ResearchPad - phylogeny https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[No Tömösváry organ in flat backed millipedes (, )]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nbb17270b-5ccc-4ebe-8bce-5ada6702d0d2 The Tömösváry organ is a sensory structure of the head in myriapods and some other terrestrial arthropods. Due to its variable shape, size, and position in millipedes () the Tömösváry organ is commonly used as diagnostic character in taxonomic descriptions and often included in phylogenetic analyses. For the , the largest millipede order, the Tömösváry organ is inconsistently stated as being either absent or present as a pear-shaped pit covered by a membrane or cuticular disc. In order to resolve this inconsistency, we investigated the morphology of the presumable Tömösváry organ in four polydesmidan species based on paraffin-histology, semi-thin sections and micro-computed tomography. Our results unambiguously favor the view that the articulation of the cephalic tentorium with the head capsule was misidentified as the Tömösváry organ in previous studies, and thus that the Tömösváry organ indeed is absent in the . The pear-shaped pit proved to represent the distal roundish expansion of the incisura lateralis, to which – similarly as in julidan millipedes – the tentorial transverse bar is articulated. The absence of the Tömösváry organ in the does not affect the topology of the interrelationships among the millipede orders retrieved in previous cladistic analyses based on morphology. As a character shared by and Juliformia, however, absence of a Tömösváry organ in favors the optimization of its presence in nematophoran millipedes as a reversal. Further studies are needed to clarify whether among chilognathan millipedes a Tömösváry organ really exists in taxa such as , and whether the Tömösváry organs are homologous across millipedes.

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<![CDATA[Squamarina (lichenised fungi) species described from China belong to at least three unrelated genera]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ncdda6351-f672-4023-99ae-f8ee246a86a8

Abstract

New collections of six Squamarina species from type localities in China were studied. The comparison of morphological characteristics and secondary metabolites with those of the type specimens and phylogenetic analyses suggest that S. callichroa and S. pachyphylla belong to Rhizoplaca, S. semisterilis belongs to Lobothallia and S. chondroderma should be retained in Lecanora temporarily. Only two species, S. kansuensis and S. oleosa, remain in Squamarina. The new combinations Lobothallia semisterilis (H. Magn.) Y. Y. Zhang, Rhizoplaca callichroa (Zahlbr.) Y. Y. Zhang and R. pachyphylla (H. Magn.) Y. Y. Zhang are proposed. Detailed descriptions to aid the identification of these species, distributions and phylogenetic trees, based on multiple collections, are presented. The generic concept of Squamarina is recircumscribed in this study.

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<![CDATA[High prevalence and genetic diversity of Haemoproteus columbae (Haemosporida: Haemoproteidae) in feral pigeons Columba livia in Cape Town, South Africa]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N75bbece4-87d3-465d-8632-f2231d06d33f

In this study, we explore blood parasite prevalence, infection intensity, and co-infection levels in an urban population of feral pigeons Columba livia in Cape Town. We analyze the effect of blood parasites on host body condition and the association between melanin expression in the host’s plumage and parasite infection intensity and co-infection levels. Relating to the haemosporidian parasite itself, we study their genetic diversity by means of DNA barcoding (cytochrome b) and show the geographic and host distribution of related parasite lineages in pigeons worldwide. Blood from 195 C. livia individuals was collected from April to June 2018. Morphometric measurements and plumage melanism were recorded from every captured bird. Haemosporidian prevalence and infection intensity were determined by screening blood smears and parasite lineages by DNA sequencing. Prevalence of Haemoproteus spp. was high at 96.9%. The body condition of the hosts was negatively associated with infection intensity. However, infection intensity was unrelated to plumage melanism. The cytochrome b sequences revealed the presence of four Haemoproteus lineages in our population of pigeons, which show high levels of co-occurrence within individual birds. Three lineages (HAECOL1, COLIV03, COQUI05) belong to Haemoproteus columbae and differ only by 0.1% to 0.8% in the cytochrome b gene. Another lineage (COLIV06) differs by 8.3% from the latter ones and is not linked to a morphospecies, yet. No parasites of the genera Leucocytozoon and Plasmodium were detected.

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<![CDATA[Integrative taxonomy confirms three species of Coniocarpon (Arthoniaceae) in Norway]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N74f06736-99fa-4e3f-a241-02ddba5eaa51
Abstract

We have studied the highly oceanic genus Coniocarpon in Norway. Our aim has been to delimit species of Coniocarpon in Norway based on an integrative taxonomic approach. The material studied comprises 120 specimens of Coniocarpon, obtained through recent collecting efforts (2017 and 2018) or received from major fungaria in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden, as well as from private collectors. We have assessed (1) species delimitations and relationships based on Bayesian and maximum likelihood phylogenetic analyses of three genetic markers (mtSSU, nucITS and RPB2), (2) morphology and anatomy using standard light microscopy, and (3) secondary lichen chemistry using high-performance thin-layer chromatography. The results show three genetically distinct lineages of Coniocarpon, representing C. cinnabarinum, C. fallax and C. cuspidans comb. nov. The latter was originally described as Arthonia cinnabarina f. cuspidans and is herein raised to species level. All three species are supported by morphological, anatomical and chemical data.

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<![CDATA[Cytogenetic data for sixteen ant species from North-eastern Amazonia with phylogenetic insights into three subfamilies]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N5c11beef-ba61-4138-8b81-734b1f2aa203
Abstract

Ants play essential roles in most terrestrial ecosystems and may be considered pests for agriculture and agroforestry. Recent morphological and molecular data have challenged conventional ant phylogeny and the interpretation of karyotypic variations. Existing Neotropical ant cytogenetic data focus on Atlantic rainforest species, and provide evolutionary and taxonomic insight. However, there are data for only 18 Amazonian species. In this study, we describe the karyotypes of 16 ant species belonging to 12 genera and three subfamilies, collected in the Brazilian state of Amapá, and in French Guiana. The karyotypes of six species are described for the first time, including that of the South American genus Allomerus Mayr, 1878. The karyotype of Crematogaster Lund, 1831 is also described for the first time for the New World. For other species, extant data for geographically distinct populations was compared with our own data, e.g. for the leafcutter ants Acromyrmex balzani (Emery, 1890) and Atta sexdens (Linnaeus, 1758). The information obtained for the karyotype of Dolichoderus imitator Emery, 1894 differs from extant data from the Atlantic forest, thereby highlighting the importance of population cytogenetic approaches. This study also emphasizes the need for good chromosome preparations for studying karyotype structure.

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<![CDATA[The world woodlouse flies (Diptera, Rhinophoridae)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nae993fba-0a08-49f2-958c-66b0401d3b94
Abstract

The world Rhinophoridae are catalogued, recognising 33 genera and 177 species. Nomenclatural information is provided for all genus-group and species-group names, including lists of synonyms and name-bearing type data. Species distributions are recorded by country. A key to the world genera is presented. Four new genera are erected to accommodate five new species, which do not fit within any of the current generic concepts in Rhinophoridae, according to the results of a morphology-based phylogenetic analysis: Marshallicona Cerretti & Pape with type species Marshallicona quitu Cerretti & Pape, gen. et sp. nov. (Ecuador); Maurhinophora Cerretti & Pape with type species Maurhinophora indoceanica Cerretti & Pape, gen. et sp. nov. (Mauritius); Neotarsina Cerretti & Pape with type species Neotarsina caraibica Cerretti & Pape, gen. et sp. nov. (Trinidad and Tobago) and Neotarsina andina Cerretti & Pape, sp. nov. (Peru); Kinabalumyia Cerretti & Pape with type species Kinabalumyia pinax Cerretti & Pape, gen. et sp. nov. (Malaysia, Sabah). The genus Aporeomyia Pape & Shima (type species Aporeomyia antennalis Pape & Shima), originally assigned to Tachinidae, is here reassigned to Rhinophoridae based on a reassessment of the homologies of the male terminalia. The following five species-group names, which were previously treated as junior synonyms or nomina dubia, are recognised as valid species names: Acompomintho caucasica (Villeneuve, 1908), stat. rev. [from nomen dubium to valid species]; Acompomintho sinensis (Villeneuve, 1936), stat. rev. [from nomen dubium to valid species]; Stevenia bertei (Rondani, 1865), stat. rev. [from nomen dubium to valid species]; Stevenia sardoa Villeneuve, 1920, stat. rev. [from junior synonym of Rhinophora deceptoria Loew, 1847 to valid species]; Stevenia subalbida (Villeneuve, 1911), stat. rev. [from junior synonym of Rhinophora deceptoria Loew, 1847 to valid species]. Reversal of precedence is invoked for the following case of subjective synonymy to promote stability in nomenclature: Rhinophora lepida (Meigen, 1824), nomen protectum, and Musca parcus Harris, 1780: 144, nomen oblitum. New generic and specific synonymies are proposed for the following two names: Mimodexia Rohdendorf, 1935, junior synonym of Tromodesia Rondani, 1856, syn. nov. and Ptilocheta tacchetti Rondani, 1865, junior synonym of Stevenia obscuripennis (Loew, 1847), syn. nov. The following new combinations are proposed: Acompomintho sinensis (Villeneuve, 1936), comb. nov. [transferred from Tricogena Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830]; Tromodesia guzari (Rohdendorf, 1935), comb. nov. [transferred from Mimodexia Rohdendorf, 1935]; Tromodesia intermedia (Rohdendorf, 1935), comb. nov. [transferred from Mimodexia Rohdendorf, 1935]; Tromodesia lindneriana (Rohdendorf, 1961), comb. nov. [transferred from Mimodexia Rohdendorf, 1935]; Tromodesia magnifica (Rohdendorf, 1935), comb. nov. [transferred from Mimodexia Rohdendorf, 1935]; Tromodesia obscurior (Rohdendorf, 1935), comb. nov. [transferred from Mimodexia Rohdendorf, 1935]; Tromodesia pallidissima (Rohdendorf, 1935), comb. nov. [transferred from Mimodexia Rohdendorf, 1935]; Tromodesia setiventris (Rohdendorf, 1935), comb. nov. [transferred from Mimodexia Rohdendorf, 1935] and Tromodesia shachrudi (Rohdendorf, 1935), comb. nov. [transferred from Mimodexia Rohdendorf, 1935].

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<![CDATA[Molecular phylogeny of Hiptage (Malpighiaceae) reveals a new species from Southwest China]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N34551777-ca16-4830-8a84-24c7b0fbc82b
Abstract

Hiptage is an Asia-endemic genus of Malpighiaceae currently placed in the tetrapteroid clade, representing one of the seven inter-continent dispersions from New to Old World. A molecular phylogeny based on sequences of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region was recovered for the first time for the genus. Our results showed that the most recent common ancestor of Hiptage probably originated in the South Indo-China Peninsula and diversified in this region. Based on phylogenetic evidence and relevant morphological traits, we propose a new species; Hiptage incurvatum is characterised by mericarps with arcuate anterior lateral wings, two large glands on the dorsal sepals, and small glands on the remaining sepals. The new species is from Mt. Cangshan, Dali City (25°35'N, 100°02'E) in North Yunnan, Southwest China and is notable for its occurrence at high altitude, 1400 m (the highest distribution currently known for the genus). The implications of this unusual species for the dispersal and evolution of the genus are discussed.

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<![CDATA[Descriptions of five new species in Entoloma subgenus Claudopus from China, with molecular phylogeny of Entoloma s.l.]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N4111c6f4-5190-4900-ac98-33e5144dd443
Abstract

Entoloma subgenus Claudopus is widely distributed, yet the taxonomy and systematics of its species are still poorly documented. In the present study, more than forty collections of Claudopus were gathered in China and subsequently analysed, based on morphological and molecular data. The results revealed first a high level of species diversity of Claudopus in China and second, there is a wide ecological range regarding the substrates and the habitats ranging from temperate, tropical to subalpine locations. Based on morphological and molecular evidence, five novel species from China are proposed, viz. E. conchatum, E. flabellatum, E. gregarium, E. pleurotoides and E. reductum. Molecular phylogeny of Entoloma s.l. was also reconstructed, based on 187 representatives of Entoloma s.l. by employing the combined ITS, LSU, mtSSU and RPB2 sequences. Ten monophyletic clades (Claudopus, Leptonia, Nolanea, Cuboid-spored Inocephalus, “Alboleptonia”, Cyanula, Pouzarella, Rhodopolia, Prunuloides and Rusticoides) were recovered, while 13 taxa could not be placed in any defined clades. The results confirmed that Claudopus in a traditional morphological sense is not monophyletic and the Rusticoides-group, previously considered within Claudopus, formed a separate clade; but section Claudopus and relatives of E. undatum belong to a distinctive monophyletic group. Despite some monophyletic groups in Entoloma s.l. being distinctive in both morphology and molecular phylogeny, they were still treated as subgenera of Entoloma s.l. temporarily, because accepting them as genera will make Entoloma s.l. paraphyletic.

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<![CDATA[Rostania revised: testing generic delimitations in Collemataceae (Peltigerales, Lecanoromycetes)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c8bfe5bd5eed0c484b28a4c
Abstract

Here, we test the current generic delimitation of Rostania (Collemataceae, Peltigerales, Ascomycota) utilizing molecular phylogeny and morphological investigations. Using DNA sequence data from the mitochondrial SSU rDNA and two nuclear protein-coding genes (MCM7 and β-tubulin) and utilizing parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic methods, Rostania is shown to be non-monophyletic in the current sense. A new generic delimitation of Rostania is thus proposed, in which the genus is monophyletic, and three species (Rostaniacoccophylla, R.paramensis, R.quadrifida) are excluded and transferred to other genera. Rostaniaoccultata is further non-monophyletic, and a more detailed investigation of species delimitations in Rostania s. str. is needed. The new combinations Leptogiumparamense and Scytiniumquadrifidum are proposed.

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<![CDATA[Molecular analysis of cox-1 and 18S rRNA gene fragments of Eimeria species isolated from endangered grouse: capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus) and black grouse (Tetrao tetrix)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c79b15fd5eed0c4841e5ba9

This paper is the first record describing the molecular analysis of Eimeria species occurring in capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus) and black grouse (Tetrao tetrix) which inhabit northern Eurasia and are species critically endangered of extinction. Actions undertaken to protect endangered species, such as breeding individuals in closed aviaries, could allow saving those birds, but they also pose risk of accidental healing of invasive diseases, like coccidiosis. Therefore, an investigation was conducted on fecal samples collected from the capercaillies and black grouse originating from the Kirov region (Russia) and breeding centers located in Poland. Results indicate that the average prevalence of Eimeria revealed 72% (average OPG = 3548) and 80% (average OPG = 5220) in capercaillies and black grouse respectively. Most of the Eimeria spp. oocysts were non-sporulated; however, two different morphological types were observed. The phylogenetic analysis of cox-1 and 18S rRNA genes revealed the analyzed Eimeria sequences to belong to two species. In addition, it showed some similarities between both analyzed genes. Most of the sequences obtained from both grouse species coccidia belonged to one species partially homologous to the Eimeria spp. isolated from ring-necked pheasant (approx. 94 and 96% for cox-1 and 18S rRNA genes, respectively). Two strains isolated from capercaillies imported from Russia were related to turkey coccidia: E. innocua and E. dispersa (97–99% homology) in the cox-1 gene analysis and only one of them was related to those Eimeria species in the 18S rRNA gene analysis (98–99% homology).

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<![CDATA[Prevalence and genotyping of Pneumocystis jirovecii in renal transplant recipients—preliminary report]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c59e22ed5eed0c4841126d0

Pneumocystis jirovecii is an opportunistic fungus occurring in human lungs. The group at highest risk consists of HIV-infected and non-HIV-infected immunosuppressed individuals. In these patients, P. jirovecii infection may lead to Pneumocystis pneumonia; it may, however, persist also in an asymptomatic form. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of P. jirovecii and potential risk factors for infection in a group of renal transplant recipients and to characterize the genetic diversity of this fungus in the studied population. Sputum specimens from 72 patients were tested for presence of P. jirovecii using immunofluorescence microscopy, as well as nested PCR targeting the mtLSU rRNA gene. Genotyping involving analysis of four loci—mtLSU rRNA, CYB, DHPS, and SOD—was used to characterize the diversity of the detected organisms. Pneumocystis DNA was detected in eight (11.11%) patients. It has been shown that low eosinophil count and dual immunosuppressive treatment combining prednisone and calcineurin inhibitors are potential risk factors for colonization. Analysis of genotype distribution showed an association of the wild-type genotype of mtLSU rRNA with lower average age of patients and shorter time after kidney transplantation. Furthermore, CYB 2 genotype was detected only in patients with the ongoing prophylaxis regimen. In conclusion, renal transplant recipients are at risk of Pneumocystis colonization even a long time after transplantation. The present preliminary study identifies specific polymorphisms that appear to be correlated with certain patient characteristics and highlights the need for deeper investigation of these associations in renal transplant recipients.

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<![CDATA[Enantiomorphs and taxonomy of three conchological species in flat-shelled snails Trichocathaica (Pulmonata, Camaenidae)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c394872d5eed0c484a410df
Abstract

Biomodal (flat/globular or slender/tall) shell/body shapes are associated with dichotomous (simultaneous reciprocal or non-reciprocal) modes of copulation behaviour in the fully-shelled stylommatophoran snails. In flat-shelled groups that copulate simultaneously reciprocally, no study has found an example of enantiomorphism that persists within a population. However, the original description of a flat camaenid snail, Trichocathaicaamphidroma, noted that it is dextral- or sinistral-coiled. By examination of shell surface morphology, we found that shell specimens classified as those of this species include shells of three different morphological species. Namely, T.amphidroma, Trichocathaicavestita (Pilsbry, 1934), comb. n., and Trichocathaicamacrosquamata Páll-Gergely, sp. n. In each of the three species, both sinistral and dextral shells have been collected from presumably one area. Ethanol-fixed soft bodies of single dextral and sinistral individuals of T.vestita, which were available for the first time for interchiral comparison of genital morphology in the present genus, differed from each other in the pattern of penial microsculpture. They might represent enantiomorphs that have recently diverged in allopatry instead of enantiomorphism within a population or species. However, their shell and genital differences were not discrete enough to divide them taxonomically into two morphologically distinct species. Our results demonstrate the importance of evaluating individual variation relative to differences between incipient species in penial morphology, especially between conchologically indistinguishable enantiomorphs in the flat groups. We revise the taxonomy of the genus Trichocathaica including the above-mentioned new species, and Trichocathaicaputeolata Páll-Gergely, sp. n.

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<![CDATA[Evidence of cryptic species in the blenniid Cirripectesalboapicalis species complex, with zoogeographic implications for the South Pacific]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c394877d5eed0c484a412c5
Abstract

Rapa Nui, commonly known as Easter Island (Chile), is one of the most isolated tropical islands of the Pacific Ocean. The island location of Rapa Nui makes it the easternmost point of the geographic ranges for many western Pacific fish species that are restricted to the subtropical islands south of 20°S latitude. The blenniid fish species Cirripectesalboapicalis has been thought to have one of the most extensive geographic distribution ranges among these southern subtropical fish species, extending from the southern Great Barrier Reef to Rapa Nui. A phylogenetic analysis was conducted to determine the taxonomic status of the species. The results provide genetic evidence that suggests that this formerly South Pacific-wide species comprises at least three cryptic species with allopatric geographic distributions. The analyses reveal the geographic distributions of these clades and their genetic relationships with each other, and with other species within the genus Cirripectes. The processes that culminated in the current geographic distribution of this species complex and the zoogeographic implications of this finding for the South Pacific region are discussed.

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<![CDATA[Taxonomic circumscription of melanconis-like fungi causing canker disease in China]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c22c79bd5eed0c484aa6770
Abstract

Melanconis-like species comprise latent fungal pathogens with a wide range of woody hosts. Taxonomy of these pathogens is difficult due to their uninformative descriptions and similar asexual morphology. Based on molecular phylogenies, many species of this group were placed in various families of Diaporthales. In this study, eight species of melanconis-like fungi were isolated from Betulaalbosinensis, B.platyphylla (Betulaceae), Cornuscontroversa (Cornaceae), Corylusmandshurica (Betulaceae) and Juglansregia (Juglandaceae) in China. These species were phylogenetically placed in three families of Diaporhthales, i.e. Juglanconisjuglandina, J.oblonga (Juglanconidaceae), Melanconiellabetulicolasp. nov., M.corylinasp. nov. (Melanconiellaceae), Melanconisbetulae, Ms.itoana, Ms.stilbostoma (Melanconidaceae) and one new genus, Sheathospora (Melanconiellaceae). Sheathospora is proposed to accommodate Melanconiellacornuta with conical and discrete pycnidia with aseptate, hyaline, cylindrical to ellipsoidal conidia with distinct hyaline sheath on branches of Cornuscontroversa. Combined analyses of ITS, LSU, CAL, RPB2 and TEF1-α sequence data were used to construct the molecular phylogeny. Additionally, we provided separate phylogenetic trees for three families (Juglanconidaceae, Melanconidaceae and Melanconiellaceae) to show the species distribution of melanconis-like fungi in China.

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<![CDATA[Phylogeny of Muhlenbergia subg. Pseudosporobolus, including M. spatha (Poaceae, Chloridoideae, Cynodonteae, Muhlenbergiinae) now found in Zacatecas, Mexico]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b694ea8463d7e394646945d
Abstract

Muhlenbergia spatha, previously known only from near the type locality in San Luis Potosí, is reported from two localities in Zacatecas, Mexico. Historically, botanists have overlooked this diminutive annual. To clarify affinities of M. spatha, we present a molecular phylogeny emphasising species in M. subg. Pseudosporobolus using sequence data from two plastid markers (rpl32-trnL and rps16 intron) and nrDNA ITS. In addition, we include an updated description, illustration and discussion of the habitat of M. spatha.

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<![CDATA[Biodiversity assessment among two Nebraska prairies: a comparison between traditional and phylogenetic diversity indices]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5aecce2c463d7e42bb0e941a
Abstract

Background

Conservation of the evolutionary diversity among organisms should be included in the selection of priority regions for preservation of Earth’s biodiversity. Traditionally, biodiversity has been determined from an assessment of species richness (S), abundance, evenness, rarity, etc. of organisms but not from variation in species’ evolutionary histories. Phylogenetic diversity (PD) measures evolutionary differences between taxa in a community and is gaining acceptance as a biodiversity assessment tool. However, with the increase in the number of ways to calculate PD, end-users and decision-makers are left wondering how metrics compare and what data are needed to calculate various metrics.

New information

In this study, we used massively parallel sequencing to generate over 65,000 DNA characters from three cellular compartments for over 60 species in the asterid clade of flowering plants. We estimated asterid phylogenies from character datasets of varying nucleotide quantities, and then assessed the effect of varying character datasets on resulting PD metric values. We also compared multiple PD metrics with traditional diversity indices (including S) among two endangered grassland prairies in Nebraska (U.S.A.). Our results revealed that PD metrics varied based on the quantity of genes used to infer the phylogenies; therefore, when comparing PD metrics between sites, it is vital to use comparable datasets. Additionally, various PD metrics and traditional diversity indices characterize biodiversity differently and should be chosen depending on the research question. Our study provides empirical results that reveal the value of measuring PD when considering sites for conservation, and it highlights the usefulness of using PD metrics in combination with other diversity indices when studying community assembly and ecosystem functioning. Ours is just one example of the types of investigations that need to be conducted across the tree of life and across varying ecosystems in order to build a database of phylogenetic diversity assessments that lead to a pool of results upon which a guide through the plethora of PD metrics may be prepared for use by ecologists and conservation planners.

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<![CDATA[Are arthropods at the heart of virus evolution?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dabcab0ee8fa60baf0f1

The huge diversity of negative-sense RNA viruses in insects, spiders and other arthropods suggests that these animals could be central to virus origin and evolution.

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<![CDATA[Unravelling a can of worms]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daa4ab0ee8fa60ba6eb0

Understanding the evolutionary relationships between species could help researchers select better model organisms to study in the laboratory.

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