ResearchPad - pharmacology-and-therapeutics https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Cannabidiol (CBD) and Δ<sup>9</sup>-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) for chronic insomnia disorder (‘CANSLEEP’ trial): protocol for a randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blinded, proof-of-concept trial]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_12560 Insomnia is a highly prevalent and costly condition that is associated with increased health risks and healthcare utilisation. Anecdotally, cannabis use is frequently reported by consumers to promote sleep. However, there is limited research on the effects of cannabis on sleep and daytime function in people with insomnia disorder using objective measures. This proof-of-concept study will evaluate the effects of a single dose of an oral cannabis-based medicine on sleep and daytime function in participants with chronic insomnia disorder.Methods and analysisA randomised, crossover, placebo-controlled, single-dose study design will be used to test the safety and efficacy of an oral oil solution (‘ETC120’) containing 10 mg Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and 200 mg cannabidiol (CBD) in 20 participants diagnosed with chronic insomnia disorder. Participants aged 35–60 years will be recruited over an 18-month period commencing August 2019. Each participant will receive both the active drug and matched placebo, in a counterbalanced order, during two overnight study assessment visits, with at least a 1-week washout period between each visit. The primary outcomes are total sleep time and wake after sleep onset assessed via polysomnography. In addition, 256-channel high-density electroencephalography and source modelling using structural brain MRI will be used to comprehensively examine brain activation during sleep and wake periods on ETC120 versus placebo. Next-day cognitive function, alertness and simulated driving performance will also be investigated.Ethics and disseminationEthics approval was received from Bellberry Human Research Ethics Committee (2018-04-284). The findings will be disseminated in a peer-reviewed open-access journal and at academic conferences.Trial registration numberANZCTRN12619000714189. ]]> <![CDATA[Non-invasive monitoring of pharmacodynamics during the skin wound healing process using multimodal optical microscopy]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_9076 Impaired diabetic wound healing is one of the serious complications associated with diabetes. In patients with diabetes, this impairment is characterized by several physiological abnormalities such as metabolic changes, reduced collagen production, and diminished angiogenesis. We designed and developed a multimodal optical imaging system that can longitudinally monitor formation of new blood vessels, metabolic changes, and collagen deposition in a non-invasive, label-free manner.Research design and methodsThe closure of a skin wound in (db/db) mice, which presents delayed wound healing pathologically similar to conditions in human type 2 diabetes mellitus, was non-invasively followed using the custom-built multimodal microscope. In this microscope, optical coherence tomography angiography was used for studying neovascularization, fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy for nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (phosphate) (NAD(P)H) assessment, fluorescence intensity changes of NAD(P)H and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) cofactors for evaluating metabolic changes, and second harmonic generation microscopy for analyzing collagen deposition and organization. The animals were separated into four groups: control, placebo, low concentration (LC), and high concentration (HC) treatment. Images of the wound and surrounding areas were acquired at different time points during a 28-day period.ResultsVarious physiological changes measured using the optical imaging modalities at different phases of wound healing were compared. A statistically significant improvement in the functional relationship between angiogenesis, metabolism, and structural integrity was observed in the HC group.ConclusionsThis study demonstrated the capability of multimodal optical imaging to non-invasively monitor various physiological aspects of the wound healing process, and thus become a promising tool in the development of better diagnostic, treatment, and monitoring strategies for diabetic wound care. ]]> <![CDATA[Response evaluation of SGLT2 inhibitor therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus using <sup>18</sup>F-FDG PET/MRI]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nf44d434e-9bc4-4ab4-b2e6-d6b544cfaaac Inhibitors of sodium-glucose linked transporter-2 (SGLT2i) are enhancing glucose excretion in the proximal renal tubules, and thus are increasingly used to lower blood glucose levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The glucose analog 2-deoxy-2-(18F) fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) can be used to quantify renal function in vivo, and due to an affinity for SGLT2 could also provide information about SGLT2 transporter function. Our objectives in this study were, therefore, to assess the impact of SGLT2i on renal function parameters in patients with T2DM and identify predictive parameters of long-term response to SGLT2i using dynamic FDG positron emission tomography (PET)/MRI.MethodsPET FDG renal function measures such as mean transit time (MTT) and general renal performance (GRP) together with glomerular filtration rate (GFR) were determined in 20 patients with T2DM before (T2DMbaseline) and 2 weeks after initiation of therapy with SGLT2i (T2DMSGLT2i). Additionally, dynamic FDG PET data of 24 healthy subjects were used as controls.ResultsMTT in T2DMbaseline was significantly higher than in healthy controls (5.7 min vs 4.3 min, p=0.012) and significantly decreased to 4.4 min in T2DMSGLT2i (p=0.004). GRP of T2DMSGLT2i was higher than of T2DMbaseline (5.2 vs 4.7, p=0.02) and higher but not significantly than of healthy individuals (5.2 vs 5.1, p=0.34). Expectedly, GFR of healthy participants was significantly higher than of T2DMbaseline and T2DMSGLT2i (122 vs 92 and 86 mL/min/1.73 m², respectively; p<0.001). The higher the GRP value in kidneys of T2DMSGLT2i, the lower was the glycated hemoglobin level 3 months after therapy initiation.ConclusionMTT and GRP values of patients with T2DM shifted significantly toward values of healthy control 2 weeks after therapy with SGLT2i begins. GRP in T2DMSGLT2i was associated with better long-term glycemic response 3 months after initiation of therapy.Trial registration numberNCT03557138. ]]> <![CDATA[MG53 Does Not Manifest the Development of Diabetes in db/db Mice]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nc9bbda0c-e74e-41f7-91e0-cc15f7777c47

MG53 is a member of the TRIM protein family that is predominantly expressed in striated muscles and participates in cell membrane repair. Controversy exists regarding MG53’s role in insulin signaling and manifestation of diabetes. We generated db/db mice with either whole-body ablation or sustained elevation of MG53 in the bloodstream in order to evaluate the physiological function of MG53 in diabetes. To quantify the amount of MG53 protein in circulation, we developed a monoclonal antibody against MG53 with high specificity. Western blot using this antibody revealed lower or no change of serum MG53 levels in db/db mice or patients with diabetes compared with control subjects. Neither whole-body ablation of MG53 nor sustained elevation of MG53 in circulation altered insulin signaling and glucose handling in db/db mice. Instead, mice with ablation of MG53 were more susceptible to streptozotocin-induced dysfunctional handling of glucose compared with the wild-type littermates. Alkaline-induced corneal injury demonstrated delayed healing in db/db mice, which was restored by topical administration of recombinant human (rh)MG53. Daily intravenous administration of rhMG53 in rats at concentrations up to 10 mg/kg did not produce adverse effects on glucose handling. These findings challenge the hypothetical function of MG53 as a causative factor for the development of diabetes. Our data suggest that rhMG53 is a potentially safe and effective biologic to treat diabetic oculopathy in rodents.

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<![CDATA[Flash glucose monitoring reduces glycemic variability and hypoglycemia: real-world data from Spain]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N7997a7b4-f7b9-4cbb-b1c4-65a93ca1949f

Objective

Observations in real-world settings support and extend findings demonstrated in randomized controlled trials that show flash glucose monitoring improves glycemic control. In this study, Spain-specific relationships between testing frequency and glycemic parameters were investigated under real-world settings.

Research design and methods

Deidentified glucose and user scanning data were analyzed and readers were rank ordered into 20 equal sized groups by daily scan frequency. Glucose parameters were calculated for each group: estimated HbA1c, time below range (<70 and ≤54 mg/dL), within range (70–180 mg/dL), and above range (>180 mg/dL). Glycemic variability (GV) metrics were described and data obtained from sensors in Spain and worldwide were compared.

Results

Spanish users (n=22 949) collected 37.1 million glucose scans, 250 million automatically recorded glucose readings, and checked glucose values via a mean of 13 scans/day. Estimated HbA1c, time below 70 mg/dL, at or below 54 mg/dL, above 180 mg/dL, and GV metrics were significantly lower in the highest compared with lowest scan rate group (39.6 to 3.9 scans/day). Time-in-range was higher for the highest versus lowest scan rate group at 15.6 vs 11.5 hours/day, respectively. GV metrics correlated positively with time below 70 mg/dL, at or below 54 mg/dL, above 180 mg/dL, and negatively with time-in-range. The relationship between glucose metrics and scan rate was similar in Spain and worldwide. However, time in hypoglycemia in Spain was higher in the groups with lower scan rates.

Conclusions

As seen in clinical trials, flash glucose monitoring in real-world settings allows frequent glucose checks. High scan rates are associated with the favorable glycemic markers of increased time-in-range and reduced time in hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia, and GV. The same trends, with unique nuances, are observed in both Spanish and global data.

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<![CDATA[Development of a multivariable prediction model for plantar foot ulcer recurrence in high-risk people with diabetes]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N0a4817a6-d6fe-4a37-acec-575f1137c064

Introduction

Forty per cent of people with diabetes who heal from a foot ulcer recur within 1 year. The aim was to develop a prediction model for plantar foot ulcer recurrence and to validate its predictive performance.

Research design and methods

Data were retrieved from a prospective analysis of 171 high-risk patients with 18 months follow-up. Demographic, disease-related, biomechanical and behavioral factors were included as potential predictors. Two logistic regression models were created. Model 1 for all recurrent plantar foot ulcers (71 cases) and model 2 for those ulcers indicated to be the result of unrecognized repetitive stress (41 cases). Ten-fold cross-validation, each including five multiple imputation sets, was used to internally validate the prediction strategy; model performance was assessed in terms of discrimination and calibration.

Results

The presence of a minor lesion, living alone, increased barefoot peak plantar pressure, longer duration of having a previous foot ulcer and less variation in daily stride count were predictors of the first model. The area under the receiver operating curve was 0.68 (IQR 0.61–0.80) and the Brier score was 0.24 (IQR 0.20–0.28). The predictors of the second model were presence of a minor lesion, longer duration of having a previous foot ulcer and location of the previous foot ulcer. The area under the receiver operating curve was 0.76 (IQR 0.66–0.87) and the Brier score was 0.17 (IQR 0.15–0.18).

Conclusions

These validated prediction models help identify those patients that are at increased risk of plantar foot ulcer recurrence and for that reason should be monitored more carefully and treated more intensively.

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<![CDATA[Severity of coeliac disease and clinical management study when using a CYP3A4 metabolised medication: a phase I pharmacokinetic study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N53a134b3-a610-4ec5-a93c-ced56c7e3c4c

Objective

Severity of coeliac disease depends in part on the extent of small intestinal mucosa injury. Patients with the most abnormal pathology have loss of duodenal villi CYP3A4, a drug-metabolising enzyme that inactivates many drugs. These patients are hypothesised to have greater systemic concentrations of felodipine, a drug which normally has low oral bioavailability secondary to intestinal CYP3A4-mediated metabolism. It serves as a representative for a class containing many medications.

Design

A phase I, open-label, single-dose, pharmacokinetic study.

Setting

London, Ontario, Canada.

Participants

Patients with coeliac disease (n=47) with positive serology and healthy individuals (n=68).

Main outcome measures

Patients with coeliac disease—upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and oral felodipine pharmacokinetics study within a 3-week period. Healthy individuals—oral felodipine pharmacokinetics study with water and grapefruit juice.

Results

Coeliac stratification categories: Group A (n=15, normal), B+C (n=16, intraepithelial lymphocytosis with/without mild villous blunting) and D (n=16, moderate/severe villous blunting). Groups A, B+C and D had linear trends of increasing felodipine AUC0–8; mean±SEM, 14.4±2.1, 17.6±2.8, 25.7±5.0; p<0.05) and Cmax (3.5±0.5, 4.0±0.6, 6.4±1.1; p<0.02), respectively. Healthy subjects receiving water had lower felodipine AUC0–8 (11.9±0.9 vs 26.9±0.9, p=0.0001) and Cmax (2.9±0.2 vs 7.7±0.2, p=0.0001) relative to those receiving grapefruit juice.

Conclusions

Increased felodipine concentrations in patients with coeliac disease were most probably secondary to decreased small intestinal CYP3A4 expression. Patients with severe coeliac disease and healthy individuals with grapefruit juice had equivalently enhanced effect. Thus, patients with severe coeliac disease would probably experience similarly altered drug response, including overdose toxicity, from many important medications known to be metabolised by CYP3A4. Patients with coeliac disease with severe disease should be considered for other clinical drug management, particularly when there is the potential for serious drug toxicity.

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<![CDATA[Glucagon receptor antagonist upregulates circulating GLP-1 level by promoting intestinal L-cell proliferation and GLP-1 production in type 2 diabetes]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nac0e5097-1176-4e09-8191-51217ee72c4e

Objective

Glucagon receptor (GCGR) blockage improves glycemic control and increases circulating glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) level in diabetic animals and humans. The elevated GLP-1 has been reported to be involved in the hypoglycemic effect of GCGR blockage. However, the source of this elevation remains to be clarified.

Research design and methods

REMD 2.59, a human GCGR monoclonal antibody (mAb), was administrated for 12 weeks in db/db mice and high-fat diet+streptozotocin (HFD/STZ)-induced type 2 diabetic (T2D) mice. Blood glucose, glucose tolerance and plasma GLP-1 were evaluated during the treatment. The gut length, epithelial area, and L-cell number and proliferation were detected after the mice were sacrificed. Cell proliferation and GLP-1 production were measured in mouse L-cell line GLUTag cells, and primary mouse and human enterocytes. Moreover, GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) antagonist or protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor was used in GLUTag cells to determine the involved signaling pathways.

Results

Treatment with the GCGR mAb lowered blood glucose level, improved glucose tolerance and elevated plasma GLP-1 level in both db/db and HFD/STZ-induced T2D mice. Besides, the treatment promoted L-cell proliferation and LK-cell expansion, and increased the gut length, epithelial area and L-cell number in these two T2D mice. Similarly, our in vitro study showed that the GCGR mAb promoted L-cell proliferation and increased GLP-1 production in GLUTag cells, and primary mouse and human enterocytes. Furthermore, either GLP-1R antagonist or PKA inhibitor diminished the effects of GCGR mAb on L-cell proliferation and GLP-1 production.

Conclusions

The elevated circulating GLP-1 level by GCGR mAb is mainly due to intestinal L-cell proliferation and GLP-1 production, which may be mediated via GLP-1R/PKA signaling pathways. Therefore, GCGR mAb represents a promising strategy to improve glycemic control and restore the impaired GLP-1 production in T2D.

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<![CDATA[Lithium for Fracture Treatment (LiFT): a double-blind randomised control trial protocol]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N04fab5f5-d7b9-4dcd-8090-4564bcd35cec

Introduction

Fracture healing can fail in up to 10% of cases despite appropriate treatment. While lithium has been the standard treatment for bipolar disorder, it may also have a significant impact to increase bone healing in patients with long bone fractures. To translate this knowledge into clinical practice, a randomised clinical trial (RCT) is proposed.

Methods and analysis

A multicentre double blind, placebo-controlled RCT is proposed to evaluate the efficacy of lithium to increase the rate and predictability of long bone fracture healing in healthy adults compared to lactose placebo treatment. 160 healthy individuals from 18 to 55 years of age presenting with shaft fractures of the femur, tibia/fibula, humerus or clavicle will be eligible. Fractures will be randomised to placebo (lactose) or treatment (300 mg lithium carbonate) group within 2 weeks of the injury. The primary outcome measure will be radiographic union defined as visible callus bridging on three of the four cortices at the fracture site using a validated radiographic union score. Secondary outcome measures will include functional assessment and pain scoring.

Ethics and dissemination

Participant confidentiality will be maintained with publication of results. Research Ethics Board Approval: Sunnybrook Research Institute (REB # 356–2016). Health Canada Approval (HC6-24-C201560). Results of the main trial and secondary endpoints will be submitted for publication in a peer-reviewed journal and presented at conferences.

Trial registration number

NCT02999022.

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<![CDATA[MicroRNA-146a Mimics Reduce the Peripheral Neuropathy in Type 2 Diabetic Mice]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c163755d5eed0c48439d7b4

MicroRNA-146a (miR-146a) regulates multiple immune diseases. However, the role of miR-146a in diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) has not been investigated. We found that mice (db/db) with type 2 diabetes exhibited substantial downregulation of miR-146a in sciatic nerve tissue. Systemic administration of miR-146a mimics to diabetic mice elevated miR-146a levels in plasma and sciatic nerve tissue and substantially increased motor and sensory nerve conduction velocities by 29 and 11%, respectively, and regional blood flow by 50% in sciatic nerve tissue. Treatment with miR-146a mimics also considerably decreased the response in db/db mice to thermal stimuli thresholds. Histopathological analysis showed that miR-146a mimics markedly augmented the density of fluorescein isothiocyanate–dextran-perfused blood vessels and increased the number of intraepidermal nerve fibers, myelin thickness, and axonal diameters of sciatic nerves. In addition, miR-146a treatment reduced and increased classically and alternatively activated macrophage phenotype markers, respectively. Analysis of miRNA target array revealed that miR-146a mimics greatly suppressed expression of many proinflammatory genes and downstream related cytokines. Collectively, our data indicate that treatment of diabetic mice with miR-146a mimics robustly reduces DPN and that suppression of hyperglycemia-induced proinflammatory genes by miR-146a mimics may underlie its therapeutic effect.

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<![CDATA[Inhibition of 12/15-Lipoxygenase Protects Against β-Cell Oxidative Stress and Glycemic Deterioration in Mouse Models of Type 1 Diabetes]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c11beccd5eed0c48477e49e

Islet β-cell dysfunction and aggressive macrophage activity are early features in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes (T1D). 12/15-Lipoxygenase (12/15-LOX) is induced in β-cells and macrophages during T1D and produces proinflammatory lipids and lipid peroxides that exacerbate β-cell dysfunction and macrophage activity. Inhibition of 12/15-LOX provides a potential therapeutic approach to prevent glycemic deterioration in T1D. Two inhibitors recently identified by our groups through screening efforts, ML127 and ML351, have been shown to selectively target 12/15-LOX with high potency. Only ML351 exhibited no apparent toxicity across a range of concentrations in mouse islets, and molecular modeling has suggested reduced promiscuity of ML351 compared with ML127. In mouse islets, incubation with ML351 improved glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in the presence of proinflammatory cytokines and triggered gene expression pathways responsive to oxidative stress and cell death. Consistent with a role for 12/15-LOX in promoting oxidative stress, its chemical inhibition reduced production of reactive oxygen species in both mouse and human islets in vitro. In a streptozotocin-induced model of T1D in mice, ML351 prevented the development of diabetes, with coincident enhancement of nuclear Nrf2 in islet cells, reduced β-cell oxidative stress, and preservation of β-cell mass. In the nonobese diabetic mouse model of T1D, administration of ML351 during the prediabetic phase prevented dysglycemia, reduced β-cell oxidative stress, and increased the proportion of anti-inflammatory macrophages in insulitis. The data provide the first evidence to date that small molecules that target 12/15-LOX can prevent progression of β-cell dysfunction and glycemic deterioration in models of T1D.

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<![CDATA[Response evaluation of SGLT2 inhibitor therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus using 18F-FDG PET/MRI]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N9b271def-a406-486c-812a-cc773dba96e6

Introduction

Inhibitors of sodium-glucose linked transporter-2 (SGLT2i) are enhancing glucose excretion in the proximal renal tubules, and thus are increasingly used to lower blood glucose levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The glucose analog 2-deoxy-2-(18F) fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) can be used to quantify renal function in vivo, and due to an affinity for SGLT2 could also provide information about SGLT2 transporter function. Our objectives in this study were, therefore, to assess the impact of SGLT2i on renal function parameters in patients with T2DM and identify predictive parameters of long-term response to SGLT2i using dynamic FDG positron emission tomography (PET)/MRI.

Methods

PET FDG renal function measures such as mean transit time (MTT) and general renal performance (GRP) together with glomerular filtration rate (GFR) were determined in 20 patients with T2DM before (T2DMbaseline) and 2 weeks after initiation of therapy with SGLT2i (T2DMSGLT2i). Additionally, dynamic FDG PET data of 24 healthy subjects were used as controls.

Results

MTT in T2DMbaseline was significantly higher than in healthy controls (5.7 min vs 4.3 min, p=0.012) and significantly decreased to 4.4 min in T2DMSGLT2i (p=0.004). GRP of T2DMSGLT2i was higher than of T2DMbaseline (5.2 vs 4.7, p=0.02) and higher but not significantly than of healthy individuals (5.2 vs 5.1, p=0.34). Expectedly, GFR of healthy participants was significantly higher than of T2DMbaseline and T2DMSGLT2i (122 vs 92 and 86 mL/min/1.73 m², respectively; p<0.001). The higher the GRP value in kidneys of T2DMSGLT2i, the lower was the glycated hemoglobin level 3 months after therapy initiation.

Conclusion

MTT and GRP values of patients with T2DM shifted significantly toward values of healthy control 2 weeks after therapy with SGLT2i begins. GRP in T2DMSGLT2i was associated with better long-term glycemic response 3 months after initiation of therapy.

Trial registration number

NCT03557138.

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<![CDATA[Stratified medicine in European Medicines Agency licensing: a systematic review of predictive biomarkers]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5ad20666463d7e2179a2c04f

Objectives

Stratified medicine is often heralded as the future of clinical practice. Key part of stratified medicine is the use of predictive biomarkers, which identify patient subgroups most likely to benefit (or least likely to experience harm) from an intervention. We investigated how many and what predictive biomarkers are currently included in European Medicines Agency (EMA) licensing.

Setting

EMA licensing.

Participants

Indications and contraindications of all drugs considered by the EMA and published in 883 European Public Assessment Reports and Pending Decisions.

Primary and secondary outcome measures

Data were collected on: the type of the biomarker, whether it selected a subgroup of patients based on efficacy or toxicity, therapeutic area, marketing status, date of licensing decision, date of inclusion of the biomarker in the indication or contraindication and on orphan designation.

Results

49 biomarker–indication–drug (B-I-D) combinations were identified over 16 years, which included 37 biomarkers and 41 different drugs. All identified biomarkers were molecular. Six drugs (relating to 10 B-I-D combinations) had an orphan designation at the time of licensing. The identified B-I-D combinations were mainly used in cancer and HIV treatment, and also in hepatitis C and three other indications (cystic fibrosis, hyperlipoproteinaemia type I and methemoglobinaemia). In 45 B-I-D combinations, biomarkers were used as predictive of drug efficacy and in four of drug toxicity. It appeared that there was an increase in the number of B-I-D combinations introduced each year; however, the numbers were too small to identify any trends.

Conclusions

Given the large body of literature documenting research into potential predictive biomarkers and extensive investment into stratified medicine, we identified relatively few predictive biomarkers included in licensing. These were also limited to a small number of clinical areas. This might suggest a need for improvement in methods of translation from laboratory findings to clinical practice.

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<![CDATA[Evaluation of instructions in patient information leaflets for the use of intranasal corticosteroid sprays: an observational study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c644675d5eed0c484c2bd67

Objectives

In this study, we analysed patient information leaflets (PILs) of intranasal corticosteroid sprays (INCS) of different manufacturers in the UK to determine if instructions for the use of INCS are complete and uniform.

Setting

PILs of all INCS of all manufacturers, available for patients in the UK, were collected from the British National Formulary website and the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency website. All instructions in these PILs were analysed.

Participants

We identified PILs of INCS from 21 different manufacturers, available for patients in the UK.

Results

We analysed the instructions for the use of INCS in 21 different PILs and there is large variation in the PIL instructions for the technique of using INCS across PILs.

Conclusion

Complete and uniform instructions for the use of INCS are lacking in PILs for registered preparations in the UK. Structured and standardised instructions to be used by both professionals and patients are essential in order to optimise daily use of INCS.

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<![CDATA[Trends in clinical development timeframes for antiviral drugs launched in the UK, 1981–2014: a retrospective observational study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5af51e8d463d7e19ef4dcf79

Objectives

Recent decades have witnessed the development of highly innovative new antiviral drug therapies. However, there are concerns that rising costs and lengthening development times could have implications for future patient access to innovative new drugs. We sought to establish whether the time taken for the clinical development of new antiviral drugs launched in the UK had increased since the 1980s.

Design and setting

Retrospective observational study of all new antiviral drugs licensed for use in the UK.

Primary and secondary outcome measures

Duration of clinical development (from initiation of studies in humans to receipt of Marketing Authorisation), subdivided into clinical trial and regulatory approval periods by the date of Marketing Authorisation Application.

Results

48 new antiviral drugs were licensed for use in the UK between 1981 and 2014 (inclusive), over half (54%) initially for HIV infection. The overall mean duration of clinical development was 77.2 months, of which 64.6 months was spent in clinical trials before regulatory submission. The total time in clinical development increased from 41.7 months for drugs licensed 1981–1992 to 91.7 months for drugs licensed 2004–2014. This increase was accounted for by an increase in the clinical trials period and not the regulatory approval period, for which there was no observable trend. Drugs initially licensed to treat hepatitis C had a longer duration of clinical development than those indicated for other viral infections. However, the, initially shorter clinical development durations of drugs indicated for HIV infection increased more rapidly across the study period than those indicated for other viral infections.

Conclusions

The time spent by antiviral drugs in clinical development has increased markedly in recent decades despite many initiatives to speed access to innovative new drugs. However, this represents only one part of the translational research pathway, and a complete picture of development timeframes is lacking.

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<![CDATA[Protocol for a placebo-controlled, within-participants crossover trial evaluating the efficacy of intranasal oxytocin to improve pain and function among women with chronic pelvic musculoskeletal pain]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5bf50ddfd5eed0c4848612b5

Introduction

This protocol presents the rationale and design for a trial evaluating the efficacy of intranasal oxytocin in improving pain and function among women with chronic pelvic musculoskeletal pain. Oxytocin is a neuropeptide traditionally recognised for involvement in labour, delivery and lactation. Novel evidence suggests that oxytocin decreases pain sensitivity in humans. While oxytocin administration has been reported to lower pain sensitivity among patients experiencing chronic back pain, headache, constipation and colon pain, no research has evaluated the association between intranasal oxytocin and chronic pelvic musculoskeletal pain. The association between oxytocin and pain may differ in women with chronic pelvic musculoskeletal pain relative to other chronic pain conditions because of the abundance of oxytocin receptors in the uterus.

Methods and analysis

This is a prospective, randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind, within-participants crossover trial. 50 women with chronic pelvic musculoskeletal pain will be recruited through a local chronic pain centre and gynaecology clinics. Women will complete baseline measures and be randomised to an experimental or control condition that involve 2 weeks of self-administering twice-daily doses of 24 IU intranasal oxytocin or placebo, respectively. Women will then undergo a 2-week washout period before crossing over to receive the condition that they had not yet received. The primary outcome will be pain and function measured using the Brief Pain Inventory-Short Form. Secondary outcomes include emotional function, sleep disturbance and global impression of change. This trial will provide data on the 14-day safety and side-effect profile of intranasal oxytocin self-administered as an adjuvant treatment for chronic pelvic musculoskeletal pain.

Ethics and dissemination

This trial was granted approval from Health Canada and the University of Calgary Conjoint Health Research Ethics Board, and is registered online at ClinicalTrials.gov (#NCT02888574). Results will be disseminated to healthcare professionals through peer-reviewed publications and to the general public through press releases.

Trial registration number

NCT02888574; Pre-results.

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<![CDATA[Differences in drug utilisation between men and women: a cross-sectional analysis of all dispensed drugs in Sweden]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5acb9cf0463d7e1582fcaf35

Objectives

Ascertain the extent of differences between men and women in dispensed drugs since there is a lack of comprehensive overviews on sex differences in the use of prescription drugs.

Design

Cross-sectional population database analysis.

Methods

Data on all dispensed drugs in 2010 to the entire Swedish population (9.3 million inhabitants) were obtained from the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register. All pharmacological groups with ambulatory care prescribing accounting for >75% of the total volume in Defined Daily Doses and a prevalence of >1% were included in the analysis. Crude and age-adjusted differences in prevalence and incidence were calculated as risk ratios (RRs) of women/men.

Results

In all, 2.8 million men (59%) and 3.6 million women (76%) were dispensed at least one prescribed drug during 2010. Women were dispensed more drugs in all age groups except among children under the age of 10. The largest sex difference in prevalence in absolute numbers was found for antibiotics that were more common in women, 265.5 patients (PAT)/1000 women and 191.3 PAT/1000 men, respectively. This was followed by thyroid therapy (65.7 PAT/1000 women and 13.1 PAT/1000 men) and antidepressants (106.6 PAT/1000 women and 55.4 PAT/1000 men). Age-adjusted relative sex differences in prevalence were found in 48 of the 50 identified pharmacological groups. The pharmacological groups with the largest relative differences of dispensed drugs were systemic antimycotics (RR 6.6 CI 6.4 to 6.7), drugs for osteoporosis (RR 4.9 CI 4.9 to 5.0) and thyroid therapy (RR 4.5 CI 4.4 to 4.5), which were dispensed to women to a higher degree. Antigout agents (RR 0.4 CI 0.4 to 0.4), psychostimulants (RR 0.6 CI 0.6 to 0.6) and ACE inhibitors (RR 0.7 CI 0.7 to 0.7) were dispensed to men to a larger proportion.

Conclusions

Substantial differences in the prevalence and incidence of dispensed drugs were found between men and women. Some differences may be rational and desirable and related to differences between the sexes in the incidence or prevalence of disease or by biological differences. Other differences are more difficult to explain on medical grounds and may indicate unequal treatment.

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<![CDATA[High-intensity statin therapy in patients with chronic kidney disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5ae9a74e463d7e110381eb48

Objective

To evaluate the efficacy and safety of high-intensity statin therapy in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD).

Design

A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Data sources

Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing high-intensity statin therapy (atorvastatin 80 mg or rosuvastatin 20/40 mg) with moderate/mild statin treatment or placebo were derived from the databases (PubMed, Embase, Ovid, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in the Cochrane Library, and ISI Web of Knowledge).

Outcome measure

Primary end points: clinical events (all-cause mortality, stroke, myocardial infarction and heart failure); secondary end points: serum lipid, renal function changes and adverse events.

Results

A total of six RCTs with 10 993 adult patients with CKD were included. A significant decrease in stroke was observed in the high-intensity statin therapy group (RR 0.69, 95% CI 0.56 to 0.85). However, the roles of high-intensity statin in decreasing all-cause mortality (RR 0.85, 95% CI 0.67 to 1.09), myocardial infarction (RR 0.69, 95% CI 0.40 to 1.18) and heart failure (RR 0.73, 95% CI 0.48 to 1.13) remain unclear with low evidence. High-intensity statin also had obvious effects on lowering the LDL-C level but no clear effects on renal protection. Although pooled results showed no significant difference between the intervention and control groups in adverse event occurrences, it was still insufficient to put off the doubts that high-intensity statin might increase adverse events because of limited data sources and low quality evidences.

Conclusions

High-intensity statin therapy could effectively reduce the risk of stroke in patients with CKD. However, its effects on all-cause mortality, myocardial infarction, heart failure and renal protection remain unclear. Moreover, it is hard to draw conclusions on the safety assessment of intensive statin treatment in this particular population. More studies are needed to credibly evaluate the effects of high-intensity statin therapy in patients with CKD.

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<![CDATA[Antiaging Gene Klotho Attenuates Pancreatic β-Cell Apoptosis in Type 1 Diabetes]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5bd1ad2e40307c7d3c921740

Apoptosis is the major cause of death of insulin-producing β-cells in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Klotho is a recently discovered antiaging gene. We found that the Klotho gene is expressed in pancreatic β-cells. Interestingly, halplodeficiency of Klotho (KL+/−) exacerbated streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes (a model of T1DM), including hyperglycemia, glucose intolerance, diminished islet insulin storage, and increased apoptotic β-cells. Conversely, in vivo β-cell–specific expression of mouse Klotho gene (mKL) attenuated β-cell apoptosis and prevented STZ-induced diabetes. mKL promoted cell adhesion to collagen IV, increased FAK and Akt phosphorylation, and inhibited caspase 3 cleavage in cultured MIN6 β-cells. mKL abolished STZ- and TNFα-induced inhibition of FAK and Akt phosphorylation, caspase 3 cleavage, and β-cell apoptosis. These promoting effects of Klotho can be abolished by blocking integrin β1. Therefore, these cell-based studies indicated that Klotho protected β-cells by inhibiting β-cell apoptosis through activation of the integrin β1-FAK/Akt pathway, leading to inhibition of caspase 3 cleavage. In an autoimmune T1DM model (NOD), we showed that in vivo β-cell–specific expression of mKL improved glucose tolerance, attenuated β-cell apoptosis, enhanced insulin storage in β-cells, and increased plasma insulin levels. The beneficial effect of Klotho gene delivery is likely due to attenuation of T-cell infiltration in pancreatic islets in NOD mice. Overall, our results demonstrate for the first time that Klotho protected β-cells in T1DM via attenuating apoptosis.

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<![CDATA[Cross-sectional study on medicinal products without commercial interest (MPWCI) in the Spanish market]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6446e1d5eed0c484c2c620

Objective

To confirm that there is a defined group of products to be protected in the Spanish therapeutic arsenal known as ‘medicinal products without commercial interest’ (MPWCI) and propose the adoption of legal measures aimed at avoiding, or reducing, the lack of supply of said products.

Design

A cross-sectional study of proposed MPWCI based on a survey. The Spanish Agency of Medicines and Medical Devices (AEMPS) was asked for a list of presentations of medicines in order to identify those whose lack could have an impact on welfare.

Setting

A search on the AEMPS website and a survey conducted among 44 companies belonging to Farmaindustria has allowed for the development of a proposal list of presentations that should continue to be marketed in Spain.

Results

Products proposed as MPWCI are old (50% of them have an authorisation of more than 50 years) and are developed by active substances of chemical origin, parenterally administered much more frequently than the rest of the general market (44%vs6.6%, respectively). Unlike oral forms, injectable forms require adequate manufacturing facilities to guarantee the quality and sterility of the product, which naturally increases the cost of the product whose price is low or obsolete. The company experts have not valued the current price revisions as a sufficient enough mechanism to change the consideration of these medicines with respect to the interest on the part of some Marketing Authorisation Holders to maintain their commercialisation.

Conclusions

As shown in the results, an upward revision of prices is necessary to contribute to the permanence of these presentations in the market, although some experts do not consider the current price revisions satisfactory enough to maintain these presentations in the market. Therefore, a specific regulation seems necessary to ensure the continuity on the market of these proposed products.

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