb2, Rc, Rd, and compound K, after single or multiple administrations of red ginseng extract in human beings.

Methods

Red ginseng extract (dried ginseng > 60%) was administered once and repeatedly for 15 days to 15 healthy Korean people. After single and repeated administration of red ginsengextract, blood sample collection, measurement of blood pressure and body temperature, and routine laboratory test were conducted over 48-h test periods.

Results

Repeated administration of high-dose red ginseng for 15 days was well tolerated and did not produce significant changes in body temperature or blood pressure. The plasma concentrations of Rb1, Rb2, and Rc were stable and showed similar area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) values after 15 days of repeated administration. Their AUC values after repeated administration of red ginseng extract for 15 days accumulated 4.5- to 6.7-fold compared with single-dose AUC. However, the plasma concentrations of Rd and compound K showed large interindividual variations but correlated well between AUC of Rd and compound K. Compound K did not accumulate after 15 days of repeated administration of red ginseng extract.

Conclusion

A good correlation between the AUC values of Rd and compound K might be the result of intestinal biotransformation of Rb1, Rb2, and Rc to Rd and subsequently to compound K, rather than the intestinal permeability of these ginsenosides. A strategy to increase biotransformation or reduce metabolic intersubject variability may increase the plasma concentrations of Rd and compound K.

]]>
<![CDATA[Gintonin stimulates autophagic flux in primary cortical astrocytes]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N5c97678b-6022-41dd-bb3c-899e40adbfbe

Background

Gintonin (GT), a novel ginseng-derived exogenous ligand of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) receptors, has been shown to induce cell proliferation and migration in the hippocampus, regulate calcium-dependent ion channels in the astrocytes, and reduce β-amyloid plaque in the brain. However, whether GT influences autophagy in cortical astrocytes is not yet investigated.

Methods

We examined the effect of GT on autophagy in primary cortical astrocytes using immunoblot and immunocytochemistry assays. Suppression of specific proteins was performed via siRNA. LC3 puncta was determined using confocal microscopy.

Results

GT strongly upregulated autophagy marker LC3 by a concentration- as well as time-dependent manner via G protein–coupled LPA receptors. GT-induced autophagy was further confirmed by the formation of LC3 puncta. Interestingly, on pretreatment with an mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor, rapamycin, GT further enhanced LC3-II and LC3 puncta expression. However, GT-induced autophagy was significantly attenuated by inhibition of autophagy by 3-methyladenine and knockdown Beclin-1, Atg5, and Atg7 gene expression. Importantly, when pretreated with a lysosomotropic agent, E-64d/peps A or bafilomycin A1, GT significantly increased the levels of LC3-II along with the formation of LC3 puncta. In addition, GT treatment enhanced autophagic flux, which led to an increase in lysosome-associated membrane protein 1 and degradation of ubiquitinated p62/SQSTM1.

Conclusion

GT induces autophagy via mTOR-mediated pathway and elevates autophagic flux. This study demonstrates that GT can be used as an autophagy-inducing agent in cortical astrocytes.

]]>