ResearchPad - physiological-parameters https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Newborn body composition after maternal bariatric surgery]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13862 In pregnancy after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), there is increased risk of low birthweight in the offspring. The present study examined how offspring body composition was affected by RYGB.Material and methodsMother-newborn dyads, where the mothers had undergone RYGB were included. Main outcome measure was neonatal body composition. Neonatal body composition was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scanning (DXA) within 48 hours after birth. In a statistical model offspring born after RYGB were compared with a reference material of offspring and analyses were made to estimate the effect of maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), gestational weight gain, parity, gestational age at birth and newborn sex on newborn body composition. Analyses were made to estimate the impact of maternal weight loss before pregnancy and of other effects of bariatric surgery respectively. The study was performed at a university hospital between October 2012 and December 2013.ResultsWe included 25 mother-newborn dyads where the mothers had undergone RYGB and compared them to a reference material of 311 mother-newborn dyads with comparable pre-pregnancy BMI. Offspring born by mothers after RYGB had lower birthweight (335g, p<0.001), fat-free mass (268g, p<0.001) and fat% (2.8%, p<0.001) compared with reference material. Only 2% of the average reduction in newborn fat free mass could be attributed to maternal pre-pregnancy weight loss whereas other effects of RYGB accounted for 98%. Regarding reduction in fat mass 52% was attributed to weight loss and 47% to other effects of surgery.ConclusionOffspring born after maternal bariatric surgery, had lower birthweight, fat-free mass and fat percentage when compared with a reference material. RYGB itself and not the pre-pregnancy weight loss seems to have had the greatest impact on fetal growth. ]]> <![CDATA[Health profile of adult special immigrant visa holders arriving from Iraq and Afghanistan to the United States, 2009–2017: A cross-sectional analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13850 Between 2,000 and 19,000 Special Immigrant Visa holders (SIVH) from Iraq and Afghanistan have resettled in the United States annually since 2008.Per the Immigration and Nationality Act, SIVH, like other immigrants and refugees, must be examined by a physician before arriving in the US. Results of these overseas examinations are transmitted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to US state and local health departments via CDC’s Electronic Disease Notification system (EDN).Increasing provider knowledge about the health conditions most commonly encountered in SIVH as well as any differences in health conditions between SIVH from Iraq and Afghanistan may facilitate diagnostic screening, examination, and referrals to additional healthcare providers in the US.Information about the health of SIV populations is limited and would be beneficial for US clinicians who see SIVH in their clinics.What did the researchers do and find?In this cross-sectional analysis, we analyzed overseas medical exam data in CDC’s EDN for 19,167 SIV Iraqi and Afghan adults who resettled to the United States from April 2009 through December 2017.Among all SIVH, 56.5% were overweight or had obesity, 2.4% reported hypertension, 1.1% reported diabetes, and 19.4% reported current or previous tobacco use.In general, Iraqi SIVH were more likely to have obesity, diabetes, and be current or former smokers than Afghan SIVH.What do these findings mean?State public health agencies and clinicians screening SIVH should consider screening for diabetes among those with risk factors and prompt referral and management of obesity, hypertension, and smoking.Behavioral risk factor counseling and referral to culturally appropriate chronic disease prevention programs can be initiated at screening visits and subsequently reemphasized with primary care providers and other healthcare professionals.Limitations include the inability to obtain all SIVH records, self-reported medical history of NCDs, and underdiagnosis of NCDs such as hypertension and diabetes because formal laboratory testing for NCDs is not used during overseas medical exams. ]]> <![CDATA[Inferring a simple mechanism for alpha-blocking by fitting a neural population model to EEG spectra]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13836 One of the most striking features of the human electroencephalogram (EEG) is the presence of neural oscillations in the range of 8-13 Hz. It is well known that attenuation of these alpha oscillations, a process known as alpha blocking, arises from opening of the eyes, though the cause has remained obscure. In this study we infer the mechanism underlying alpha blocking by fitting a neural population model to EEG spectra from 82 different individuals. Although such models have long held the promise of being able to relate macroscopic recordings of brain activity to microscopic neural parameters, their utility has been limited by the difficulty of inferring these parameters from fits to data. Our approach involves fitting eyes-open and eyes-closed EEG spectra in a way that minimizes unnecessary differences in model parameters between the two states. Surprisingly, we find that changes in just one parameter, the level of external input to the inhibitory neurons in cortex, is sufficient to explain the attenuation of alpha oscillations. This indicates that opening of the eyes reduces alpha activity simply by increasing external inputs to the inhibitory neurons in the cortex.

]]>
<![CDATA[Possible risk factors for poor asthma control assessed in a cross-sectional population-based study from Telemark, Norway]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13801 This cross-sectional study of the general population of Telemark County, Norway, aimed to identify risk factors associated with poor asthma control as defined by the Asthma Control Test (ACT), and to determine the proportions of patients with poorly controlled asthma who had undergone spirometry, used asthma medication, or been examined by a pulmonary physician. In 2014–2015, the study recruited 326 subjects aged 16–50 years who had self-reported physician-diagnosed asthma and presence of respiratory symptoms during the previous 12 months. The clinical outcome measures were body mass index (BMI), forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), immunoglobulin E (IgE) in serum and serum C-reactive protein (CRP). An ACT score ≤ 19 was defined as poorly controlled asthma. Overall, 113 subjects (35%) reported poor asthma control. The odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for factors associated with poorly controlled asthma were: self-reported occupational exposure to vapor, gas, dust, or fumes during the previous 12 months (OR 2.0; 95% CI 1.1–3.6), body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m2 (OR 2.2; 95% CI 1.2–4.1), female sex (OR 2.6; 95% CI 1.5–4.7), current smoking (OR 2.8; 95% CI 1.5–5.3), and past smoking (OR 2.3; 95% CI 1.3–4.0). Poor asthma control was also associated with reduced FEV1 after bronchodilation (β –3.6; 95% CI –7.0 to –0.2). Moreover, 13% of the participants with poor asthma control reported no use of asthma medication, 51% had not been assessed by a pulmonary physician, and 20% had never undergone spirometry. Because these data are cross-sectional, further studies assessing possible risk factors in general and objectively measured occupational exposure in particular are needed. However, our results suggest that there is room for improvement with regards to use of spirometry and pulmonary physician referrals when a patient’s asthma is inadequately controlled.

]]>
<![CDATA[The association between national income and adult obesity prevalence: Empirical insights into temporal patterns and moderators of the association using 40 years of data across 147 countries]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13857 At a country level, population obesity prevalence is often associated with economic affluence, reflecting a potential adverse outcome concomitant with economic growth. We estimated the pattern and strength of the empirically observed relationship between national income and adult obesity prevalence, and the moderating role of countries’ macro-environments on this relationship.MethodsWe assembled data on national obesity prevalence, income and a range of variables that characterize macro-environments related to 147 countries from multiple international organizations and databases. We used a Bayesian hierarchical model to estimate the relationship (elasticities) between national income (using Gross Domestic Product Per Capita, GDPPC) and adult obesity prevalence, and the moderating effects of five different dimensions (globalization orientation, demographic characteristics, economic environment, labor market characteristics, and strength of health policies) of countries’ macro-environments on the income elasticities. Using the latest (2019–2024) available national income growth projections from the International Monetary Fund, we forecast future global trends in obesity prevalence.FindingsOver the 40-years 1975–2014, adult obesity prevalence increased at a declining rate with GDPPC across the 147 countries. The mean income elasticity estimates were 1.23 (95% credible interval 1.04–1.42) for males and 1.01 (0.82–1.18) for females. The elasticities were positively associated with the extent of political globalization and negatively associated with urbanization and share of agriculture in the national GDP. Income based projections indicate that obesity prevalence would continue to grow at an average annual rate of 2.47% across the studied countries during 2019–2024.ConclusionsPopulation obesity prevalence exhibits a positive relationship with national income and there is no evidence that the relationship, while weakening, actually turns negative at higher income levels (“obesity Kuznets curve”). Based on current trends, global obesity prevalence will continue to increase during 2019–2024, with the rate of growth higher in low- and middle-income countries. As most people currently live in low- and middle-income countries with rising incomes, our findings underscore the urgent societal imperatives for effective policy initiatives, especially those that target the concomitant “nutrition transition” process with economic affluence, to break or at least further weaken the positive relationship of population obesity prevalence with national income. ]]> <![CDATA[Aging-associated sinus arrest and sick sinus syndrome in adult zebrafish]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13853 Because of its powerful genetics, the adult zebrafish has been increasingly used for studying cardiovascular diseases. Considering its heart rate of ~100 beats per minute at ambient temperature, which is very close to human, we assessed the use of this vertebrate animal for modeling heart rhythm disorders such as sinus arrest (SA) and sick sinus syndrome (SSS). We firstly optimized a protocol to measure electrocardiogram in adult zebrafish. We determined the location of the probes, implemented an open-chest microsurgery procedure, measured the effects of temperature, and determined appropriate anesthesia dose and time. We then proposed an PP interval of more than 1.5 seconds as an arbitrary criterion to define an SA episode in an adult fish at ambient temperature, based on comparison between the current definition of an SA episode in humans and our studies of candidate SA episodes in aged wild-type fish and Tg(SCN5A-D1275N) fish (a fish model for inherited SSS). With this criterion, a subpopulation of about 5% wild-type fish can be considered to have SA episodes, and this percentage significantly increases to about 25% in 3-year-old fish. In response to atropine, this subpopulation has both common SSS phenotypic traits that are shared with the Tg(SCN5A-D1275N) model, such as bradycardia; and unique SSS phenotypic traits, such as increased QRS/P ratio and chronotropic incompetence. In summary, this study defined baseline SA and SSS in adult zebrafish and underscored use of the zebrafish as an alternative model to study aging-associated SSS.

]]>
<![CDATA[Breeding practices and trait preferences of smallholder farmers for indigenous sheep in the northwest highlands of Ethiopia: Inputs to design a breeding program]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7865 The aim of this study was to identify breeding practices and trait preferences for indigenous sheep in three districts (Estie, Farta and Lay Gayient) located in the northwest highlands of Ethiopia. Questionnaire survey and choice experiment methods were used to collect data from 370 smallholder farmers. Respondents were selected randomly among smallholder farmers who own sheep in the aforementioned districts. A generalized multinomial logit model was employed to examine preferences for sheep attributes, while descriptive statistics and index values were computed to describe sheep breeding practices. Having the highest index value of 0.36, income generation was ranked as the primary reason for keeping sheep, followed by meat and manure sources. The average flock size per smallholder farmer was 10.21 sheep. The majority of the smallholder farmers (91%) have the experience of selecting breeding rams and ewes within their own flock using diverse criteria. Given the highest index value of 0.34, body size was ranked as a primary ram and ewe selection criteria, followed by coat color. Furthermore, choice modeling results revealed that tail type, body size, coat color, growth rate, horn and ear size have shown significant influences on smallholder farmers’ preference for breeding rams (P<0.01). The part-worth utility coefficients were positive for all ram attributes except ear size. For breeding ewes, mothering ability, coat color, body size, lambing interval, growth rate, tail type and litter size have shown significant effects on choice preferences of smallholder farmers (P<0.05). Moreover, significant scale heterogeneity was observed among respondents for ewe attributes (P<0.001). Overall, the results implied that sheep breeding objectives suitable for the northwest highlands of the country can be derived from traits such as linear body measurement, weight and survival at different ages, and lambing intervals. However, selection decisions at the smallholder level should not only be based on estimated breeding values of traits included in the breeding objective but instead, incorporate ways to address farmers’ preference for qualitative traits.

]]>
<![CDATA[Oral administration with a traditional fermented multi-fruit beverage modulates non-specific and antigen-specific immune responses in BALB/c mice]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7730 Fruits have been widely considered as the default “health foods” because they contain numerous vitamins and minerals needed to sustain human health. Fermentation strategies have been utilized to enhance the nutritive and flavor features of healthy and readily consumable fruit products while extending their shelf lives. A traditional fermented multi-fruit beverage was made from five fruits including kiwi, guava, papaya, pineapple, and grape fermented by Saccharomyces cerevisiae along with lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria. The immunomodulatory properties of the fermented multi-fruit beverage, in vivo nonspecific and ovalbumin (OVA)-specific immune response experiments using female BALB/c mice were performed. Administration of the fermented multi-fruit beverage reduced the calorie intake, thus resulting in a less weight gain in mice compared to the water (placebo)-fed mice. In the nonspecific immune study model, the fermented multi-fruit beverage enhanced phagocytosis and T cell proliferation but did not affect B cell proliferation and immunoglobulin G (IgG) production. Analysis of cytokine secretion profile also revealed that the fermented multi-fruit beverage enhanced proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and T helper (Th)1-related cytokine interferon (IFN)-γ production, thus creating an immunostimulatory effect. Nonetheless, in the specific immune study model, the results showed that the fermented multi-fruit beverage decreased the production of proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α production in OVA-immunized mice. Moreover, it also caused a decrease in the production of anti-OVA IgG1, which was accompanied by a decrease in Th2-related cytokines IL-4 and IL-5 production and an increase in Th1-related cytokine IFN-γ production, indicating that it may have the potential to shift the immune system from the allergen‐specific Th2 responses toward Th1-type responses. The results indicate that fermented multi-fruit beverage has the potential to modulate immune responses both in a nonspecific and specific manners.

]]>
<![CDATA[30-year trends in major cardiovascular risk factors in the Czech population, Czech MONICA and Czech post-MONICA, 1985 – 2016/17]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7657 Compared with Western Europe, the decline in cardiovascular (CV) mortality has been delayed in former communist countries in Europe, including the Czech Republic. We have assessed longitudinal trends in major CV risk factors in the Czech Republic from 1985 to 2016/17, covering the transition from the totalitarian regime to democracy.MethodsThere were 7 independent cross-sectional surveys for major CV risk factors conducted in the Czech Republic in the same 6 country districts within the WHO MONICA Project (1985, 1988, 1992) and the Czech post-MONICA study (1997/98, 2000/01, 2007/08 and 2016/2017), including a total of 7,606 males and 8,050 females. The population samples were randomly selected (1%, aged 25–64 years).ResultsOver the period of 31/32 years, there was a significant decrease in the prevalence of smoking in males (from 45.0% to 23.9%; p < 0.001) and no change in females. BMI increased only in males. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure decreased significantly in both genders, while the prevalence of hypertension declined only in females. Awareness of hypertension, the proportion of individuals treated by antihypertensive drugs and consequently hypertension control improved in both genders. A substantial decrease in total cholesterol was seen in both sexes (males: from 6.21 ± 1.29 to 5.30 ± 1.05 mmol/L; p < 0.001; females: from 6.18 ± 1.26 to 5.31 ± 1.00 mmol/L; p < 0.001).ConclusionsThe significant improvement in most CV risk factors between 1985 and 2016/17 substantially contributed to the remarkable decrease in CV mortality in the Czech Republic. ]]> <![CDATA[Assessment of the genomic prediction accuracy for feed efficiency traits in meat-type chickens]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db51ab0ee8fa60bdc4ab

Feed represents the major cost of chicken production. Selection for improving feed utilization is a feasible way to reduce feed cost and greenhouse gas emissions. The objectives of this study were to investigate the efficiency of genomic prediction for feed conversion ratio (FCR), residual feed intake (RFI), average daily gain (ADG) and average daily feed intake (ADFI) and to assess the impact of selection for feed efficiency traits FCR and RFI on eviscerating percentage (EP), breast muscle percentage (BMP) and leg muscle percentage (LMP) in meat-type chickens. Genomic prediction was assessed using a 4-fold cross-validation for two validation scenarios. The first scenario was a random family sampling validation (CVF), and the second scenario was a random individual sampling validation (CVR). Variance components were estimated based on the genomic relationship built with single nucleotide polymorphism markers. Genomic estimated breeding values (GEBV) were predicted using a genomic best linear unbiased prediction model. The accuracies of GEBV were evaluated in two ways: the correlation between GEBV and corrected phenotypic value divided by the square root of heritability, i.e., the correlation-based accuracy, and model-based theoretical accuracy. Breeding values were also predicted using a conventional pedigree-based best linear unbiased prediction model in order to compare accuracies of genomic and conventional predictions. The heritability estimates of FCR and RFI were 0.29 and 0.50, respectively. The heritability estimates of ADG, ADFI, EP, BMP and LMP ranged from 0.34 to 0.53. In the CVF scenario, the correlation-based accuracy and the theoretical accuracy of genomic prediction for FCR were slightly higher than those for RFI. The correlation-based accuracies for FCR, RFI, ADG and ADFI were 0.360, 0.284, 0.574 and 0.520, respectively, and the model-based theoretical accuracies were 0.420, 0.414, 0.401 and 0.382, respectively. In the CVR scenario, the correlation-based accuracy and the theoretical accuracy of genomic prediction for FCR was lower than RFI, which was different from the CVF scenario. The correlation-based accuracies for FCR, RFI, ADG and ADFI were 0.449, 0.593, 0.581 and 0.627, respectively, and the model-based theoretical accuracies were 0.577, 0.629, 0.631 and 0.638, respectively. The accuracies of genomic predictions were 0.371 and 0.322 higher than the conventional pedigree-based predictions for the CVF and CVR scenarios, respectively. The genetic correlations of FCR with EP, BMP and LMP were -0.427, -0.156 and -0.338, respectively. The correlations between RFI and the three carcass traits were -0.320, -0.404 and -0.353, respectively. These results indicate that RFI and FCR have a moderate accuracy of genomic prediction. Improving RFI and FCR could be favourable for EP, BMP and LMP. Compared with FCR, which can be improved by selection for ADG in typical meat-type chicken breeding programs, selection for RFI could lead to extra improvement in feed efficiency.

]]>
<![CDATA[Lifestyle, sick leave and work ability among Norwegian employees with asthma—A population-based cross-sectional survey conducted in Telemark County, Norway]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ndae955f4-245c-442b-a4a6-579d96a7b9a3

Objective

To investigate whether physician-diagnosed asthma modifies the associations between multiple lifestyle factors, sick leave and work ability in a general working population.

Methods

A cross-sectional study was conducted in Telemark County, Norway, in 2013. A sample of 16 099 respondents completed a self-administered questionnaire. We obtained complete data on lifestyle, work ability and sick leave for 10 355 employed persons aged 18–50 years. We modelled sick leave and work ability using multiple logistic regression, and introduced interaction terms to investigate whether associations with lifestyle factors were modified by asthma status.

Results

Several lifestyle risk factors and a multiple lifestyle risk index were associated with sick leave and reduced work ability score among persons both with and without physician-diagnosed asthma. A stronger association between lifestyle and sick leave among persons with asthma was confirmed by including interaction terms in the analysis: moderate lifestyle risk score * asthma OR = 1.4 (95% CI 1.02–2.1); high lifestyle risk score * asthma OR = 1.6 (95% CI 1.1–2.3); very high lifestyle risk score * asthma OR = 1.6 (95% CI 0.97–2.7); obesity * asthma OR = 1.5 (95% CI 1.02–2.1); past smoking * asthma OR = 1.4 (95% CI 1.01–1.9); and current smoking * asthma OR = 1.4 (95% CI 1.03–2.0).

There was no significant difference in the association between lifestyle and work ability score among respondents with and without asthma.

Conclusions

In the present study, we found that physician-diagnosed asthma modified the association between lifestyle risk factors and sick leave. Asthma status did not significantly modify these associations with reduced work ability score. The results indicate that lifestyle changes could be of particular importance for employees with asthma.

]]>
<![CDATA[Exposure to dim light at night prior to conception attenuates offspring innate immune responses]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N231fece1-eb24-47b2-a00f-cbdce7a093c6

Functional circadian timekeeping is necessary for homeostatic control of the immune system and appropriate immune responsiveness. Disruption of natural light-dark cycles, through light at night (LAN), impairs innate and adaptive immune responses in nocturnal rodents. These altered immune responses are associated with disrupted endogenous gene transcriptional and endocrine cycles. However, few studies have addressed the multigenerational consequences of systemic circadian rhythm disruption. We hypothesized that parental exposure to dim LAN (dLAN) would alter innate immune and sickness responses to an endotoxin challenge in adult offspring gestated and reared in dark nights. Adult male and female Siberian hamsters were exposed to either dark nights (DARK) or dLAN (~5 lux) for 8 weeks, then paired, mated, and thereafter housed under dark nights. Maternal exposure to dLAN prior to conception impaired febrile responses and increased splenic il-1 production in response to LPS in male offspring. Paternal pre-conception dLAN dampened offspring tnf-α expression in the hypothalamus, reduced serum bactericidal capacity, and dark phase locomotor activity. These changes occurred despite offspring being conceived, gestated, and reared under standard dark night conditions. Overall, these data suggest that dLAN has intergenerational effects on innate immunity and sickness responses.

]]>
<![CDATA[Antibiotic use for Australian Aboriginal children in three remote Northern Territory communities]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N999fa4e6-a15c-456a-862e-2e1ce88316a9

Objective

To describe antibiotic prescription rates for Australian Aboriginal children aged <2 years living in three remote Northern Territory communities.

Design

A retrospective cohort study using electronic health records.

Setting

Three primary health care centres located in the Katherine East region.

Participants

Consent was obtained from 149 mothers to extract data from 196 child records. There were 124 children born between January 2010 and July 2014 who resided in one of the three chosen communities and had electronic health records for their first two years of life.

Main outcome measures

Antibiotic prescription rates, factors associated with antibiotic prescription and factors associated with appropriate antibiotic prescription.

Results

There were 5,675 Primary Health Care (PHC) encounters for 124 children (median 41, IQR 25.5, 64). Of the 5,675 PHC encounters, 1,542 (27%) recorded at least one infection (total 1,777) and 1,330 (23%) had at least one antibiotic prescription recorded (total 1,468). Children had a median five (IQR 2, 9) prescriptions in both their first and second year of life, with a prescription rate of 5.99/person year (95% CI 5.35, 6.63). Acute otitis media was the most common infection (683 records, 38%) and Amoxycillin was the most commonly prescribed antibiotic (797 prescriptions, 54%). Of the 1,468 recorded prescriptions, 398 (27%) had no infection recorded and 116 (8%) with an infection recorded were not aligned with local treatment guidelines.

Conclusion

Prescription rates for Australian Aboriginal children in these communities are significantly higher than that reported nationally for non-Aboriginal Australians. Prescriptions predominantly aligned with treatment guidelines in this setting where there is a high burden of infectious disease.

]]>
<![CDATA[Energy expenditure and body composition changes after an isocaloric ketogenic diet in overweight and obese men: A secondary analysis of energy expenditure and physical activity]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N6924c77f-ef46-47bb-9a2b-08f320f77ea8

Background

A previously published pilot study assessed energy expenditure (EE) of participants with overweight and obesity after they were switched from a baseline high-carbohydrate diet (BD) to an isocaloric low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet (KD). EE measured using metabolic chambers increased transiently by what was considered a relatively small extent after the switch to the KD, whereas EE measured using doubly labeled water (EEDLW) increased to a greater degree after the response in the chambers had waned. Using a publicly available dataset, we examined the effect of housing conditions on the magnitude of the increase in EEDLW after the switch to the KD and the role of physical activity in that response.

Methods

The 14-day EEDLW measurement period included 4 days when subjects were confined to chambers instead of living in wards. To determine the effect on EEDLW only for the days subjects were living in the wards, we calculated non-chamber EE (EEnonchamber). To assess the role of physical activity in the response to the KD, we analyzed chamber and non-chamber accelerometer data for the BD and KD EEDLW measurement periods.

Results

In comparison with the increase in average 14-day EEDLW of 151 kcal/d ± 63 (P = 0.03) after the switch to the KD, EEnonchamber increased by 203 ± 89 kcal/d (P = 0.04) or 283 ± 116 kcal/d (P = 0.03) depending on the analytical approach. Hip accelerometer counts decreased significantly (P = 0.01) after the switch to the KD, whereas wrist and ankle accelerometer counts did not change.

Conclusions

Switching from the BD to the KD substantially increased EEDLW, but apparently only on days subjects were living in the ward outside the metabolic chamber. Increased physical activity as measured by accelerometry did not appear to account for this effect.

]]>
<![CDATA[Mystery or method? Evaluating claims of increased energy expenditure during a ketogenic diet]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N1fb27919-9738-4fc6-9f1b-08c7be150010 ]]> <![CDATA[Risk of infection in the first year of life in preterm children: An Austrian observational study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ne8c917d2-c06e-4527-bc81-08b9487488ae

Newborns, especially preterm infants, have an immature immune system, which, in combination with the required medical interventions necessary for keeping the neonate alive may lead to an increased risk of infection. Even after reaching stability and adapting to the environment, preterm infants have adverse prognoses regarding infections and long-term outcomes compared to their full-term counterparts. The objective of this study was to research differences in the number and severity of infections between preterm and full-term infants during their first year of life. To answer this question, a monocentric prospective study was conducted in a pediatric practice in Vienna, including 71 full-term infants and 72 preterm infants who were observed during their first year of life regarding occurring infections. In respective samples, there was a significantly higher total number of infections in preterm (mean 6.01 ± 3.90) compared to full-term infants (3.85 ± 1.72) during the observation period of one year. Particularly the count of respiratory and severe infections was considerably higher in preterm infants. Otorhinolaryngeal infections were the most frequent of all types of infections in both groups. The pregnancy period, number of siblings, and length of the postnatal hospital stay, were observed as significantly influencing factors which affected the total number of infections. The group of early term infants (37+0 weeks to 38+6) was not significantly different to late term babies (>39+0). The acquired knowledge about the increased risk of infections should lead to a more extensive care for preterm infants, with the objective of reducing the rates of complications, morbidity and mortality in this vulnerable age group in the future.

]]>
<![CDATA[Validation of risk factors for recurrence of renal cell carcinoma: Results from a large single-institution series]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ne7ebe4b8-b927-4fd1-a438-3fd04efc5df6

Purpose

To validate prognostic factors and determine the impact of obesity, hypertension, smoking and diabetes mellitus (DM) on risk of recurrence after surgery in patients with localized renal cell carcinoma (RCC).

Materials and methods

We performed a retrospective cohort study among patients that underwent partial or radical nephrectomy at Weill Cornell Medicine for RCC and collected preoperative information on RCC risk factors, as well as pathological data. Cases were reviewed for radiographic evidence of RCC recurrence. A Cox proportional-hazards model was developed to determine the contribution of RCC risk factors to recurrence risk. Disease-free survival and overall survival were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test.

Results

We identified 873 patients who underwent surgery for RCC between the years 2000–2015. In total 115 patients (13.2%) experienced a disease recurrence after a median follow up of 4.9 years. In multivariate analysis, increasing pathological T-stage (HR 1.429, 95% CI 1.265–1.614) and Nuclear grade (HR 2.376, 95% CI 1.734–3.255) were independently associated with RCC recurrence. In patients with T1-2 tumors, DM was identified as an additional independent risk factor for RCC recurrence (HR 2.744, 95% CI 1.343–5.605). Patients with DM had a significantly shorter median disease-free survival (1.5 years versus 2.6 years, p = 0.004), as well as median overall survival (4.1 years, versus 5.8 years, p<0.001).

Conclusions

We validated high pathological T-stage and nuclear grade as independent risk factors for RCC recurrence following nephrectomy. DM is associated with an increased risk of recurrence among patients with early stage disease.

]]>
<![CDATA[Association between circulating neuregulin4 levels and diabetes mellitus: A meta-analysis of observational studies]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N9558b610-af50-4464-8a85-11a7817968a6

Introduction

Neuregulin 4 (Nrg4) was proven as a brown fat-enriched secreted factor that can regulate glucose and lipid metabolism. However, the association between circulating Nrg4 levels and diabetes mellitus (DM) in human remains unclear. We conducted a meta-analysis to investigate association of circulating Nrg4 with DM.

Methods

Observational studies comparing circulating Nrg4 levels in diabetes patients and health controls were included. Circulating Nrg4, correlation coefficients of clinical indices and circulating Nrg4 were pooled by meta-analysis.

Results

Seven studies were included. The pooled results indicated there were no significant difference in the circulating Nrg4 between diabetes patients and controls (SMD = 0.18, 95%CI = -0.06 to 0.42, P = 0.143). However, diabetes patients had higher circulating Nrg4 than their controls in cross-sectional studies (SMD = 0.55, 95%CI = 0.36 to 0.73, P<0.001). None of the renal function and metabolic syndrome markers were correlated with circulating Nrg4, whereas the HbA1c and BMI were positively correlated (rs = 0.09, 95%CI = 0.03 to 0.16, P = 0.005; rs = 0.20, 95%CI = 0.07 to 0.34, P = 0.003; respectively).

Conclusion

Our findings suggested circulating Nrg4 may play a role in in the development of DM in cross-sectional studies and circulating Nrg4 might be associated with imbalance in glucose metabolism and obesity.

]]>
<![CDATA[Association between hair cortisol concentration and dietary intake among normal weight preschool children predisposed to overweight and obesity]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c8c1946d5eed0c484b4d32e

Background

The association between chronically elevated cortisol, as measured by hair cortisol concentration (HCC), and dietary intake among children has generally not been explored. Moreover, it is unknown whether there is an association between parental HCC and dietary intake among their children.

Objective

To examine associations between HCC and dietary intake among children, and to explore the association between parental HCC and dietary intake among their children.

Methods

We conducted a cross-sectional study based on 296 children predisposed to overweight and obesity who participated in the Healthy Start study. Multiple Linear regression analyses were conducted to assess the association between HCC and total energy intake, macronutrients, fruit and vegetables, added sugar, sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB), and a diet quality index (DQI).

Results

Among the children, we found that higher HCC was associated with a lower consumption of dietary fat (β: -0.7 g/day [95% CI: -1.3, -0.0] per 100 pg/mg HCC). We found no statistically significant association between HCC and intake of total energy, protein, carbohydrate, fruit and vegetables, added sugar, SSB or DQI. We found no association between parental HCC and intake of total energy, added sugar, selected food groups or DQI among their children. However, stratified analyses showed that paternal HCC was associated with a borderline significant lower total energy intake and significantly lower protein intake, but only among daughters (adjusted β: -42 kcal/day [95% CI: -85, 0] and -2.6 g/day [95% CI: -4.4, -0.8] per 100 pg/mg HCC, respectively).

Conclusion

Among children, chronic stress as measured by HCC may be associated with a lower fat consumption, and paternal HCC may be associated with a lower intake of energy and protein among their daughters. However, the associations observed were weak, and any clinical relevance of these findings remains questionable.

]]>
<![CDATA[Scrutinizing assortative mating in birds]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c784fead5eed0c4840078f1

It is often claimed that pair bonds preferentially form between individuals that resemble one another. Such assortative mating appears to be widespread throughout the animal kingdom. Yet it is unclear whether the apparent ubiquity of assortative mating arises primarily from mate choice (“like attracts like”), which can be constrained by same-sex competition for mates; from spatial or temporal separation; or from observer, reporting, publication, or search bias. Here, based on a conventional literature search, we find compelling meta-analytical evidence for size-assortative mating in birds (r = 0.178, 95% CI 0.142–0.215, 83 species, 35,591 pairs). However, our analyses reveal that this effect vanishes gradually with increased control of confounding factors. Specifically, the effect size decreased by 42% when we used previously unpublished data from nine long-term field studies, i.e., data free of reporting and publication bias (r = 0.103, 95% CI 0.074–0.132, eight species, 16,611 pairs). Moreover, in those data, assortative mating effectively disappeared when both partners were measured by independent observers or separately in space and time (mean r = 0.018, 95% CI −0.016–0.057). Likewise, we also found no evidence for assortative mating in a direct experimental test for mutual mate choice in captive populations of Zebra finches (r = −0.020, 95% CI −0.148–0.107, 1,414 pairs). These results highlight the importance of unpublished data in generating unbiased meta-analytical conclusions and suggest that the apparent ubiquity of assortative mating reported in the literature is overestimated and may not be driven by mate choice or mating competition for preferred mates.

]]>