ResearchPad - policy-analysis Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[COVID-19 Community Stabilization and Sustainability Framework: An Integration of the Maslow Hierarchy of Needs and Social Determinants of Health]]> All levels of government are authorized to apply coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) protection measures; however, they must consider how and when to ease lockdown restrictions to limit long-term societal harm and societal instability. Leaders that use a well-considered framework with an incremental approach will be able to gradually restart society while simultaneously maintaining the public health benefits achieved through lockdown measures. Economically vulnerable populations cannot endure long-term lockdown, and most countries lack the ability to maintain a full nationwide relief operation. Decision-makers need to understand this risk and how the Maslow hierarchy of needs and the social determinants of health can guide whole of society policies. Aligning decisions with societal needs will help ensure all segments of society are catered to and met while managing the crisis. This must inform the process of incremental easing of lockdowns to facilitate the resumption of community foundations, such as commerce, education, and employment in a manner that protects those most vulnerable to COVID-19. This study proposes a framework for identifying a path forward. It reflects on baseline requirements, regulations and recommendations, triggers, and implementation. Those desiring a successful recovery from the COVID-19 pandemic need to adopt an evidence-based framework now to ensure community stabilization and sustainability.

<![CDATA[Trust in Humanitarian Aid From the Earthquake in 2017 to COVID-19 in Iran: A Policy Analysis]]>

The earthquake of November 2017, the great flood of April 2019, and the COVID-19 outbreak in 2020 are 3 major emergencies in Iran during the last 3 years. A common issue in all of these crises seems to be the issue of “trust.” Official authorities, including the Iranian President, ministers, and the judiciary system, tried to gain people’s trust by either changing policies or developing new ones. In August 2019, the new law on crisis management in Iran went into effect and the issue of public donation has been considered, too. Also, in their response to the COVID-19 outbreak, Iranian officials ordered all sectors to cooperate with the Ministry of Health and provide it with all necessary facilities. Therefore, it seems that new policies are still needed to overcome mistrust in Iran at times of emergency. Developing a policy on donation management was the first step, and there are several factors that could have contributed to the perception of the mistrust and failure in emergency missions. Mistrust can be the result of different causes, including but not limited to lack of knowledge on capabilities and efficiencies of humanitarian organizations, engagement of a wide range of organizations from different categories, extension of mistrust of an organization to other emergency organizations in the area or all of operation, lack of unity in emergency response, and poor public relations.

<![CDATA[Cities’ Role in Mitigating United States Food System Greenhouse Gas Emissions]]>


Current trends of urbanization, population growth, and economic development have made cities a focal point for mitigating global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The substantial contribution of food consumption to climate change necessitates urban action to reduce the carbon intensity of the food system. While food system GHG mitigation strategies often focus on production, we argue that urban influence dominates this sector’s emissions and that consumers in cities must be the primary drivers of mitigation. We quantify life cycle GHG emissions of the United States food system through data collected from literature and government sources producing an estimated total of 3800 kg CO2e/capita in 2010, with cities directly influencing approximately two-thirds of food sector GHG emissions. We then assess the potential for cities to reduce emissions through selected measures; examples include up-scaling urban agriculture and home delivery of grocery options, which each may achieve emissions reductions on the order of 0.4 and ∼1% of this total, respectively. Meanwhile, changes in waste management practices and reduction of postdistribution food waste by 50% reduce total food sector emissions by 5 and 11%, respectively. Consideration of the scale of benefits achievable through policy goals can enable cities to formulate strategies that will assist in achieving deep long-term GHG emissions targets.

<![CDATA[Drug pricing and reimbursement decision making systems in Mongolia]]>


It is essential to allocate available resources equitably in order to ensure accessibility and affordability of essential medicines, especially in less fortunate nations with limited health funding. Currently, transparent and evidence based research is required to evaluate decision making regarding drug registration, drug pricing and reimbursement processes in Mongolia.


To assess the drug reimbursement system and discuss challenges faced by policy-makers and stakeholders.


The study has examined Mongolian administrative documents and directives for stakeholders and analysed published statistics. Experts and decision-makers were interviewed about the drug pricing and reimbursement processes in Mongolia.


Decisions regarding Mongolian drug registration were based on commonly used criteria of quality, safety, efficacy plus some economic considerations. A total of 11.32 billion Mongolian National Tugrugs (MNT) [5.6 million United States Dollars (USD)] or 12.1% of total health expenditure was spent on patient reimbursement of essential drugs. The highest reimbursed drugs with respect to cost in 2014 were the cardiovascular drug group. Health insurance is compulsory for all citizens; in addition all insured patients have access to reimbursed drugs. However, the decision making process, in particular the level of reimbursement was limited by various barriers, including lack of evidence based data regarding efficacy and comparative cost-effectiveness analysis of drugs and decisions regarding reimbursement.


Drug registration, pricing and reimbursement process in Mongolia show an increasing trend of drug registration and reimbursement rates, along with lack of transparency. Limited available data indicate that more evidence-based research studies are required in Mongolia to evaluate and improve the effectiveness of drug pricing and reimbursement policies.