ResearchPad - plastic-surgery https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Becker Implant Intracapsular Rupture with Contralateral Axillary Silicone Lymphadenopathy in an Asymptomatic Patient: A Case Report and Literature Review]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_9390 Silicone gel implants are widely used for cosmetic and reconstructive breast surgery. There has been a paradigm shift with increased utilization of implant-based breast reconstruction compared to autologous reconstruction in the United States over the past couple of decades. Implant rupture is a known complication of silicone gel implants with variable incidence and increased propensity with the age of the implant. Usually, the clinical findings suggestive of implant rupture are not obvious to the patient and surgeon. Intracapsular implant rupture, when the shell of the implant ruptures but the fibrous capsule formed by the breast remains intact, occurs in the majority of cases. While extracapsular rupture, which denotes silicone leakage extending beyond the capsule, is less common. In rare cases, silicone migrates beyond the capsule to distant sites, regional sites, and lymph nodes, leading to a variety of symptoms. Following mastectomy with lymph node dissection, the disruption of normal breast lymphatic drainage may result in aberrant drainage to internal mammary nodes and contralateral axillary lymph nodes. We present a unique case of axillary silicone lymphadenopathy due to contralateral breast intracapsular implant rupture in a patient with no previous ipsilateral breast surgery. The condition was found during a routine breast cancer screening. We also engage in a review of the relevant literature.

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<![CDATA[Idiopathic Carpal Spasm (Trousseau’s Sign) After Intraoperative Arm Tourniquet Inflation in an Intubated Patient]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Na7d605f6-b641-406b-b131-264643d519a8 We present a case of a 38-year-old male who sustained a laceration from a knife to the volar aspect of his left index and middle fingers. He had clinical injury to his flexor digitorum profundus tendons to both digits. He underwent operative exploration and repair of the tendons under general anaesthetic. An arm tourniquet was inflated to allow for haemostasis in the operative field. A few minutes after inflation, the patient’s hand went into carpal spasm. The tourniquet was deflated and the spasm resolved. Intraoperative serum calcium and carbon dioxide levels were normal. The operation proceeded with the tourniquet deflated. Postoperatively serum calcium and magnesium levels were within normal limits, as was serum vitamin D and parathyroid hormone levels. It has been reported that carpal spasm can occur with tourniquet use in the anxious patient due to hyperventilation and resultant metabolic alkalosis. This however is the first reported case of carpal spasm in the setting of tourniquet use and normal serum electrolytes and respiratory parameters in an intubated patient.

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<![CDATA[Safety and Efficacy of Stromal Vascular Fraction Enriched Fat Grafting Therapy for Vulvar Lichen Sclerosus]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N3d37d58f-efae-4113-8d9a-1597bb6fb83c

Background

Lichen sclerosus is an inflammatory dermatosis of unknown etiology which currently has no cure. Most treatment guidelines recommend the use of ultrapotent topical corticosteroids. However, the relapse rate is usually high. Through a retrospective study we evaluated the efficacy and safety of stromal vascular fraction of adipose tissue as therapy for lichen sclerosus.

Material and methods 

For this retrospective review, we obtained data on patients with vulvar lichen sclerosus treated with autologous fat grafting enriched with adipose derived stromal vascular fraction cells. Data collected through a modified vulvo-vaginal symptoms questionnaire were analyzed before treatment, six months and 24 months after treatment. The 19 items questionnaire was subdivided in four categories: symptoms, signs, social functioning and sexual functioning. Global scores and partial scores for each category were analyzed using paired t-test. For all statistical analyses, a value of p ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. All data are presented as mean ± SD.

Results

Thirty nine patients were included in the study. Thirty seven patients (94.87%) experienced a significant decrease in global score at six months and 24 months after treatment (p < 0.05). Decrease in scores were also statistically significant between pretreatment and 24 months after treatment for each of the four questionnaire categories - symptoms, signs, social functioning and sexual functioning (p < 0.05).

Conclusions

This retrospective study showed that the use of autologous fat grafting enriched with adipose derived stromal vascular fraction is safe and leads to significant and long lasting improvement in patients with vulvar lichen sclerosus.

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<![CDATA[Breast Implant-associated Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma Affecting a Neosubpectoral Pocket]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N4b1e960a-9f58-42d8-ac37-8e06b3eec104

The complications associated with breast implants are under perpetual scrutiny to maximize patient safety. In this era of plastic surgery, a new concern being addressed is breast implant-associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma (BIA-ALCL). Patients with BIA-ALCL most commonly present several years after implant placement with a periprosthetic fluid collection. The body of literature and reports of BIA-ALCL continues to grow with additional nuances in proposed causes as well as management. Most recently, this has led to a recall of breast implants manufactured utilizing a specific texturing. We describe here the time course, diagnosis, and management of BIA-ALCL in a 52-year-old patient who underwent submuscular implant-based reconstruction and subsequent revision of that reconstruction with the creation of a neosubpectoral pocket. The patient was managed in accordance with current guidelines under the supervision of a multidisciplinary team. In our review of the literature, several case reports, case series, and guideline publications were identified. Current guidelines for management are based on the staging of BIA-ALCL at diagnosis and span from only surgical with implant removal, excision of the lymphoma, and excision of the surrounding fibrous capsule to addition of chemotherapeutic regimens or radiation for distant and locally advanced disease. 

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<![CDATA[Sexual Function in Patients Suffering from Sacrococcygeal Pilonidal Sinus Disease]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N494cb214-2617-4bd4-b11a-3235198dc713

Introduction

Sexual function is one of the aspects upon which quality of life (QoL) is based. Although previous studies have evaluated the influence of sacrococcygeal pilonidal sinus disease (SPSD) on QoL, no data are available on the influence of SPSD on sexual function in a highly active sexual population based on the age range. The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate whether SPSD has a negative impact on sexual function and whether this is influenced by the surgical treatment of SPSD.

Methods 

Sexual function was pre- and postoperatively assessed by the Sexual Self-Consciousness Scale (SSCS; score range 0-48), subdivided into the sexual embarrassment (SE; score range 0-24) and sexual self-focus subscale (SFF; score range 0-24). The higher the score, the higher is the sexual dysfunction. Patients were also asked whether SPSD influenced their sexual functioning.

Results 

A total of 88 male patients who underwent surgical treatment for SPSD were included in the study. The mean (±SD) preoperative SSCS score was 14.5±9.1 and 13.9±8.4 two weeks postoperatively (p=0.394). Six and twelve weeks after surgery, there was a significant reduction to 12.2±9.0 (p=0.002) and 12.3±8.8 (p=0.013), respectively. SE decreased from 5.5±5.1 preoperatively to 5.1±4.6 (p=0.258), 4.2±4.7 (p=0.004) and 4.0±4.6 (p=0.013) two, six, and twelve weeks after surgery. For SFF, there was a decrease from 9.0±5.0 to 8.9±4.9 (p=0.717), 7.8±5.2 (p=0.004) and 8.2±5.3 (p=0.168), respectively. Preoperatively, 70% of the patients totally or partially disagreed that SPSD influenced their sexual functioning, and this increased to 80% of the patients 12 weeks after surgery.

Conclusion 

This prospective study showed a significant decrease in sexual dysfunction, both six and twelve weeks after surgery, compared to preoperatively in patients suffering from SPSD.

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<![CDATA[The Supratrochlear Artery Revisited: An Anatomic Review in Favor of Modern Cosmetic Applications in the Area]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nbb31af04-3d08-4461-b34a-028c9bbc27ec

The supratrochlear artery represents a terminal branch of the ophthalmic artery. Cosmetic interventions may traumatize it, resulting in a circulation in the lesion in glabellar region and in the medial aspect of the forehead.

This review article aims to synopsise the existing knowledge of the anatomy of the supratrochlear artery in close correlation with minimally invasive cosmetic procedures in the facial area such as soft-tissue filler injections. Their possible adverse effects and their safe application based on the topographic anatomy were included.

A literature review was performed in PubMed/Medline online medical database.

The superficial course of the supratrochlear artery, as well as the rich, variable anastomotic network that it forms with the supraorbital, angular and dorsal nasal artery raise clinical questions in the case of soft-tissue filler injections in the nasoglabellar and central forehead area. Accidental cannulation of the supratrochlear artery and ultimately, the risk of embolization of the central retinal artery in a retrograde fashion might lead to injury with questionable cosmetic results.

Although the risk of complications from the use of soft tissue fillers is considered rare, once happen, the results could be devastating for the quality of life. Thus, the comprehension of the anatomy of the supratrochlear artery is paramount for the health practitioners.

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<![CDATA[The Modified Extended Fleur-De-Lis Latissimus Dorsi Flap for Various Complex Multi-directional Large Soft and Bone Tissue Reconstruction]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nf8a40e7d-8772-4d0d-94a1-f3fe29114a8f

Introduction

Latissimus Dorsi (LD) myocutaneous flap is a workhorse flap for various large reconstructions. Variants described to increase its volume are referred to as extended LD flaps. The extended fleur-de-lis LD is one of these variants. We report the clinical outcomes using a modified extended fleur-de-lis LD flap for complex multi-directional soft and bone tissue defects.

Methods

Between 2010 and 2017, 29 patients underwent the modified extended fleur-de-lis LD flaps, whose sizes were between 120 cmand 442 cm2. The mean age was 47.55 ± 9.07 years. Locations of the defects included head and neck (nine cases), upper extremity (six cases), lower extremity (nine cases) and chest wall regions (five cases).

Results

Of the 29 extended fleur-de-lis LD flaps, 11 were pedicled and 18 were free flaps. A total of 10 flaps were osteomyocutaneous and 19 were myocutaneous. The mean vertical size of the harvested skin paddle was 30.72 ± 4.57 cm (range: 20-38), and the mean horizontal size of the skin paddle was 8.69 ± 0.80 (range: 7-10) cm, with the mean maximum horizontal extensions of the flaps being 16.03 ± 1.18 (range: 14-18) cm. The flap survival rates were 100%. One flap had distal partial loss (less than 5%). Donor site complications included seroma (1) and numbness (1), both of which were managed conservatively. The average follow-up time was 23.97 ± 7.19 months.

Conclusion

The presented modified extended fleur-de-lis LD myocutaneous/osteomyocutaneous flap for reconstruction of multi-directional complex soft tissue and bone defects is a good and reliable option, with low donor site morbidity.

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<![CDATA[Development of Bilateral Heterotopic Ossification After Survival of Life Threatening Purpura Fulminans]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ncb103657-133f-403c-81de-527a0d09f287

Heterotopic ossification has been reported in patients who have undergone traumatic amputations, burn injuries, and total hip arthroplasty; however, the incidence of heterotopic ossification following purpura fulminans has only been reported in one case with unilateral involvement. Here we present a bilateral lower extremity case of heterotopic ossification as sequelae of purpura fulminans. 

A 34-year-old male smoker with a past medical history of stab wounds to the chest and abdomen requiring emergent exploratory laparotomy, diaphragmatic repair, and splenectomy 15 years ago presented to the emergency department with a rapid onset of high fevers, chills and myalgia. He did not receive post-splenectomy prophylactic vaccinations for Streptococcus pneumoniaeNeisseria meningitidis, and Haemophilus influenzae. The patient presented clinically in septic shock with disseminated intravascular coagulation. The patient was admitted to the Medical Intensive Care Unit and subsequent workup suggested Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteremia. Over the next 48 hours, the patient developed extensive necrosis of the bilateral upper and lower extremities concerning for purpura fulminans. The decision was made to perform a right transradial forearm amputation as well as bilateral transtibial amputations. He tolerated these procedures and was discharged to an inpatient rehabilitation facility. Approximately four months following his bilateral below knee amputations, the patient had difficulty wearing the prosthetics secondary to pain and eventually discontinued use altogether. At home, he continued to ambulate by bearing weight on his knees while wearing kneepads. He continued to report significant tenderness and pain along the bilaterally, below knee amputation stumps. His physical examination was concerning for significant distal bone formation in his bilateral amputation stump sites without evidence of skin breakdown. Intraoperatively, extensive bony formation was found bilaterally within his soleus muscle flaps, concerning for heterotopic ossification. Postoperatively, the patient was refitted for lower extremity prosthetics. 

Similar to burns and trauma, the development of heterotopic ossification in patients with purpura fulminans may be directly related to the inflammatory process and amount of tissue damage. In some cases, heterotopic ossification could be caused from daily living activities, so the timing of diagnostic imaging techniques and clinical intervention is crucial.

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<![CDATA[Hemosiderotic Dermatofibroma: A Rare and Atypical Variant Capable of Clinically Resembling Melanoma]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N843abc1d-9b00-4fd2-9418-d956bfe921ca

A dermatofibroma (DF) is a common, benign tumor composed of fibroblastic and histiocytic cells. DF presents clinically with several different reported variants. One rare variant is hemosiderotic DF (HDF), which is made up of small blood vessels and hemosiderin deposits. HDF can be indistinguishable, clinically, from melanoma, making the use of other pathological tools crucial in the diagnosis.

We report the case of a 25-year-old male medical student from the Caribbean who presented to our clinic with a single asymptomatic pigmented cystic lesion on his left posterior calf. The cystic lesion was excised surgically. Histopathology examination of the excised mass revealed a moderately cellular, poorly demarcated, dermal, fibrohistiocytic proliferation. Pathology consultation confirmed a diagnosis of HDF.

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<![CDATA[Patient-Reported Measurement of Breast Asymmetry Using Archimedes’ Principle in Breast Reduction Mammaplasty: A Retrospective Study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N97904082-63f4-435f-978c-4b5192db358d

Introduction

Breast hypertrophy is a common condition that is often treated with breast reduction surgery. A large percentage of breast hypertrophy patients have notable asymmetry between breasts.

Methods

The purpose of this study was to investigate a method of measuring breast asymmetry, one that allows patients to determine the asymmetry of their own breasts at home with ease, and to assess its accuracy and role in a surgical practice. A retrospective chart review was conducted, wherein self-measurements of breast asymmetry using a variation of Bouman’s technique were compared with the recorded intra-operative resected tissue mass.

Results

In total, 47 patients with asymmetry were included in the study. The difference between patient-reported measurements and resected breast tissue mass varied from 0 grams to 240 grams. Of the 47 patients, 38% were able to measure their breast difference within a remarkable 10 grams as compared to the resected breast tissue, of which four patients were accurate to less than one gram. The majority (70%) of patients accurately measured their asymmetry within 50 grams, which was determined to be a clinically significant amount based on a survey of plastic surgeons performed for the study.

Conclusion

The breast measurement technique presented in this study appears to be effective and accurate for most patients with suspected asymmetry undergoing reduction mammaplasty that stands to reduce pre-operative planning time. Patient-reported breast measurement may emerge as a valuable tool in clinical and research pursuits; however, further research on this topic is indicated at this time.

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<![CDATA[Modeling the Articular Surface of the Hamate with the Fourth and Fifth Metacarpal Bases with Three-dimensional Laser Scanning]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N1564c863-fb62-485a-84e0-6c3a7806f22d

Introduction

Our purpose is to highlight the articulating surfaces between the hamate and fourth and fifth metacarpal (MC) bases of the hand using three- dimensional (3D) laser scanning. This joint surface is used for osteochondral grafting of small joints such as the proximal interphalangeal joint using the hamate articular surface. It is an important joint for hand function and can develop osteoarthritis. 

Methods

NextEngine (NextEngine, Santa Monica, CA) 3D laser scanner (accurate to ±100 µm) was used to capture the articular surfaces of the hamate with the fourth and fifth MC bases of 10 embalmed cadaver right hands. Articular surfaces were defined and modeled using Amira (Visage Imaging, Andover, MA) and MatLab7 (MathWorks, Natick, MA). Articular surfaces were evaluated in terms of size, shape, the radius of curvature (ROC) by three points and sphere-fit (SF) and inter-facet angles.

Results

In the fourth carpometacarpal (CMC) joint, the hamate articular surface with the 4th MC was single, concave, and well approximated by SF ROC (mean: 11.18 mm). The fourth MC base was convex; SF ROC mean was 9.94 mm. Six of the 10 articulations flattened from volar to dorsal.

In the fifth CMC joint, we noted a bicondylar construct. The two hamate surfaces were concave while MC bases were convex. The joint surface was best approximated with two overlapping spheres. Ulnar sphere averaged 30.21% of the surface of the hamate and 29% of the MC base. Ulnar hamate SF ROC mean was 11.63 mm, and ulnar fifth MC SF ROC mean was 8.07 mm. Radial SF hamate mean was 7.92 mm, and the radial fifth MC SF mean was 7.47 mm. The mean of the angle of divergence between the condylar spheres represented on the hamate surface was 21.4°, while that of the fifth MC base angle of divergence was 10.99°.

The mean of the angle formed between the fourth and fifth CMC joints at the hamate was 31.69°. A single articular facet between the fourth and fifth MC bases was concave on fourth and convex on the fifth MC base.

Conclusions and clinical relevance

Laser scanning of cadaver fourth and fifth CMC joints clarified the normal anatomy of the osteochondral joint surface. The topography of the joints was well-approximated by SF with curved surfaces in both the anteroposterior and radial-ulnar planes with the fifth CMC having two unique surfaces for articulation. We noted the distinct radial and ulnar articulating surfaces of the fifth CMC joint, which would permit flexion and limited supination.

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<![CDATA[Topical Approach to Delivering Targeted Therapies in Lymphedema Treatment: A Systematic Review]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N2a451498-efdf-4d41-9c52-b33e49439f84

It is estimated that 140 to 200 million people are affected by lymphedema worldwide. Many studies have proposed targeted therapies that can be delivered systemically or locally to treat lymphedema. Since lymphedema primarily affects the skin and subcutaneous tissues, topical approaches to therapy should be considered as an attractive proposition as they can avoid systemic complications. In light of this, we conducted a systematic review of publications that analyzed the use of topical approaches to delivering targeted therapies in the treatment of lymphedema. We hypothesized that topical approaches resulted in the satisfactory treatment of lymphedema. We conducted a systematic review of publications on PubMed. The main eligibility criterion was that the articles should primarily investigate the use of topical approaches to delivering targeted therapies in the treatment of lymphedema. Consequently, we excluded papers that investigated any other delivery approaches or medical conditions. Of the 174 potential studies found in the literature, six were found to fulfill our eligibility criteria. All these studies were experimental ones on small animals (mice). The authors generally proposed different types of therapies, which could be clustered into two main groups: 1) induction of lymphangiogenesis [vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGF-C) hydrogel or fibroblast growth factor]; and 2) modulation of inflammation (tacrolimus or topical collagen gel or troxerutin-phosphatidylcholine). All studies presented positive outcomes, demonstrating that topical therapy is a promising route for delivering growth factors and anti-inflammatory agents in the treatment of lymphedema. However, studies were conducted under heterogeneous protocols, and the safe application of these therapies in humans has not been assessed. Further studies are necessary to confirm the benefits and safety of targeted topical therapy on patients with lymphedema.

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<![CDATA[Cost-saving Minimal Incision Endoscopic-assisted Cubital Tunnel Release Using Simple Surgical Instruments: Case Series]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nb2ab8666-16c0-48ba-8a3e-221871fb2911

Cubital tunnel syndrome (CuTS) is a well-recognized compressive neuropathy worldwide. With technological advancement, endoscopy is introduced to facilitate the procedure. However, there are concerns about the excessive cost that comes with special instruments. This article aims to provide the results of the cost-saving endoscopic-assisted cubital tunnel release surgical technique that uses the normally available operating instruments.

A retrospective review was performed of the nine patients that were diagnosed with CuTS and underwent minimal incision endoscopic-assisted cubital tunnel release in Police General Hospital. Patients were followed up to sixth month postoperation. The modified McGowan classification was used to determine the severity of symptoms. Surgical outcomes were evaluated by the modified Bishop classification, visual analog score (VAS), and patients' satisfaction. Other factors investigated were scar pain and peri-incisional numbness and hematomas.

The incisions were measured as 7-9 mm. All patients reported having a pain score of 1 on the third day. Seven of nine patients were able to return to work one day after surgery. Modified Bishop score showed five excellence, three good, and one fair after two weeks. There was no surgical-related complication found. All patients noted the excellence satisfaction of the procedure.

The minimal incision endoscopic-assisted cubital tunnel release has shown favorable outcomes with the cost-saving of simple instruments. However, a large prospective trial may be needed for further study.

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<![CDATA[Hailey-Hailey Disease with Superimposed Eczema Herpeticum Caused by Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Infection in a Burn Unit: A Case Report and Literature Review]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N9fffd662-18b0-452e-827c-c36f9f72472b

Familial benign pemphigus, or Hailey-Hailey disease (HHD), is a rare (1 in 50,000), benign, autosomal dominant cutaneous disorder that causes a painful rash and blistering commonly occurring in the intertriginous folds. Despite having a good prognosis, there is no cure for HHD and the disease can be quite debilitating to the quality of life. The complexity of HHD can be compounded by superimposed eczema herpeticum (EH) or Kaposi's varicelliform eruption, which is caused by a viral infection occurring in preexistent cutaneous conditions. We present a unique clinical presentation of HHD with superimposed EH caused by herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection managed in a burn unit. It is highly advised that a recalcitrant HHD with superimposed EH caused by HSV-2 infection should be managed in burn centers that offer multimodalities for prompt, rigorous management. Early diagnosis and treatment are highly suggested for EH to avoid fatal complications.

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<![CDATA[The Axial Frontonasal Flap for Nasal Tip Defect: A Single Centre Experience]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N38025a58-d286-4895-9f86-c64ef9c9ae81

Objectives

Skin defects of the nose can be a surgical challenge for facial plastic surgeons. Often, invasive surgery of the nose is accompanied by aesthetic issues for the patient. Hence, following invasive surgery of the nose, a reconstructive procedure should be performed to correct the morphological and aesthetic issues. This can help to restore the aesthetic features of the nose. Of the several reconstructive procedures available for nasal tip defects, the axial frontonasal flap is regarded as a good option for nasal tip reconstruction. Herein, we describe our experience with the axial frontonasal flap for the reconstruction of nasal tip defect in 15 patients. We also would specify the indications for the use of this flap and describe in detail the surgical technique.

Materials and Methods

This was a retrospective study of 15 patients who underwent reconstruction of nasal tip defect with an axial frontonasal flap between 2012 and 2015. In all the patients, the defects were located on the nasal tip. The measurement of the nasal tip defect in all the cases was ≥ 1.4 cm in their shortest diameter. The patients were followed up to 12 months after surgery.

Results

The axial frontonasal flaps for all the patients survived completely without any complications. In all patients, the follow-up surgical result was rated as good or excellent by the patients and surgeons.

Conclusions

Based on the results of our review of cases, we highly recommend the axial frontonasal flap as an option for the reconstruction of nasal tip defects measuring ≥ 1.4 cm in diameter.

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<![CDATA[Use of Gene Transfer Vectors in Lymphedema Treatment: A Systematic Review]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N46c29c4c-b52d-4e64-aa88-ba4e8fd4a0a0

Different delivery mechanisms have been proposed in the literature for targeted therapies in the treatment of lymphedema. They vary from simple and direct injection to sophisticated induction of gene expression in a targeted tissue. We conducted a systematic review of publications assessing the use of viral vectors for gene transfer in lymphedema treatment. We hypothesized that viral vectors are an effective way to deliver targeted therapy in lymphedema treatment. We conducted a comprehensive systematic review of the published literature on targeted therapies associated with lymphedema surgery using the PubMed database. Eligibility criteria excluded papers that reported use of viral vectors for other medical conditions. Abstracts, presentations, reviews, meta-analyses, and non-English language articles were also excluded. From 21 potential articles found in the literature, fourteen fulfilled study eligibility criteria. Positive outcomes in terms of lymphangiogenesis were seen. The viral vectors used included adenovirus and recombinant adeno-associated virus. Most of the genes expressed were growth factors, but expression of dominant-negative transforming growth factor-β1 receptor-II or Prox1 was also proposed. Five studies targeted genetic expression on lymphedema tissue, five on transplanted lymph nodes, two on skeletal muscle, and one on adipose-derived stem cells. Publications assessing use of viral vectors for gene transfer in lymphedema treatment demonstrated that it is an effective mechanism of delivering targeted therapies. However, to date, all studies were experimental and further studies must be performed before translating these therapies into clinical practice.

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<![CDATA[Liposuction in Gynecomastia: An Assessment of the Suction-assisted Arthroscopic Shaver Versus Open Disc Excision Techniques]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N6d37e129-7e67-4812-9128-bf8d74a7f1fc

Introduction

Gynecomastia is a common problem of the male breasts, which imposes a great psychological burden on patients. It is mostly bilateral and frequently asymmetrical. Surgical management of gynecomastia has undergone significant changes over the past few decades. Currently, the predominant mode of treatment includes liposuction of the fibro-fatty tissue either alone or in combination with the removal of the glandular tissue by the open excision technique or arthroscopic shaver. This study aims to compare both techniques in terms of hematoma formation, nipple necrosis, reoperation, contour irregularities, acceptability of scarring, asymmetry, and patient satisfaction.

Methods

The study has been conducted at Shifa International Hospital, Islamabad, from May 2018 to September 2019. Sixty patients were included in the study. All the patients had bilateral gynecomastia and Simon’s Grade II-A or II-B. The study sample was divided into two equal groups. Group A underwent liposuction combined with open disc excision while Group B underwent liposuction coupled with disc excision via suction-assisted arthroscopic shaver. Postoperatively, all the patients received follow-up for a minimum period of six months.

Results

In a cohort of 60 patients, the mean age was 25.76±5.38 years. There were minor differences noted in terms of hematoma formation, nipple necrosis, rates of re-operation, and contour irregularities between open disc excision and arthroscopic disc excision, respectively (p-value > 0.05). About eight patients reported asymmetry in open disc excision as compared to 10 in arthroscopic disc excision. The acceptability of scarring was reported as equal in both groups. Mean patient satisfaction was based on the visual analog scale (VAS) scale was 8.25 in both groups. No statistical difference regarding patient satisfaction was noted in both groups (p-value 0.126).

Conclusion

Our study concludes that arthroscopic shaver-assisted disc excision despite being a novel and minimally invasive technique does not hold superiority over conventional open disc excision for the management of gynecomastia. Furthermore, in a developing country like Pakistan, there is a lack of expertise with the procedure and a need for more training among plastic surgeons.

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<![CDATA[Self-amputation of the Upper Extremity: A Case Report and Review of the Literature]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N3f4bf8d7-c192-4ee1-8172-1ff67f661b96

Indications for upper-extremity replantation include wrist-level and wrist-proximal amputations, due to the devastating loss of function incurred from these severe injuries. Decisions regarding replantation must be made expeditiously at these proximal levels in an effort to minimize ischemia time. This decision-making process becomes more complicated when a patient presents following intentional self-amputation of an extremity, especially in the setting of an associated mood disorder, psychiatric illness, and/or frank psychosis. A case report is presented involving a 28-year-old right-hand dominant male with untreated depression and recent suicidal ideation who sustained a complete left forearm amputation (distal-third forearm-level) from a self-inflicted circular saw injury. We conducted a PubMed literature search of other reported cases of intentional self-amputations of the hand and upper extremity. The patient underwent replantation of the left upper extremity. At six years postoperatively, the patient was extremely satisfied with the appearance and function of the replanted extremity. Dash score was 5.8 with a Chen Grade 1 (excellent) functional recovery. A literature search identified 16 cases of self-inflicted upper extremity amputation. One patient died at the scene. 87% (13/15) of patients presenting to the hospital were diagnosed with a psychiatric disorder (depression n = 6, bipolar n = 2, and schizophrenia n = 5). 67% (10/15) of these patients were also diagnosed with psychosis. Ten patients underwent replantation (nine at hand/wrist level and one at forearm level), all of which were viable postoperatively. Detailed functional outcome data were not reported in any of the cases. Four patients (40%) were pleased or satisfied with the outcome, but subjective outcomes were not reported for the other six patients. Intentional self-amputation of the hand/upper extremity is an extreme and uncommon act, often presenting with complex psychiatric issues. Although replantation is technically feasible in this patient population, long-term subjective and objective functional outcomes are largely unknown. Future study of this unique group of patients is needed to better assess patient-reported outcomes and functional outcomes of replantation, which could help guide decision making at the time of initial injury. 

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<![CDATA[The effect of admitting fault versus shifting blame on expectations for others to do the same]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c8acc40d5eed0c48498f2ed

A wealth of research has investigated how and why people cast blame. However, less is known about blame-shifting (i.e., blaming someone else for one’s own failures) and how exposure to a blame-shifting agent might lead to expectations that other agents will also shift blame. The present research tested whether exposure to a blame-shifting (versus responsibility-taking) agent would lead perceivers to expect a second, unrelated target to also shift blame. Contrary to our expectations, people expected greater blame-shifting after exposure to a responsible agent, particularly when perceivers were surprised by this reaction to failure. Discussion focuses on how people habitually expect some people to shift blame for their mishaps, and how expectancy violations when people act in unexpected ways predict the extent to which perceivers expect unrelated agents to also shift blame.

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<![CDATA[Identification of Merkel cells associated with neurons in engineered skin substitutes after grafting to full thickness wounds]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c8823d9d5eed0c484639153

Engineered skin substitutes (ESS), prepared using primary human fibroblasts and keratinocytes with a biopolymer scaffold, were shown to provide stable closure of excised burns, but relatively little is known about innervation of ESS after grafting. This study investigated innervation of ESS and, specifically, whether Merkel cells are present in healed grafts. Merkel cells are specialized neuroendocrine cells required for fine touch sensation in skin. We discovered cells positive for keratin 20 (KRT20), a general marker for Merkel cells, in the basal epidermis of ESS after transplantation to mice, suggesting the presence of Merkel cells. Cells expressing KRT20 were not observed in ESS in vitro. However, widely separated KRT20-positive cells were observed in basal epidermis of ESS by 2 weeks after grafting. By 4 weeks, these cells increased in number and expressed keratins 18 and 19, additional Merkel cells markers. Putative Merkel cell numbers increased further between weeks 6 and 14; their densities varied widely and no specific pattern of organization was observed, similar to Merkel cell localization in human skin. KRT20-positive cells co-expressed epidermal markers E-cadherin and keratin 15, suggesting derivation from the epidermal lineage, and neuroendocrine markers synaptophysin and chromogranin A, consistent with their identification as Merkel cells. By 4 weeks after grafting, some Merkel cells in engineered skin were associated with immature afferents expressing neurofilament-medium. By 8 weeks, Merkel cells were complexed with more mature neurons expressing neurofilament-heavy. Positive staining for human leukocyte antigen demonstrated that the Merkel cells in ESS were derived from grafted human cells. The results identify, for the first time, Merkel cell-neurite complexes in engineered skin in vivo. This suggests that fine touch sensation may be restored in ESS after grafting, although this must be confirmed with future functional studies.

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