ResearchPad - plant-genetics https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Proteomic analysis of a clavata-like phenotype mutant in <i>Brassica napus</i> ]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_12452 Rapeseed is one of important oil crops in China. Better understanding of the regulation network of main agronomic traits of rapeseed could improve the yielding of rapeseed. In this study, we obtained an influrescence mutant that showed a fusion phenotype, similar with the Arabidopsis clavata-like phenotype, so we named the mutant as Bnclavata-like (Bnclv-like). Phenotype analysis illustrated that abnormal development of the inflorescence meristem (IM) led to the fused-inflorescence phenotype. At the stage of protein abundance, major regulators in metabolic processes, ROS metabolism, and cytoskeleton formation were seen to be altered in this mutant. These results not only revealed the relationship between biological processes and inflorescence meristem development, but also suggest bioengineering strategies for the improved breeding and production of Brassica napus.

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<![CDATA[Chloroplast genomes of Rubiaceae: Comparative genomics and molecular phylogeny in subfamily Ixoroideae]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_11231 In Rubiaceae phylogenetics, the number of markers often proved a limitation with authors failing to provide well-supported trees at tribal and generic levels. A robust phylogeny is a prerequisite to study the evolutionary patterns of traits at different taxonomic levels. Advances in next-generation sequencing technologies have revolutionized biology by providing, at reduced cost, huge amounts of data for an increased number of species. Due to their highly conserved structure, generally recombination-free, and mostly uniparental inheritance, chloroplast DNA sequences have long been used as choice markers for plant phylogeny reconstruction. The main objectives of this study are: 1) to gain insight in chloroplast genome evolution in the Rubiaceae (Ixoroideae) through efficient methodology for de novo assembly of plastid genomes; and, 2) to test the efficiency of mining SNPs in the nuclear genome of Ixoroideae based on the use of a coffee reference genome to produce well-supported nuclear trees. We assembled whole chloroplast genome sequences for 27 species of the Rubiaceae subfamily Ixoroideae using next-generation sequences. Analysis of the plastid genome structure reveals a relatively good conservation of gene content and order. Generally, low variation was observed between taxa in the boundary regions with the exception of the inverted repeat at both the large and short single copy junctions for some taxa. An average of 79% of the SNP determined in the Coffea genus are transferable to Ixoroideae, with variation ranging from 35% to 96%. In general, the plastid and the nuclear genome phylogenies are congruent with each other. They are well-resolved with well-supported branches. Generally, the tribes form well-identified clades but the tribe Sherbournieae is shown to be polyphyletic. The results are discussed relative to the methodology used and the chloroplast genome features in Rubiaceae and compared to previous Rubiaceae phylogenies.

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<![CDATA[Heterochromatin and numeric chromosome evolution in Bignoniaceae, with emphasis on the Neotropical clade <i>Tabebuia</i> alliance]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_9306 Bignoniaceae is a diverse family composed of 840 species with Pantropical distribution. The chromosome number 2n = 40 is predominant in most species of the family, with n = 20 formerly being considered the haploid base number. We discuss here the haploid base number of Bignoniaceae and examine heterochromatin distributions revealed by CMA/DAPI fluorochromes in the Tabebuia alliance, as well as in some species of the Bignonieae, Tecomeae, and Jacarandeae tribes. When comparing the chromosome records and the phylogenies of Bignoniaceae it can be deduced that the base number of Bignoniaceae is probably n = 18, followed by an ascendant dysploidy (n = 18 → n = 20) in the most derived and diverse clades. The predominant heterochromatin banding patterns in the Tabebuia alliance were found to be two terminal CMA+ bands or two terminal and two proximal CMA+ bands. The banding pattern in the Tabebuia alliance clade was more variable than seen in Jacarandeae, but less variable than Bignonieae. Despite the intermediate level of variation observed, heterochromatin banding patterns offer a promising tool for distinguishing species, especially in the morphologically complex genus Handroanthus.

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<![CDATA[Identification of histone methylation modifiers and their expression patterns during somatic embryogenesis in <i>Hevea brasiliensis</i> ]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_9302 Histone methylation plays a crucial role in various biological processes, from heterochromatin formation to transcriptional regulation. Currently, no information is available regarding histone methylation modifiers in the important rubber-producing plant Hevea brasiliensis. Here, we identified 47 histone methyltransferase (HMT) genes and 25 histone demethylase (HDM) genes as possible members of the histone methylation modifiers in the rubber tree genome. According to the structural features of HMT and HDM, the HbHMTs were classified into two groups (HbPRMs and HbSDGs), the HbHDMs have two groups (HbLSDs and HbJMJs). Expression patterns were analyzed in five different tissues and at different phases of somatic embryogenesis. HbSDG10, 21, 25, 33, HbJMJ2, 18, 20 were with high expression at different phases of somatic embryogenesis. HbSDG10,14, 20, 21, 33 and HbPRMT4 were expressed highly in anther, HbSDG14, 20, 21, 22, 23, 33, 35 and HbPRMT1 HbJMJ7 and HbLSD1, 2, 3, 4 showed high expression levels in callus. HbSDG1, 7, 10, 13, 14, 18, 19, 21, 22, 23, 35, HbPRMT1, 8, HbJMJ5, 7, 11, 16, 20 and HbLSD2, 3, 4 were expressed highly in somatic embryo. HbSDG10, 21, 25, 33, HbLSD2, 3 were expressed highly in bud of regenerated plant. The analyses reveal that HbHMTs and HbHDMs exhibit different expression patterns at different phases during somatic embryogenesis, implying that some HbHMTs and HbHDMs play important roles during somatic embryogenesis. This study provide fundamental information for further studies on histone methylation in Hevea brasiliensis.

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<![CDATA[Genome composition and pollen viability of <i>Jatropha</i> (Euphorbiaceae) interspecific hybrids by Genomic <i>In Situ</i> Hybridization (GISH)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N86294b24-6d37-461a-ba54-06fbcedca3fe Interspecific hybridization is required for the development of Jatropha curcas L. improved cultivars, due to its narrow genetic basis. The present study aimed to analyze the parental genomic composition of F1 and BC1F1 generations derived from interspecific crosses (J. curcas/J. integerrima and J. curcas/J. multifida) by GISH (Genomic In Situ Hybridization), and the meiotic index and pollen viability of F1 hybrids. In F1 cells from both hybrids, 11 chromosomes of each parental was observed, as expected, but chromosome rearrangement events could be detected using rDNA chromosome markers, suggesting unbalanced cells. In the BC1F1, both hybrids had 22 chromosomes, suggesting that only n = 11 gametes were viable in the next generation. However, GISH allowed the identification of three and two alien chromosomes in J. curcas//J. integerrima and J. curcas//J. multifida BC1F1 hybrids, respectively, suggesting a preferential transmission of J. curcas chromosomes for both hybrids. Pollen viability in F1 hybrids derived from J. curcas/J. integerrima crosses were higher (82-83%) than those found for J. curcas/J. multifida (68%), showing post-meiotic problems in these last hybrids, with dyads, triads, polyads, and micronuclei as post-meiosis results. The here presented cytogenetic characterization of interspecific hybrids and their backcross progenies can contribute to the selection of the best genotypes for future assisted breeding of J. curcas.

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<![CDATA[Genetic diversity in populations of African mahogany (<i>Khaya grandioliola</i> C. DC.) introduced in Brazil]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N5c53f40b-f869-43c6-8bfd-9c42096eb447 Given its high-valued wood, the African mahogany (Khaya grandifoliola) has been envisaged as a renewable source of tropical hardwoods in Brazil. However, there are concerns about the hypothesized low diversity among the few K. grandifoliola germplasm sources introduced in the country. Using eight microsatellite markers, we evaluated the genetic diversity and divergence among 53 superior trees selected from three provenances of K. grandifoliola located in the state of Para. These populations are among the oldest plantations (>15 years) in Brazil and, therefore, the country's main seed sources. The average number of alleles per locus was 5.9, expected heterozygosity was moderate (^=0.56) and lower than the high observed heterozygosity (HO=0.74). Therefore, the intrapopulation fixation index was negative (f=-0.31) indicating the possibility that selection of superior trees might have favored heterozygous plants with heterosis. No genetic structure was observed between provenances. The genetic diversity observed within selected trees, with an effective population size (Ne) of 30.4, is comparable to that of natural populations of African and Brazilian mahoganies. Therefore, our results contradict the idea that the genetic diversity of K. grandifoliola introduced in Brazil is low and show that our germplasm can be exploited for breeding purposes.

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<![CDATA[Low cytomolecular diversification in the genus <i>Stylosanthes</i> Sw. (Papilionoideae, Leguminosae)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N04e4c27b-64f6-404e-b637-bc7a0c7e0006 Stylosanthes (Papilionoideae, Leguminosae) is a predominantly Neotropical genus with ~48 species that include worldwide important forage species. This study presents the chromosome number and morphology of eight species of the genus Stylosanthes (S. acuminata, S. gracilis, S. grandifolia, S. guianensis, S. hippocampoides, S. pilosa, S. macrocephala, and S. ruellioides). In addition, staining with CMA and DAPI, in situ hybridization with 5S and 35S rDNA probes, and estimation of DNA content were performed. The interpretation of Stylosanthes chromosome diversification was anchored by a comparison with the sister genus Arachis and a dated molecular phylogeny based on nuclear and plastid loci. Stylosanthes species showed 2n = 20, with low cytomolecular diversification regarding 5S rDNA, 35S rDNA, and genome size. Arachis has a more ancient diversification (~7 Mya in the Pliocene) than the relatively recent Stylosanthes (~2 Mya in the Pleistocene), and it seems more diverse than its sister lineage. Our data support the idea that the cytomolecular stability of Stylosanthes in relation to Arachis could be a result of its recent origin. The recent diversification of Stylosanthes could also be related to the low morphological differentiation among species, and to the recurrent formation of allopolyploid complexes.

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<![CDATA[Molecular characterization and transcription analysis of DNA methyltransferase genes in tomato (<i>Solanum lycopersicum</i>)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N7ad4820c-ba0b-4102-999c-ca5be6ea6742 DNA methylation plays an important role in plant growth and development, gene expression regulation, and maintenance of genome stability. However, only little information regarding stress-related DNA methyltransferases (MTases) genes is available in tomato. Here, we report the analysis of nine tomato MTases, which were categorized into four known subfamilies. Structural analysis suggested their DNA methylase domains are highly conserved, whereas the N-terminals are divergent. Tissue-specific analysis of these MTase genes revealed that SlCMT2, SlCMT3, and SlDRM5 were expressed higher in young leaves, while SlMET1, SlCMT4, SlDRM7, and SlDRM8 were highly expressed in immature green fruit, and their expression declined continuously with further fruit development. In contrast, SlMETL was highly expressed in ripening fruit and displayed an up-regulated tendency during fruit development. In addition, the expression of SlMET1 in the ripening of mutant rin and Nr tomatoes is significantly higher compared to wild-type tomato, suggesting that SlMET1 was negatively regulated by the ethylene signal and ripening regulator MADS-RIN. Furthermore, expression analysis under abiotic stresses revealed that these MTase genes were stress-responsive and may function diversely in different stress conditions. Overall, our results provide valuable information for exploring the regulation of tomato fruit ripening and response to abiotic stress through DNA methylation.

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<![CDATA[Does the chromosomal position of 35S rDNA sites influence their transcription? A survey on <i>Nothoscordum</i> species (Amaryllidaceae)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ne11a6003-e96b-4148-bb78-af1898bbdadc 35S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sites are the regions where the ribosomal genes 18S, 5.8S and 25S, responsible for the formation of the nucleoli, are found. The fact that rDNA sites have non-random distribution on chromosomes suggests that their positions may influence their transcription. To identify if the preferentially transcribed rDNA sites occupy specific position, six species (nine cytotypes) of the genus Nothoscordum were analyzed using two different techniques to impregnate the nucleolar organizer regions (NORs) with silver nitrate. Both techniques strongly stained NORs, but one of them also stained the proximal region of all chromosomes, suggesting the existence of another group of argentophilic proteins in this region. In species with rDNA sites in acrocentric and metacentric chromosomes, sites located on the short arms of the acrocentric chromosomes were preferentially activated. On the other hand, in species with rDNA sites restricted to the short arms of the acrocentrics, all of them were activated, whereas in those species with sites restricted to the terminal region of metacentric chromosomes, the frequency of active sites was always lower than expected. This indicate that, at least in Nothoscordum, the transcription of an rDNA site is influenced by its chromosomal position, and may explain, at least partially, the strongly non-random distribution of these sites in plant and animal chromosomes.

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<![CDATA[YUCCA4 overexpression modulates auxin biosynthesis and transport and influences plant growth and development via crosstalk with abscisic acid in Arabidopsis thaliana]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nba035a37-5c53-4e68-bd4a-1922cebeb44e Auxin regulates a plethora of events during plant growth and development, acting in concert with other phytohormones. YUCCA genes encode flavin monooxygenases that function in tryptophan-dependent auxin biosynthesis. To understand the contribution of the YUCCA4 (YUC4) gene on auxin homeostasis, plant growth and interaction with abscisic acid (ABA) signaling, 35S::YUC4 seedlings were generated, which showed elongated hypocotyls with hyponastic leaves and changes in root system architecture that correlate with enhanced auxin responsive gene expression. Differential expression of PIN1, 2, 3 and 7 auxin transporters was detected in roots of YUC4 overexpressing seedlings compared to the wild-type: PIN1 was down-regulated whereas PIN2, PIN3 and PIN7 were up-regulated. Noteworthy, 35S::YUC4 lines showed enhanced sensitivity to ABA on seed germination and post-embryonic root growth, involving ABI4 transcription factor. The auxin reporter genes DR5::GUS, DR5::GFP and BA3::GUS further revealed that abscisic acid impairs auxin responses in 35S::YUC4 seedlings. Our results indicate that YUC4 overexpression influences several aspects of auxin homeostasis and reveal the critical roles of ABI4 during auxin-ABA interaction in germination and primary root growth.

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<![CDATA[The draft mitochondrial genome of Magnolia biondii and mitochondrial phylogenomics of angiosperms]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N1f661d3e-d0c0-407e-92c0-bb72cd78029d

The mitochondrial genomes of flowering plants are well known for their large size, variable coding-gene set and fluid genome structure. The available mitochondrial genomes of the early angiosperms show extreme genetic diversity in genome size, structure, and sequences, such as rampant HGTs in Amborella mt genome, numerous repeated sequences in Nymphaea mt genome, and conserved gene evolution in Liriodendron mt genome. However, currently available early angiosperm mt genomes are still limited, hampering us from obtaining an overall picture of the mitogenomic evolution in angiosperms. Here we sequenced and assembled the draft mitochondrial genome of Magnolia biondii Pamp. from Magnoliaceae (magnoliids) using Oxford Nanopore sequencing technology. We recovered a single linear mitochondrial contig of 967,100 bp with an average read coverage of 122 × and a GC content of 46.6%. This draft mitochondrial genome contains a rich 64-gene set, similar to those of Liriodendron and Nymphaea, including 41 protein-coding genes, 20 tRNAs, and 3 rRNAs. Twenty cis-spliced and five trans-spliced introns break ten protein-coding genes in the Magnolia mt genome. Repeated sequences account for 27% of the draft genome, with 17 out of the 1,145 repeats showing recombination evidence. Although partially assembled, the approximately 1-Mb mt genome of Magnolia is still among the largest in angiosperms, which is possibly due to the expansion of repeated sequences, retention of ancestral mtDNAs, and the incorporation of nuclear genome sequences. Mitochondrial phylogenomic analysis of the concatenated datasets of 38 conserved protein-coding genes from 91 representatives of angiosperm species supports the sister relationship of magnoliids with monocots and eudicots, which is congruent with plastid evidence.

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<![CDATA[Identification of early fruit development reference genes in plum]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N34728444-bb7f-4d99-8469-dd5c2a1110fc

An RNAseq study of early fruit development and stone development in plum, Prunus domestica, was mined to identify sets of genes that could be used to normalize expression studies in early fruit development. The expression values of genes previously identified from Prunus as reference genes were first extracted and found to vary considerably in endocarp tissue relative to whole fruit tissue. Nine other genes were chosen that varied less than 2-fold amongst the 20 RNAseq libraries of early fruit development and endocarp tissues. These gene were tested on a series of developmental plum fruit samples to determine if any could be used as a reference gene in the analyses of fruit-based tissues in plum. The three most stable genes as determined using RefFinder were IPGD (imidazole glycerol-phosphate dehydratase), HAM1 (histone acetyltransferase) and SNX1 (sorting nexin 1). These were further tested to analyze genes expressed differentially in endocarp tissue between normal and minimal endocarp cultivars. To determine the universality of those nine genes as fruit development reference genes, three other data sets of RNAseq from peach and apple were analyzed to determine the reference gene expression. Multiple genes exhibited tissue specific patterns of expression while one gene, the SNX1, emerged as possessing a universal pattern between the Rosaceae species, at all developmental stages, and tissue types tested. The results suggest that the use of existing RNAseq data to identify standard genes can provide stable reference genes for a specific tissues or experimental conditions under exploration.

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<![CDATA[Genome-wide association analysis of stripe rust resistance loci in wheat accessions from southwestern China]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N672adbb2-fd55-4cde-9052-4e5526624c2f

Wheat stripe rust can cause considerable yield losses, and genetic resistance is the most effective approach for controlling the disease. To identify the genomic regions responsible for Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst) resistance in a set of winter wheat strains mainly from southwestern China, and to identify DNA markers in these regions, we carried out a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 120 China winter wheat accessions using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers from 90K wheat SNP arrays. In total, 16 SNP loci were significantly associated with wheat stripe rust in field and greenhouse trials. Of these, three distinctive SNPs on chromosomes 1B, 4A, and 6A were identified at a site in Mianyang in 2014, where the most prevalent wheat stripe rust races since 2009 have been V26 (G22-9, G22-14). This suggests that the three SNP loci were linked to the new quantitative trait loci (QTL)/genes resistant to the V26 races. Germplasm with immunity to Pst is a good source of stripe rust resistance for breeding, and after further validation, SNPs closely linked to resistance QTLs/genes could be converted into user-friendly markers and facilitate marker-assisted selection to improve wheat stripe rust resistance.

Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article (10.1007/s13353-019-00533-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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<![CDATA[Validation of Diaporthe toxica resistance markers in European Lupinus angustifolius germplasm and identification of novel resistance donors for marker-assisted selection]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N516952e1-3363-431f-8a43-b57e89834239

The fungus, Diaporthe toxica, anamorph Phomopsis sp., previously classified as P. leptostromiformis, is a plant endophyte and occasional pathogen, causing Phomopsis stem blight. This disease is damaging not only to lupins but also to the animals grazing on infected plants, due to the toxic secondary metabolites called phomopsins. The aim of this work was to validate markers for resistance to Phomopsis stem blight in narrow-leafed lupins and identify novel germplasm with increased levels of resistance to the disease. Plant inoculations were performed using ten isolates of D. toxica, originating from Australia and Poland. The European core collection of L. angustifolius was evaluated both in a controlled environment and with field experiments to classify the accessions based on their resistance to the disease. Simultaneously, the accessions were assayed with disease resistance markers to identify donors of hypothetical resistance alleles. We have found that the European lupin germplasm collection preserves wild and domesticated donors of at least two resistance genes to Phomopsis stem blight, including Phr1 and PhtjR. Molecular markers PhtjM7, InDel2, and InDel10, tagging PhtjR gene, were applicable for marker-assisted selection targeting the European gene pool with an expected accuracy of 95%. None of diagnostic markers for the Phr1 locus was found useful for European breeding programs; two existing markers Ph258M1 and Ph258M2 were unreliable, due to a high percentage of false-positive results (up to 58%) and a high recombination rate between markers (~ 30%).

Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article (10.1007/s13353-019-00521-y) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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<![CDATA[Molecular and cytogenetic description of somatic hybrids between Gentiana cruciata L. and G. tibetica King]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nbd86347e-b5b8-4827-8def-6c1253bdaa34

Somatic hybridization provides an opportunity to create cells with new genetic constitution. Here, the interspecific somatic hybrid plants regenerated in vitro following fusion of cell suspension–derived protoplasts of tetraploid Cross Gentian (Gentiana cruciata L., 2n = 52) with protoplasts released from mesophyll tissue of another tetraploid species, Tibetan Gentian (G. tibetica King, 2n = 52), were studied. According to the results of genome analyses with AFLP, ISSR, and CAPS markers, all somatic hybrids were genetically closer to “suspension” fusion partner G. cruciata than to “mesophyll” partner G. tibetica, but they got G. tibetica chloroplasts. Chromosome counting revealed little variation in the number of chromosomes in hybrid’s cells (2n = 88 or 2n = 90), although all plants possessed similar nuclear DNA content which remained stable even after 2 years of in vitro culture. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) showed that hybrids possessed 4 to 7 chromosomes bearing 5S rDNA sites and 6 or 7 chromosomes with 35S rDNA sites. A part of FISH signals was smaller than those observed in the parental species, which could indicate the loss of rDNA sequences. Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) showed the predominance of the number of G. cruciata chromosomes over chromosomes of G. tibetica. However, a significant level of cross-hybridization was observed for about one-third of hybrid chromosomes, indicating a high degree of homeology between the genomes of G. cruciata and G. tibetica.

Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article (10.1007/s13353-019-00530-x) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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<![CDATA[Genome-wide identification and characterization of R2R3-MYB genes in Medicago truncatula]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N2e729c96-d241-4530-a06f-b6c41a45cc8a

Abstract

MYB is a large family of plant transcription factors. Its function has been identified in several plants, while there are few reports in Medicago truncatula. In this study, we used RNA-seq data to analyze and identify R2R3-MYB genes in the genome of Medicago truncatula. Phylogenetic analysis classified 150 MtMYB genes into 21 subfamilies with homologs. Out of the 150 MtMYB genes, 139 were distributed among 8 chromosomes, with tandem duplications (TD) and segment duplications (SD). Microarray data were used for functional analysis of the MtMYB genes during growth and developmental processes providing evidence for a role in tissues differentiation, seed development processes, and especially the nodulation process. Furthermore, we investigated the expression of MtMYB genes in response to abiotic stresses using RNA-seq data, which confirmed the critical roles in signal transduction and regulation processes under abiotic stress. We used quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) to validate expression profiles. The expression pattern of M. truncatula MYB genes under different abiotic stress conditions suggest that some may play a major role in cross-talk among different signal transduction pathways in response to abiotic stresses. Our study will serve as a foundation for future research into the molecular function of M. truncatula R2R3-MYB genes.

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<![CDATA[Mapping of QTL for total spikelet number per spike on chromosome 2D in wheat using a high-density genetic map]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N8f2f17c2-274c-40f6-97d2-51ab7b42c3f4

Abstract

Total spikelet number per spike (TSS) is one of the key components of grain yield in wheat. Chromosome (chr.) 2D contains numerous genes that control TSS. In this study, we evaluated 138 F8 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from an F2 population of a synthetic hexaploid wheat line (SHW-L1) and a common wheat cultivar (Chuanmai 32) for TSS in six different environments. To identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) for TSS, we constructed an integrated high-density genetic map of chr. 2D containing two simple sequence repeats, 35 diversity array technology markers, and 143 single nucleotide polymorphisms. We identified three stable QTL for TSS that individually explained 9.7–19.2% of the phenotypic variation and predicted 23 putative candidate genes within the QTL mapping interval. Overall, our results provide insight into the genetic basis of TSS in synthetic hexaploid wheat that may be useful in breeding high-yielding wheat cultivars.

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<![CDATA[Ammopiptanthus mongolicus stress-responsive NAC gene enhances the tolerance of transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana to drought and cold stresses]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N9a36a6d6-cf5e-4ce0-88be-be34a7e30597

Abstract

Drought and cold are the primary factors limiting plant growth worldwide. The Ammopiptanthus mongolicus NAC11 (AmNAC11) gene encodes a stress-responsive transcription factor. Expression of the AmNAC11 gene was induced by drought, cold and high salinity. The AmNAC11 protein was localized in the nucleus and plays an important role in tolerance to drought, cold and salt stresses. We also found that differential expression of AmNAC11 was induced in the early stages of seed germination and was related to root growth. When the AmNAC11 gene was introduced into Arabidopsis thaliana by an Agrobacterium-mediated method, the transgenic lines expressing AmNAC11 displayed significantly enhanced tolerance to drought and freezing stresses compared to wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana plants. These results indicated that over-expression of the AmNAC11 gene in Arabidopsis could significantly enhance its tolerance to drought and freezing stresses. Our study provides a promising approach to improve the tolerance of crop cultivars to abiotic stresses through genetic engineering.

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<![CDATA[Chromosomal variability in Brazilian species of Anthurium Schott (Araceae): Heterochromatin, polyploidy, and B chromosomes]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N45253849-85e4-4f80-8166-f321474d479c

Abstract

The genus Anthurium has a Neotropical distribution, with karyotype predominance of x = 15, although some species show disploidy or polyploid variations. The karyotypes of seven species and different populations of Anthurium were analyzed using fluorochrome CMA and DAPI staining. The karyotypes were composed of meta- and submetacentric chromosomes, with numbers varying from 2n = 30 to 2n = 60. Supernumerary euchromatic chromosomes were observed in A. affine, and supernumerary heterochromatic chromosomes were observed in A. gladiifolium and A. petrophilum. Polyploidy was recurrent in the Anthurium species analyzed, with records of 2n = 30 and 60 in different A. pentaphyllum populations. Fluorochrome staining revealed different CMA+ banding distributions between diploid and polyploid cytotypes of A. pentaphyllum, suggesting structural alteration events. Anthurium petrophilum, on the other hand, showed a more consistent banding profile, with 10 to 12 proximal CMA bands in the three populations analyzed. DAPI+/CMA0 regions occurred exclusively in populations of A. gracile and A. pentaphyllum. The heterochromatic fraction in Anthurium was found to be quantitatively variable among species and populations, which may be related with adaptive aspects, different environmental conditions, or phylogenetic position.

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<![CDATA[Split green fluorescent protein as a tool to study infection with a plant pathogen, Cauliflower mosaic virus]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c897773d5eed0c4847d2d2c

The split GFP technique is based on the auto-assembly of GFP when two polypeptides–GFP1-10 (residues 1–214; the detector) and GFP11 (residues 215–230; the tag)–both non-fluorescing on their own, associate spontaneously to form a fluorescent molecule. We evaluated this technique for its efficacy in contributing to the characterization of Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) infection. A recombinant CaMV with GFP11 fused to the viral protein P6 (a key player in CaMV infection and major constituent of viral factory inclusions that arise during infection) was constructed and used to inoculate transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana expressing GFP1-10. The mutant virus (CaMV11P6) was infectious, aphid-transmissible and the insertion was stable over many passages. Symptoms on infected plants were delayed and milder. Viral protein accumulation, especially of recombinant 11P6, was greatly decreased, impeding its detection early in infection. Nonetheless, spread of infection from the inoculated leaf to other leaves was followed by whole plant imaging. Infected cells displayed in real time confocal laser scanning microscopy fluorescence in wild type-looking virus factories. Thus, it allowed for the first time to track a CaMV protein in vivo in the context of an authentic infection. 11P6 was immunoprecipitated with anti-GFP nanobodies, presenting a new application for the split GFP system in protein-protein interaction assays and proteomics. Taken together, split GFP can be an attractive alternative to using the entire GFP for protein tagging.

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