ResearchPad - phase-i-studies https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Evaluation of absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of [<sup>14</sup>C]-rucaparib, a poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor, in patients with advanced solid tumors]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_8384 Rucaparib, a poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor, is licensed for use in recurrent ovarian, fallopian tube, or primary peritoneal cancer. We characterized the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination of rucaparib in 6 patients with advanced solid tumors following a single oral dose of [14C]-rucaparib 600 mg (≈140 μCi). Total radioactivity (TRA) in blood, plasma, urine, and feces was measured using liquid scintillation counting. Unchanged rucaparib concentrations in plasma were determined using validated liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. Maximum concentration (Cmax) of TRA and unchanged rucaparib in plasma was 880 ng Eq/mL and 428 ng/mL, respectively, at approximately 4 h post dose; terminal half-life was >25 h for both TRA and rucaparib. The plasma TRA-time profile was parallel to yet higher than that of rucaparib, suggesting the presence of metabolites in plasma. Mean blood:plasma ratio of radioactivity was 1.0 for Cmax and 0.8 for area under the concentration-time curve from time zero to infinity. Mean postdose recovery of TRA was 89.3% over 12 days (71.9% in feces; 17.4% in urine). Unchanged rucaparib and M324 (oxidative metabolite) were the major components in plasma, contributing to 64.0% and 18.6% of plasma radioactivity, respectively. Rucaparib and M324 were the major rucaparib-related components (each ≈7.6% of dose) in urine, whereas rucaparib was the predominant component (63.9% of dose) in feces. The high fecal recovery of unchanged rucaparib could be attributed to hepatic excretion and/or incomplete oral absorption. Overall, these data suggest that rucaparib is eliminated through multiple pathways, including metabolism and renal and biliary excretion.

Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article (10.1007/s10637-019-00815-2) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. ]]>
<![CDATA[Broccoli sprout supplementation in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer is difficult despite positive effects—results from the POUDER pilot study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_6113 Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is a highly aggressive malignancy with short survival and limited therapeutic options. Broccoli sulforaphane is a promising new treatment due to the results of recent epidemiological, experimental and patient studies. Upon approval from the ethics committee and registration at ClinicalTrials.gov, 40 patients with palliative chemotherapy were placed into a placebo and treatment group in an unblinded fashion. Fifteen capsules with pulverized broccoli sprouts containing 90 mg/508 μmol sulforaphane and 180 mg/411 μmol glucoraphanin or methylcellulose were administered daily for up to 1 year. Twenty-nine patients were included in the treatment group and 11 patients were in the placebo group; these patients were followed for up to 1 year. The patient characteristics, overall survival and feasibility were assessed. Compared to those of the placebo group, the mean death rate was lower in the treatment group during the first 6 months after intake (day 30: 0%/18%, day 90: 0%/25%, and day 180: 25%/43%), and Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed a higher survival rate. There was a high drop-out rate (72% in the treatment group and 55% in the placebo group) after 1 year. We concluded from the Karnofsky index that the broccoli sprouts did not impact patient’s self-care and overall abilities severely. The intake of 15 capsules daily was difficult for some patients, and the broccoli sprouts sometimes increased digestive problems, nausea and emesis. We did not obtain statistically significant results (p = 0.291 for the endpoint at day 180), but the knowledge about the feasibility is the basis for the development of new sulforaphane drugs.

Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article (10.1007/s10637-019-00826-z) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. ]]>
<![CDATA[Phase 1 study of the MDM2 inhibitor AMG 232 in patients with advanced P53 wild-type solid tumors or multiple myeloma]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_6104 Background This open-label, first-in-human, phase 1 study evaluated AMG 232, an oral selective MDM2 inhibitor in patients with TP53 wild-type (P53WT), advanced solid tumors or multiple myeloma (MM). Methods In the dose escalation (n = 39), patients with P53WT refractory solid tumors enrolled to receive once-daily AMG 232 (15, 30, 60, 120, 240, 480, and 960 mg) for seven days every 3 weeks (Q3W). In the dose expansion (n = 68), patients with MDM2-amplified (well-differentiated and de-differentiated liposarcomas [WDLPS and DDLPS], glioblastoma multiforme [GBM], or other solid tumors [OST]), MDM2-overexpressing ER+ breast cancer (BC), or MM received AMG 232 at the maximum tolerated dose (MTD). Safety, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and efficacy were assessed. Results AMG 232 had acceptable safety up to up to 240 mg. Three patients had dose-limiting toxicities of thrombocytopenia (n = 2) and neutropenia (n = 1). Due to these and other delayed cytopenias, AMG 232 240 mg Q3W was determined as the highest tolerable dose assessed in the dose expansion. Adverse events were typically mild/moderate and included diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, fatigue, decreased appetite, and anemia. AMG 232 plasma concentrations increased dose proportionally. Increases in serum macrophage inhibitor cytokine-1 from baseline were generally dose dependent, indicating p53 pathway activation. Per local review, there were no responses. Stable disease (durability in months) was observed in patients with WDLPS (3.9), OST (3.3), DDLPS (2.0), GBM (1.8), and BC (1.4–2.0). Conclusions In patients with P53WT advanced solid tumors or MM, AMG 232 showed acceptable safety and dose-proportional pharmacokinetics, and stable disease was observed.

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<![CDATA[Phase 1b study of a small molecule antagonist of human chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 2 (PF-04136309) in combination with nab-paclitaxel/gemcitabine in first-line treatment of metastatic pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_6096 Background In pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), the chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2)/chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 2 (CCR2) axis plays a key role in immunosuppressive properties of the tumor microenvironment, patient prognosis, and chemoresistance. This phase Ib study assessed the effects of the orally administered CCR2 inhibitor PF-04136309 in combination with nab-paclitaxel and gemcitabine in patients with previously untreated metastatic PDAC. Methods Patients received PF-04136309 twice daily (BID) continuously plus nab-paclitaxel (125 mg/m2) and gemcitabine (1000 mg/m2) administered on days 1, 8, and 15 of each 28-day cycle. The primary objectives were to evaluate safety and tolerability, characterize dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs), and determine the recommended phase II dose (RP2D) of PF-04136309. Results In all, 21 patients received PF-04136309 at a starting dose of 500 mg or 750 mg BID. The RP2D was identified to be 500 mg BID. Of 17 patients treated at the 500 mg BID starting dose, three (17.6%) experienced a total of four DLTs, including grade 3 dysesthesia, diarrhea, and hypokalemia and one event of grade 4 hypoxia. Relative to the small number of patients (n = 21), a high incidence (24%) of pulmonary toxicity was observed in this study. The objective response rate for 21 patients was 23.8% (95% confidence interval: 8.2–47.2%). Levels of CD14 + CCR2+ inflammatory monocytes (IM) decreased in the peripheral blood, but did not accumulate in the bone marrow. Conclusions PF-04136309 in combination with nab-paclitaxel plus gemcitabine had a safety profile that raises concern for synergistic pulmonary toxicity and did not show an efficacy signal above nab-paclitaxel and gemcitabine. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02732938.

Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article (10.1007/s10637-019-00830-3) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. ]]>
<![CDATA[A phase 1b dose escalation study of Wnt pathway inhibitor vantictumab in combination with nab-paclitaxel and gemcitabine in patients with previously untreated metastatic pancreatic cancer]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_6085 Vantictumab is a fully human monoclonal antibody that inhibits Wnt pathway signaling through binding FZD1, 2, 5, 7, and 8 receptors. This phase Ib study evaluated vantictumab in combination with nab-paclitaxel and gemcitabine in patients with untreated metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Patients received vantictumab at escalating doses in combination with standard dosing of nab-paclitaxel and gemcitabine according to a 3 + 3 design. A total of 31 patients were treated in 5 dosing cohorts. Fragility fractures attributed to vantictumab occurred in 2 patients in Cohort 2 (7 mg/kg every 2 weeks), and this maximum administered dose (MAD) on study was considered unsafe. The dosing schedule was revised to every 4 weeks for Cohorts 3 through 5, with additional bone safety parameters added. Sequential dosing of vantictumab followed by nab-paclitaxel and gemcitabine was also explored. No fragility fractures attributed to vantictumab occurred in these cohorts; pathologic fracture not attributed to vantictumab was documented in 2 patients. The study was ultimately terminated due to concerns around bone-related safety, and thus the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of the combination was not determined. The MAD of vantictumab according to the revised dosing schedule was 5 mg/kg (n = 16).

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<![CDATA[A phase I study of pexidartinib, a colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor inhibitor, in Asian patients with advanced solid tumors]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N2800473c-5051-4313-b829-deaf8dc86683

Summary

Background Pexidartinib, a novel, orally administered small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor, has strong selectivity against colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor. This phase I, nonrandomized, open-label multiple-dose study evaluated pexidartinib safety and efficacy in Asian patients with symptomatic, advanced solid tumors. Materials and Methods Patients received pexidartinib: cohort 1, 600 mg/d; cohort 2, 1000 mg/d for 2 weeks, then 800 mg/d. Primary objectives assessed pexidartinib safety and tolerability, and determined the recommended phase 2 dose; secondary objectives evaluated efficacy and pharmacokinetic profile. Results All 11 patients (6 males, 5 females; median age 64, range 23–82; cohort 1 n = 3; cohort 2 n = 8) experienced at least one treatment-emergent adverse event; 5 experienced at least one grade ≥ 3 adverse event, most commonly (18%) for each of the following: increased aspartate aminotransferase, blood alkaline phosphatase, gamma-glutamyl transferase, and anemia. Recommended phase 2 dose was 1000 mg/d for 2 weeks and 800 mg/d thereafter. Pexidartinib exposure, area under the plasma concentration-time curve from zero to 8 h (AUC0-8h), and maximum observed plasma concentration (Cmax) increased on days 1 and 15 with increasing pexidartinib doses, and time at Cmax (Tmax) was consistent throughout all doses. Pexidartinib exposure and plasma levels of adiponectin and colony-stimulating factor 1 increased following multiple daily pexidartinib administrations. One patient (13%) with tenosynovial giant cell tumor showed objective tumor response. Conclusions This was the first study to evaluate pexidartinib in Asian patients with advanced solid tumors. Pexidartinib was safe and tolerable in this population at the recommended phase 2 dose previously determined for Western patients (funded by Daiichi Sankyo; clinicaltrials.gov number, NCT02734433).

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