ResearchPad - plant-physiology https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[A MYB transcription factor, <i>BnMYB2</i>, cloned from ramie (<i>Boehmeria nivea</i>) is involved in cadmium tolerance and accumulation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_15762 MYB-related transcription factors play important roles in plant development and response to various environmental stresses. In the present study, a novel MYB gene, designated as BnMYB2 (GenBank accession number: MF741319.1), was isolated from Boehmeria nivea using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) and RT-PCR on a sequence fragment from a ramie transcriptome. BnMYB2 has a 945 bp open reading frame encoding a 314 amino acid protein that contains a DNA-binding domain and shares high sequence identity with MYB proteins from other plant species. The BnMYB2 promoter contains several putative cis-acting elements involved in stress or phytohormone responses. A translational fusion of BnMYB2 with enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) showed nuclear and cytosolic subcellular localization. Real-time PCR results indicated that BnMYB2 expression was induced by Cadmium (Cd) stress. Overexpression of BnMYB2 in Arabidopsis thaliana resulted in a significant increase of Cd tolerance and accumulation. Thus, BnMYB2 positively regulated Cd tolerance and accumulation in Arabidopsis, and could be used to enhance the efficiency of Cd removal with plants.

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<![CDATA[<i>Xylella fastidiosa</i> subsp. <i>pauca</i> and olive produced lipids moderate the switch adhesive versus non-adhesive state and <i>viceversa</i>]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14717 Global trade and climate change are re-shaping the distribution map of pandemic pathogens. One major emerging concern is Xylella fastidiosa, a tropical bacterium recently introduced into Europe from America. In last decades, X. fastidiosa was detected in several European countries. X. fastidiosa is an insect vector-transmitted bacterial plant pathogen associated with severe diseases in a wide range of hosts. X. fastidiosa through a tight coordination of the adherent biofilm and the planktonic states, invades the host systemically. The planktonic phase is correlated to low cell density and vessel colonization. Increase in cell density triggers a quorum sensing system based on mixture of cis 2-enoic fatty acids—diffusible signalling factors (DSF) that promote stickiness and biofilm. The lipidome profile of Olea europaea L. (cv. Ogliarola salentina) samples, collected in groves located in infected zones and uninfected zones was performed. The untargeted analysis of the lipid profiles of Olive Quick Decline Syndrome (OQDS) positive (+) and negative (-) plants showed a clustering of OQDS+ plants apart from OQDS-. The targeted lipids profile of plants OQDS+ and OQDS- identified a shortlist of 10 lipids that increase their amount in OQDS+ and X. fastidiosa positive olive trees. These lipid entities, provided to X. fastidiosa subsp. pauca pure culture, impact on the dual phase, e.g. planktonic ↔ biofilm. This study provides novel insights on OQDS lipid hallmarks and on molecules that might modulate biofilm phase in X. fastidiosa subsp. pauca.

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<![CDATA[Production location of the gelling agent Phytagel has a significant impact on <i>Arabidopsis thaliana</i> seedling phenotypic analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14611 Recently, it was found that 1% Phytagel plates used to conduct Arabidopsis thaliana seedling phenotypic analysis no longer reproduced previously published results. This Phytagel, which is produced in China (Phytagel C), has replace American-made Phytagel (Phytagel), which is no longer commercially available. In this study, we present the impact of Phytagel produced in the United States vs. China on seedling phenotypic analysis. As a part of this study, an alternative gelling agent has been identified that is capable of reproducing previously published seedling morphometrics.ResultsPhytagel and Phytagel C were investigated based on their ability to reproduce the subtle phenotype of the sob3-4 esc-8 double mutant. Fluence-rate-response analysis of seedlings grown on 1% Phytagel C plates failed to replicate the sob3-4 esc-8 subtle phenotype seen on 1% Phytagel. Furthermore, root penetrance analysis showed a significant difference between sob3-4 esc-8 seedlings grown on 1% Phytagel and 1% Phytagel C. It was also found that 1% Phytagel C was significantly harder than 1% Phytagel. As a replacement for Phytagel C, Gellan was tested. 1% Gellan was able to reproduce the subtle phenotype of sob3-4 esc-8. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in root penetration of the wild type or sob3-4 esc-8 seedlings between 1% Phytagel and 1% Gellan. This may be due to the significant reduction in hardness in 1% Gellan plates compared to 1% Phytagel plates. Finally, we tested additional concentrations of Gellan and found that seedlings on 0.6% Gellan looked more uniform while also being able to reproduce previously published results.ConclusionsPhytagel has been the standard gelling agent for several studies involving the characterization of subtle seedling phenotypes. After production was moved to China, Phytagel C was no longer capable of reproducing these previously published results. An alternative gelling agent, Gellan, was able to reproduce previously published seedling phenotypes at both 1% and 0.6% concentrations. The information provided in this manuscript is beneficial to the scientific community as whole, specifically phenomics labs, as it details key problematic differences between gelling agents that should be performing identically (Phytagel and Phytagel C). ]]> <![CDATA[Genome-wide identification of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade and expression profiling of <i>CmMAPKs</i> in melon (<i>Cucumis melo</i> L.)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14577 Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) is a form of serine/threonine protein kinase that activated by extracellular stimulation acting through the MAPK cascade (MAPKKK-MAPKK-MAPK). The MAPK cascade gene family, an important family of protein kinases, plays a vital role in responding to various stresses and hormone signal transduction processes in plants. In this study, we identified 14 CmMAPKs, 6 CmMAPKKs and 64 CmMAPKKKs in melon genome. Based on structural characteristics and a comparison of phylogenetic relationships of MAPK gene families from Arabidopsis, cucumber and watermelon, CmMAPKs and CmMAPKKs were categorized into 4 groups, and CmMAPKKKs were categorized into 3 groups. Furthermore, chromosome location revealed an unevenly distribution on chromosomes of MAPK cascade genes in melon, respectively. Eventually, qRT-PCR analysis showed that all 14 CmMAPKs had different expression patterns under drought, salt, salicylic acid (SA), methyl jasmonate (MeJA), red light (RL), and Podosphaera xanthii (P. xanthii) treatments. Overall, the expression levels of CmMAPK3 and CmMAPK7 under different treatments were higher than those in control. Our study provides an important basis for future functional verification of MAPK genes in regulating responses to stress and signal substance in melon.

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<![CDATA[Impact of fruit orientation and pelleting material on water uptake and germination performance in artificial substrate for sugar beet]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14564 Water uptake into seeds is a fundamental prerequisite of germination and commonly influenced by commercial seed enhancement technologies. The effect of fruit orientation and contrasting pelleting materials on germination and biological performance of sugar beet was assessed. The results indicated there was orientation dependent fruit shrinkage of 37% for the operculum side supplied by moisture compared to 4% for the basal pore side. The expansion rate of 5% compared to the original size, which was also observed for non-shrinking seeds, indicated this was a temporary effect. This behaviour has importance for the application pelleting materials to seeds. Pellets composed of materials exhibiting low levels of swelling act as a water distribution layer which increased germination rates. Careful selection of pelleting material is crucial as it has direct implications on germination speed and subsequent establishment rates.

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<![CDATA[Seed germination of <i>Bidens subalternans</i> DC. exposed to different environmental factors]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14560 Bidens subalternans DC. is a weed found in several tropical countries such as Brazil. Large number of produced seeds and easy dispersion favor the colonization of agricultural fields by this species. To know the factors that affect the germination of B. subalternans can help to understand its ecology, permitting to develop control strategies. Laboratory experiments were carried out to evaluate how the temperature, photoperiod, burial depth, water deficit, and salt stress affect the seed germination of B. subalternans. The means of the treatments of each experiment were shown in scatter plots with the bars indicating the least significant difference (LSD, p≤0.05). The results showed a germination percentage above 77% for a wide alternating temperature (15/20 C to 30/35 C night/day). The highest germination and uniformity occurred at 25/30°C night/day. Only 11% of the seeds germinated at a temperature of 35/40°C night/day. The deeper burial of seeds reduced their germination. Only 17% of the seeds germinated in darkness conditions. However, in constant light and 12 hours of light/dark conditions the germination percentage was over 96%, confirming the light dependence of the B. subalternans during germination. In constant light and 12 hours of light/dark, the germination was over 96%. B. subalternans seeds showed sensitivity to water and salt stress, and their germination was inhibited under a water potential of -0.4 MPa and 100.09 mM, respectively. The sensitivity of B. subalternans seeds to high temperatures, water stress, and salt stress explains the high frequency of this weed in south-central Brazil. The light and sowing depth showed that burial of seeds by mechanical control is a strategy to reduce the high infestation of B. subalternans.

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<![CDATA[Terminal drought and heat stress alter physiological and biochemical attributes in flag leaf of bread wheat]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14475 Heat stress along with low water availability at reproductive stage (terminal growth phase of wheat crop) is major contributing factor towards less wheat production in tropics and sub-tropics. Flag leaf plays a pivotal role in assimilate partitioning and stress tolerance of wheat during terminal growth phase. However, limited is known about biochemical response of flag leaf to combined and individual heat and drought stress during terminal growth phase. Therefore, current study investigated combined and individual effect of terminal drought and heat stress on water relations, photosynthetic pigments, osmolytes accumulation and antioxidants defense mechanism in flag leaf of bread wheat. Experimental treatments comprised of control, terminal drought stress alone (50% field capacity during reproductive phase), terminal heat stress alone (wheat grown inside plastic tunnel during reproductive phase) and terminal drought stress + terminal heat stress. Individual and combined imposition of drought and heat stresses significantly (p≤0.05) altered water relations, osmolyte contents, soluble proteins and sugars along with activated antioxidant defensive system in terms of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX). Turgor potential, POD and APX activities were lowest under individual heat stress; however, these were improved when drought stress was combined with heat stress. It is concluded that combined effect of drought and heat stress was more detrimental than individual stresses. The interactive effect of both stresses was hypo-additive in nature, but for some traits (like turgor potential and APX) effect of one stress neutralized the other. To best of our knowledge, this is the first report on physiological and biochemical response of flag leaf of wheat to combine heat and drought stress. These results will help future studies dealing with improved stress tolerance in wheat. However, detailed studies are needed to fully understand the genetic mechanisms behind these physiological and biochemical changes in flag leaf in response to combined heat and drought stress.

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<![CDATA[Extending thermotolerance to tomato seedlings by inoculation with SA1 isolate of <i>Bacillus cereus</i> and comparison with exogenous humic acid application]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_11229 Heat stress is one of the major abiotic stresses that impair plant growth and crop productivity. Plant growth-promoting endophytic bacteria (PGPEB) and humic acid (HA) are used as bio-stimulants and ecofriendly approaches to improve agriculture crop production and counteract the negative effects of heat stress. Current study aimed to analyze the effect of thermotolerant SA1 an isolate of Bacillus cereus and HA on tomato seedlings. The results showed that combine application of SA1+HA significantly improved the biomass and chlorophyll fluorescence of tomato plants under normal and heat stress conditions. Heat stress increased abscisic acid (ABA) and reduced salicylic acid (SA) content; however, combined application of SA1+HA markedly reduced ABA and increased SA. Antioxidant enzymes activities revealed that SA1 and HA treated plants exhibited increased levels of ascorbate peroxidase (APX), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and reduced glutathione (GSH). In addition, heat stress markedly reduced the amino acid contents; however, the amino acids were increased with co-application of SA1+HA. Similarly, inductively-coupled plasma mass-spectrometry results showed that plants treated with SA1+HA exhibited significantly higher iron (Fe+), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K+) uptake during heat stress. Heat stress increased the relative expression of SlWRKY33b and autophagy-related (SlATG5) genes, whereas co-application of SA1+HA augmented the heat stress response and reduced SlWRKY33b and SlATG5 expression. The heat stress-responsive transcription factor (SlHsfA1a) and high-affinity potassium transporter (SlHKT1) were upregulated in SA1+HA-treated plants. In conclusion, current findings suggest that co-application with SA1+HA can be used for the mitigation of heat stress damage in tomato plants and can be commercialized as a biofertilizer.

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<![CDATA[Identification and expression analysis of miRNAs and elucidation of their role in salt tolerance in rice varieties susceptible and tolerant to salinity]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N52f944dc-26d8-4e67-9222-1bf646d955e0

Soil salinization is a serious problem for cultivation of rice, as among cereals rice is the most salt sensitive crop, and more than 40% of the total agricultural land amounting to approximately 80 million ha the world over is salt affected. Salinity affects a plant in a varieties of ways, including ion toxicity, osmotic stress and oxidative damage. Since miRNAs occupy the top place in biochemical events determining a trait, understanding their role in salt tolerance is highly desirable, which may allow introduction of the trait in the rice cultivars of choice through biotechnological interventions. High throughput sequencing of sRNAs in the root and shoot tissues of the seedlings of the control and NaCl treated Pokkali, a salt-tolerant rice variety, identified 75 conserved miRNAs and mapped 200 sRNAs to the rice genome as novel miRNAs. Expression of nine novel miRNAs and two conserved miRNAs were confirmed by Northern blotting. Several of both conserved and novel miRNAs that expressed differentially in root and/or shoot tissues targeted transcription factors like AP2/EREBP domain protein, ARF, NAC, MYB, NF-YA, HD-Zip III, TCP and SBP reported to be involved in salt tolerance or in abiotic stress tolerance in general. Most of the novel miRNAs expressed in the salt tolerant wild rice Oryza coarctata, suggesting conservation of miRNAs in taxonomically related species. One of the novel miRNAs, osa-miR12477, also targeted L-ascorbate oxidase (LAO), indicating build-up of oxidative stress in the plant upon salt treatment, which was confirmed by DAB staining. Thus, salt tolerance might involve miRNA-mediated regulation of 1) cellular abundance of the hormone signaling components like EREBP and ARF, 2) synthesis of abiotic stress related transcription factors, and 3) antioxidative component like LAO for mitigation of oxidative damage. The study clearly indicated importance of osa-miR12477 regulated expression of LAO in salt tolerance in the plant.

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<![CDATA[Mutations on ent-kaurene oxidase 1 encoding gene attenuate its enzyme activity of catalyzing the reaction from ent-kaurene to ent-kaurenoic acid and lead to delayed germination in rice]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N3fbe67d9-408b-4f07-a6d8-c659dfb628bd

Rice seed germination is a critical step that determines its entire life circle, with seeds failing to germinate or pre-harvest sprouting both reduce grain yield. Nevertheless, the mechanisms underlying this complex biological event remain unclear. Previously, gibberellin has been shown to promote seed germination. In this study, a delayed seed germination rice mutant was obtained through screening of the EMS induced mutants. Besides of delayed germination, it also shows semi-dwarfism phenotype, which could be recovered by exogenous GA. Through re-sequencing on the mutant, wild-type and their F2 populations, we identified two continuous mutated sites on ent-kaurene oxidase 1 (OsKO1) gene, which result in the conversion from Thr to Met in the cytochrome P450 domain. Genetic complementary analysis and enzyme assay verified that the mutations in OsKO1 gene block the biosynthesis of GA and result in the defect phenotypes. Further analyses proved that OsKO1 could catalyze the reaction from ent-kaurene into ent-kaurenoic acid in GA biosynthesis mainly at seed germination and seedling stages, and the mutations decrease its activity to catalyze the step from ent-kaurenol to ent-kaurenoic acid in this reaction. Transcriptomic and proteomic data indicate that the defect on GA biosynthesis decreases its ability to mobilize starch and attenuate ABA signaling, therefore delay the germination process. The results provide some new insights into both GA biosynthesis and seed germination regulatory pathway in rice.

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<![CDATA[Sugar, amino acid and inorganic ion profiling of the honeydew from different hemipteran species feeding on Abies alba and Picea abies]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Neb889307-c28f-4dcd-8ba6-6ff5a5f28e34

Several hemipteran species feed on the phloem sap of plants and produce large amounts of honeydew that is collected by bees to produce honeydew honey. Therefore, it is important to know whether it is predominantly the hemipteran species or the host plant to influence the honeydew composition. This is particularly relevant for those botanical and zoological species from which the majority of honeydew honey originates. To investigate this issue, honeydew from two Cinara species located on Abies alba as well as from two Cinara and two Physokermes species located on Picea abies were collected. Phloem exudates of the host plants were also analyzed. Honeydew of all species contained different proportions of hexoses, sucrose, melezitose, erlose, and further di- and trisaccharides, whereas the phloem exudates of the host trees contained no trisaccharides. Moreover, the proportions of sugars differed significantly between hemipteran species feeding on the same tree species. Sucrose hydrolysis and oligosaccharide formation was shown in whole-body homogenates of aphids. The type of the produced oligosaccharides in the aphid-extracts correlated with the oligosaccharide composition in the honeydew of the different aphid species. The total contents of amino acids and inorganic ions in the honeydew were much lower than the sugar content. Glutamine and glutamate were predominant amino acids in the honeydew of all six hemipteran species and also in the phloem exudates of both tree species. Potassium was the dominant inorganic ion in all honeydew samples and also in the phloem exudate. Statistical analyses reveal that the sugar composition of honeydew is determined more by the hemipteran species than by the host plant. Consequently, it can be assumed that the sugar composition of honeydew honey is also more influenced by the hemipteran species than by the host tree.

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<![CDATA[A conserved regulatory mechanism mediates the convergent evolution of plant shoot lateral organs]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N38f7a2a5-9838-4ae0-b206-f959ee03524f

Land plant shoot structures evolved a diversity of lateral organs as morphological adaptations to the terrestrial environment, with lateral organs arising independently in different lineages. Vascular plants and bryophytes (basally diverging land plants) develop lateral organs from meristems of sporophytes and gametophytes, respectively. Understanding the mechanisms of lateral organ development among divergent plant lineages is crucial for understanding the evolutionary process of morphological diversification of land plants. However, our current knowledge of lateral organ differentiation mechanisms comes almost entirely from studies of seed plants, and thus, it remains unclear how these lateral structures evolved and whether common regulatory mechanisms control the development of analogous lateral organs. Here, we performed a mutant screen in the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha, a bryophyte, which produces gametophyte axes with nonphotosynthetic scalelike lateral organs. We found that an Arabidopsis LIGHT-DEPENDENT SHORT HYPOCOTYLS 1 and Oryza G1 (ALOG) family protein, named M. polymorpha LATERAL ORGAN SUPRESSOR 1 (MpLOS1), regulates meristem maintenance and lateral organ development in Marchantia. A mutation in MpLOS1, preferentially expressed in lateral organs, induces lateral organs with misspecified identity and increased cell number and, furthermore, causes defects in apical meristem maintenance. Remarkably, MpLOS1 expression rescued the elongated spikelet phenotype of a MpLOS1 homolog in rice. This suggests that ALOG genes regulate the development of lateral organs in both gametophyte and sporophyte shoots by repressing cell divisions. We propose that the recruitment of ALOG-mediated growth repression was in part responsible for the convergent evolution of independently evolved lateral organs among highly divergent plant lineages, contributing to the morphological diversification of land plants.

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<![CDATA[Plant begomoviruses subvert ubiquitination to suppress plant defenses against insect vectors]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c784ff3d5eed0c4840079a5

Most plant viruses are vectored by insects and the interactions of virus-plant-vector have important ecological and evolutionary implications. Insect vectors often perform better on virus-infected plants. This indirect mutualism between plant viruses and insect vectors promotes the spread of virus and has significant agronomical effects. However, few studies have investigated how plant viruses manipulate plant defenses and promote vector performance. Begomoviruses are a prominent group of plant viruses in tropical and sub-tropical agro-ecosystems and are transmitted by whiteflies. Working with the whitefly Bemisia tabaci, begomoviruses and tobacco, we revealed that C2 protein of begomoviruses lacking DNA satellites was responsible for the suppression of plant defenses against whitefly vectors. We found that infection of plants by tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), one of the most devastating begomoviruses worldwide, promoted the survival and reproduction of whitefly vectors. TYLCV C2 protein suppressed plant defenses by interacting with plant ubiquitin. This interaction compromised the degradation of JAZ1 protein, thus inhibiting jasmonic acid defense and the expression of MYC2-regulated terpene synthase genes. We further demonstrated that function of C2 protein among begomoviruses not associated with satellites is well conserved and ubiquitination is an evolutionarily conserved target of begomoviruses for the suppression of plant resistance to whitefly vectors. Taken together, these results demonstrate that ubiquitination inhibition by begomovirus C2 protein might be a general mechanism in begomovirus, whitefly and plant interactions.

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<![CDATA[Genome-wide analysis, expansion and expression of the NAC family under drought and heat stresses in bread wheat (T. aestivum L.)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c897798d5eed0c4847d30f2

The NAC family is one of the largest plant-specific transcription factor families, and some of its members are known to play major roles in plant development and response to biotic and abiotic stresses. Here, we inventoried 488 NAC members in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum). Using the recent release of the wheat genome (IWGS RefSeq v1.0), we studied duplication events focusing on genomic regions from 4B-4D-5A chromosomes as an example of the family expansion and neofunctionalization of TaNAC members. Differentially expressed TaNAC genes in organs and in response to abiotic stresses were identified using publicly available RNAseq data. Expression profiling of 23 selected candidate TaNAC genes was studied in leaf and grain from two bread wheat genotypes at two developmental stages in field drought conditions and revealed insights into their specific and/or overlapping expression patterns. This study showed that, of the 23 TaNAC genes, seven have a leaf-specific expression and five have a grain-specific expression. In addition, the grain-specific genes profiles in response to drought depend on the genotype. These genes may be considered as potential candidates for further functional validation and could present an interest for crop improvement programs in response to climate change. Globally, the present study provides new insights into evolution, divergence and functional analysis of NAC gene family in bread wheat.

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<![CDATA[Analysis of transcriptional responses in root tissue of bread wheat landrace (Triticum aestivum L.) reveals drought avoidance mechanisms under water scarcity]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c89770fd5eed0c4847d238d

In this study, high-throughput sequencing (RNA-Seq) was utilized to evaluate differential expression of transcripts and their related genes involved in response to terminal drought in root tissues of bread wheat landrace (L-82) and drought-sensitive genotype (Marvdasht). Subsets of 460 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in drought-tolerant genotype and 236 in drought-sensitive genotype were distinguished and functionally annotated with 105 gene ontology (GO) terms and 77 metabolic pathways. Transcriptome profiling of drought-resistant genotype “L-82” showed up-regulation of genes mostly involved in Oxidation-reduction process, secondary metabolite biosynthesis, abiotic stress response, transferase activity and heat shock proteins. On the other hand, down-regulated genes mostly involved in signaling, oxidation-reduction process, secondary metabolite biosynthesis, auxin-responsive protein and lipid metabolism. We hypothesized that the drought tolerance in “L-82” was a result of avoidance strategies. Up-regulation of genes related to the deeper root system and adequate hydraulic characteristics to allow water uptake under water scarcity confirms our hypothesis. The transcriptomic sequences generated in this study provide information about mechanisms of acclimation to drought in the selected bread wheat landrace, “L-82”, and will help us to unravel the mechanisms underlying the ability of crops to reproduce and keep its productivity even under drought stress.

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<![CDATA[A computational model of epithelial solute and water transport along a human nephron]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c7d95f0d5eed0c484734ff2

We have developed the first computational model of solute and water transport from Bowman space to the papillary tip of the nephron of a human kidney. The nephron is represented as a tubule lined by a layer of epithelial cells, with apical and basolateral transporters that vary according to cell type. The model is formulated for steady state, and consists of a large system of coupled ordinary differential equations and algebraic equations. Model solution describes luminal fluid flow, hydrostatic pressure, luminal fluid solute concentrations, cytosolic solute concentrations, epithelial membrane potential, and transcellular and paracellular fluxes. We found that if we assume that the transporter density and permeabilities are taken to be the same between the human and rat nephrons (with the exception of a glucose transporter along the proximal tubule and the H+-pump along the collecting duct), the model yields segmental deliveries and urinary excretion of volume and key solutes that are consistent with human data. The model predicted that the human nephron exhibits glomerulotubular balance, such that proximal tubular Na+ reabsorption varies proportionally to the single-nephron glomerular filtration rate. To simulate the action of a novel diabetic treatment, we inhibited the Na+-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) along the proximal convoluted tubule. Simulation results predicted that the segment’s Na+ reabsorption decreased significantly, resulting in natriuresis and osmotic diuresis.

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<![CDATA[Increasing atmospheric CO2 and canopy temperature induces anatomical and physiological changes in leaves of the C4 forage species Panicum maximum]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c75ac6cd5eed0c484d08750

Changes in leaf anatomy and ultrastructure are associated with physiological performance in the context of plant adaptations to climate change. In this study, we investigated the isolated and combined effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2]) up to 600 μmol mol-1 (eC) and elevated temperature (eT) to 2°C more than the ambient canopy temperature on the ultrastructure, leaf anatomy, and physiology of Panicum maximum Jacq. grown under field conditions using combined free-air carbon dioxide enrichment (FACE) and temperature free-air controlled enhancement (T-FACE) systems. Plants grown under eC showed reduced stomatal density, stomatal index, stomatal conductance (gs), and leaf transpiration rate (E), increased soil-water content (SWC) conservation and adaxial epidermis thickness were also observed. The net photosynthesis rate (A) and intrinsic water-use efficiency (iWUE) were enhanced by 25% and 71%, respectively, with a concomitant increase in the size of starch grains in bundle sheath cells. Under air warming, we observed an increase in the thickness of the adaxial cuticle and a decrease in the leaf thickness, size of vascular bundles and bulliform cells, and starch content. Under eCeT, air warming offset the eC effects on SWC and E, and no interactions between [CO2] and temperature for leaf anatomy were observed. Elevated [CO2] exerted more effects on external characteristics, such as the epidermis anatomy and leaf gas exchange, while air warming affected mainly the leaf structure. We conclude that differential anatomical and physiological adjustments contributed to the acclimation of P. maximum growing under elevated [CO2] and air warming, improving the leaf biomass production under these conditions.

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<![CDATA[Biological soil crusts inhibit seed germination in a temperate pine barren ecosystem]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c76fe25d5eed0c484e5b5ce

Biological soil crusts (BSCs) are known to affect plants’ germination and seedling establishment in arid ecosystems, but their ecological role in more mesic climates is not so well-known. We tested the effects of moss-crusted versus uncrusted soils on seed germination dynamics in a temperate pine barren ecosystem. We conducted a 35-day laboratory assay of seed germination on moss-crusted soils versus uncrusted soils from the Albany (NY) Pine Bush Preserve. We compared total seed germination and the number of days to 50% of total germination of two herbaceous perennial forb species in each soil type. Three and five times more seeds germinated on uncrusted soil than on crusted soil for bush clover (Lespedeza capitata) and wild lupine (Lupinus perennis), respectively. Seeds of both species also germinated approximately 10 days earlier on uncrusted soil than on crusted soil. This study, and others in similar habitats, show that BSCs in mesic climates can influence germination and other early life-history stages of plants. We hope that further study of the interactions between BSCs and vascular plants in mesic climates will contribute to our understanding of the ecology of BSCs outside the arid and semiarid climates where they are more extensively studied.

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<![CDATA[Rosellinia necatrix infection induces differential gene expression between tolerant and susceptible avocado rootstocks]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6f14bbd5eed0c48467a754

Rosellinia necatrix is the causal agent of avocado white root rot (WRR). Control of this soil-borne disease is difficult, and the use of tolerant rootstocks may present an effective method to lessen its impact. To date, no studies on the molecular mechanisms regulating the avocado plant response towards this pathogen have been undertaken. To shed light on the mechanisms underpinning disease susceptibility and tolerance, molecular analysis of the gene’s response in two avocado rootstocks with a contrasting disease reaction was assessed. Gene expression profiles against R. necatrix were carried out in the susceptible ‘Dusa’ and the tolerant selection BG83 avocado genotypes by micro-array analysis. In ‘Dusa’, the early response was mainly related to redox processes and cell-wall degradation activities, all becoming enhanced after disease progression affected photosynthetic capacity, whereas tolerance to R. necatrix in BG83 relied on the induction of protease inhibitors and their negative regulators, as well as genes related to tolerance to salt and osmotic stress such as aspartic peptidase domain-containing proteins and gdsl esterase lipase proteins. In addition, three protease inhibitors were identified, glu protease, trypsin and endopeptidase inhibitors, which were highly overexpressed in the tolerant genotype when compared to susceptible ‘Dusa’, after infection with R. necatrix, reaching fold change values of 52, 19 and 38, respectively. The contrasting results between ‘Dusa’ and BG83 provide new insights into the different mechanisms involved in avocado tolerance to Phytophthora cinnamomi and R. necatrix, which are consistent with their biotrophic and necrotrophic lifestyles, respectively. The differential induction of genes involved in salt and osmotic stress in BG83 could indicate that R. necatrix penetration into the roots is associated with osmotic effects, suggesting that BG83’s tolerance to R. necatrix is related to the ability to withstand osmotic imbalance. In addition, the high expression of protease inhibitors in tolerant BG83 compared to susceptible ‘Dusa’ after infection with the pathogen suggests the important role that these proteins may play in the defence of avocado rootstocks against R. necatrix.

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<![CDATA[Landscape and local site variables differentially influence pollinators and pollination services in urban agricultural sites]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6dc9c9d5eed0c48452a19c

Urbanization has detrimental effects on biodiversity and ecosystem functioning, as agricultural and semi-natural habitats are converted into landscapes dominated by built features. Urban agricultural sites are a growing component of urban landscapes and have potential to serve as a source of biodiversity conservation and ecosystem service provisioning in urban areas. In 19 urban agricultural sites, we investigated how surrounding land cover and local site variables supported bees and pollination services. We found the abundance of bees differentially responded to landscape and local scale variables depending on body size and nesting habit. Large-bodied bees, Bombus and Apis species, were positively associated with increasing amounts of impervious cover, while the abundance of small-bodied soil nesting Halictus species increased as the proportion of flower area, a local variable, increased. Bee richness declined with increasing levels of impervious cover, while bee community composition changed along a gradient of increasing impervious cover. Pollination services, measured at each site using sentinel cucumber plants, declined as hardscape, a local variable, increased. To improve bee conservation and pollination services in urban agricultural sites, our results suggest urban planning strategies should minimize impervious cover at large spatial scales while land managers should focus locally on incorporating floral resources, which increases food and nesting resources especially for smaller bee species. Local site design coupled with regional urban planning can advance the success of urban agriculture, while benefiting biodiversity by creating opportunities for pollinator conservation in urban landscapes.

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