ResearchPad - pollen https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[A non-stationary Markov model for economic evaluation of grass pollen allergoid immunotherapy]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14555 Allergic rhino-conjunctivitis (ARC) is an IgE-mediated disease that occurs after exposure to indoor or outdoor allergens, or to non-specific triggers. Effective treatment options for seasonal ARC are available, but the economic aspects and burden of these therapies are not of secondary importance, also considered that the prevalence of ARC has been estimated at 23% in Europe. For these reasons, we propose a novel flexible cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) model, intended to provide healthcare professionals and policymakers with useful information aimed at cost-effective interventions for grass-pollen induced allergic rhino-conjunctivitis (ARC).MethodsTreatments compared are: 1. no AIT, first-line symptomatic drug-therapy with no allergoid immunotherapy (AIT). 2. SCIT, subcutaneous immunotherapy. 3. SLIT, sublingual immunotherapy. The proposed model is a non-stationary Markovian model, that is flexible enough to reflect those treatment-related problems often encountered in real-life and clinical practice, but that cannot be adequately represented in randomized clinical trials (RCTs). At the same time, we described in detail all the structural elements of the model as well as its input parameters, in order to minimize any issue of transparency and facilitate the reproducibility and circulation of the results among researchers.ResultsUsing the no AIT strategy as a comparator, and the Incremental Cost Effectiveness Ratio (ICER) as a statistic to summarize the cost-effectiveness of a health care intervention, we could conclude that:SCIT systematically outperforms SLIT, except when a full societal perspective is considered. For example, for T = 9 and a pollen season of 60 days, we have ICER = €16,729 for SCIT vs. ICER = €15,116 for SLIT (in the full societal perspective).For longer pollen seasons or longer follow-up duration the ICER decreases, because each patient experiences a greater clinical benefit over a larger time span, and Quality-adjusted Life Year (QALYs) gained per cycle increase accordingly.Assuming that no clinical benefit is achieved after premature discontinuation, and that at least three years of immunotherapy are required to improve clinical manifestations and perceiving a better quality of life, ICERs become far greater than €30,000.If the immunotherapy is effective only at the peak of the pollen season, the relative ICERs rise sharply. For example, in the scenario where no clinical benefit is present after premature discontinuation of immunotherapy, we have ICER = €74,770 for SCIT vs. ICER = €152,110 for SLIT.The distance between SCIT and SLIT strongly depends on under which model the interventions are meta-analyzed.ConclusionsEven though there is a considerable evidence that SCIT outperforms SLIT, we could not state that both SCIT and SLIT (or only one of these two) can be considered cost-effective for ARC, as a reliable threshold value for cost-effectiveness set by national regulatory agencies for pharmaceutical products is missing. Moreover, the impact of model input parameters uncertainty on the reliability of our conclusions needs to be investigated further. ]]> <![CDATA[Modern botanical analogue of endangered Yak (Bos mutus) dung from India: Plausible linkage with extant and extinct megaherbivores]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c897796d5eed0c4847d30d6

The study reports the micro- and macrobotanical remains on wild Yak dung, providing evidence for understanding the diet, habitat, and ecology of extant and extinct megaherbivores. Grasses are the primary diet of the yak as indicated by the abundance of grass pollen and phytoliths. Other associated non-arboreal and arboreal taxa namely, Cyperacaeae, Rosaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Artemisia, Prunus, and Rhododendron are also important dietary plants for their living. The observation of plant macrobotanical remains especially the vegetative part and seeds of the grasses and Cyperaceae is also in agreement with the palynodata. The documented micro- and macrobotanical data are indicative of both Alpine meadow and steppe vegetation under cold and dry climate which exactly reflected the current vegetation composition and climate in the region. The recovery of Botryococcus, Arcella, and diatom was observed in trace amounts in the palynoassemblage which would have been incorporated in the dung through the ingestion of water and are indicative of the presence of perennial water system in the region. Energy dispersive spectroscopy analysis marked that the element contained in dung samples has variation in relation to the summer and winter, which might be due to the availability of the food plants and vegetation. This generated multiproxy data serves as a strong supplementary data for modern pollen and vegetation relationships based on surface soil samples in the region. The recorded multiproxy data could also be useful to interpret the relationship between the coprolites of herbivorous fauna and the palaeodietary, the palaeoecology in the region, and to correlate with other mega herbivores in a global context.

]]>
<![CDATA[Leafflower–leafflower moth mutualism in the Neotropics: Successful transoceanic dispersal from the Old World to the New World by actively-pollinating leafflower moths]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5b529ed5eed0c4842bccc2

In the Old World tropics, several hundred species of leafflowers (Phyllanthus sensu lato; Phyllanthaceae) are engaged in obligate mutualisms with species-specific leafflower moths (Epicephala; Gracillariidae) whose adults actively pollinate flowers and larvae consume the resulting seeds. Considerable diversity of Phyllanthus also exists in the New World, but whether any New World Phyllanthus is pollinated by Epicephala is unknown. We studied the pollination biology of four woody Phyllanthus species occurring in Peru over a period of four years, and found that each species is associated with a species-specific, seed-eating Epicephala moth, here described as new species. Another Epicephala species found associated with herbaceous Phyllanthus is also described. This is the first description of Epicephala from the New World. Field-collected female moths of the four Epicephala species associated with woody Phyllanthus all carried pollen on the proboscises, and active pollination behavior was observed in at least two species. Thus, Epicephala moths also pollinate New World Phyllanthus. However, not all of these Epicephala species may be mutualistic with their hosts, because we occasionally observed females laying eggs in developing fruits without pollinating. Also, the flowers of some Phyllanthus species were visited by pollen-bearing thrips or gall midges, which potentially acted as co-pollinators or primary pollinators. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the New World Epicephala associated with woody Phyllanthus are nested within lineages of Old World active pollinators. Thus, actively-pollinating Epicephala moths, which originated in the Old World, successfully colonized the New World probably across the Pacific and established mutualisms with resident Phyllanthus species, although whether any of the relationships are obligate requires further study. There is likely a major radiation of Epicephala still to be found in the New World.

]]>
<![CDATA[The brown algal mode of tip growth: Keeping stress under control]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c466523d5eed0c4845179cd

Tip growth has been studied in pollen tubes, root hairs, and fungal and oomycete hyphae and is the most widely distributed unidirectional growth process on the planet. It ensures spatial colonization, nutrient predation, fertilization, and symbiosis with growth speeds of up to 800 μm h−1. Although turgor-driven growth is intuitively conceivable, a closer examination of the physical processes at work in tip growth raises a paradox: growth occurs where biophysical forces are low, because of the increase in curvature in the tip. All tip-growing cells studied so far rely on the modulation of cell wall extensibility via the polarized excretion of cell wall–loosening compounds at the tip. Here, we used a series of quantitative measurements at the cellular level and a biophysical simulation approach to show that the brown alga Ectocarpus has an original tip-growth mechanism. In this alga, the establishment of a steep gradient in cell wall thickness can compensate for the variation in tip curvature, thereby modulating wall stress within the tip cell. Bootstrap analyses support the robustness of the process, and experiments with fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) confirmed the active vesicle trafficking in the shanks of the apical cell, as inferred from the model. In response to auxin, biophysical measurements change in agreement with the model. Although we cannot strictly exclude the involvement of a gradient in mechanical properties in Ectocarpus morphogenesis, the viscoplastic model of cell wall mechanics strongly suggests that brown algae have evolved an alternative strategy of tip growth. This strategy is largely based on the control of cell wall thickness rather than fluctuations in cell wall mechanical properties.

]]>
<![CDATA[Phenotypic, cytogenetic, and molecular marker analysis of Brassica napus introgressants derived from an intergeneric hybridization with Orychophragmus]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c40f78cd5eed0c48438636c

Aneuploids of a single species that have lost or gained different chromosomes are useful for genomic analysis. The polyploid nature of many crops including oilseed rape (Brassica napus) allows these plants to tolerate the loss of individual chromosomes from homologous pairs, thus facilitating the development of aneuploid lines. Here, we selected 39 lines from advanced generations of an intergeneric hybridization between Brassica rapa and Orychophragmus violaceus with accidental pollination by B. napus. The lines showed a wide spectrum of phenotypic variations, with some traits specific to O. violaceus. Most lines had the same chromosome number (2n = 38) as B. napus. However, we also identified B. napus nulli-tetrasomics with 22 A-genome and 16 C-genome chromosomes and lines with the typical B. napus complement of 20 A-genome and 18 C-genome chromosomes, as revealed by FISH analysis using a C-genome specific probe. Other lines had 2n = 37 or 39 chromosomes, with variable numbers of A- or C-genome chromosomes. The formation of quadrivalents by four A-genome chromosomes with similar shapes suggests that they were derived from the same chromosome. The frequent homoeologous pairing between chromosomes of the A and C genomes points to their non-diploidized meiotic behavior. Sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) analysis revealed substantial genomic changes of the lines compared to B. rapa associated with O. violaceus specific DNA bands, but only a few genes were identified in these bands by DNA sequencing. These novel B. napus aneuploids and introgressants represent unique tools for studies of Brassica genetics and for Brassica breeding projects.

]]>
<![CDATA[Regulation of pollen lipid body biogenesis by MAP kinases and downstream WRKY transcription factors in Arabidopsis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c2d2eb5d5eed0c484d9b346

Signaling pathways that control the activities in non-photosynthetic plastids, important sites of plant metabolism, are largely unknown. Previously, we demonstrated that WRKY2 and WRKY34 transcription factors play an essential role in pollen development downstream of mitogen-activated protein kinase 3 (MPK3) and MPK6 in Arabidopsis. Here, we report that GLUCOSE-6-PHOSPHATE/PHOSPHATE TRANSLOCATOR 1 (GPT1) is a key target gene of WRKY2/WRKY34. GPT1 transports glucose-6-phosphate (Glc6P) into plastids for starch and/or fatty acid biosynthesis depending on the plant species. Loss of function of WRKY2/WRKY34 results in reduced GPT1 expression, and concomitantly, reduced accumulation of lipid bodies in mature pollen, which leads to compromised pollen viability, germination, pollen tube growth, and male transmission in Arabidopsis. Pollen-specific overexpression of GPT1 rescues the pollen defects of wrky2 wrky34 double mutant. Furthermore, gain-of-function activation of MPK3/MPK6 enhances GPT1 expression; whereas GPT1 expression is reduced in mkk4 mkk5 double mutant. Together, this study revealed a cytoplasmic/nuclear signaling pathway capable of coordinating the metabolic activities in plastids. High-level expression of GPT1 at late stages of pollen development drives Glc6P from cytosol into plastids, where Glc6P is used for fatty acid biosynthesis, an important step of lipid body biogenesis. The accumulation of lipid bodies during pollen maturation is essential to pollen fitness and successful reproduction.

]]>
<![CDATA[Reproductive trade-offs maintain bract color polymorphism in Scarlet Indian paintbrush (Castilleja coccinea)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c3667c9d5eed0c4841a6427

Populations of scarlet Indian paintbrush (Castilleja coccinea) in the Midwestern United States exhibit a bract color polymorphism, with each population having predominantly yellow or scarlet bracts. We investigated a possible mechanism for this maintenance of bract color polymorphism in C. coccinea by conducting hand-pollination experiments in two nearby populations, one predominantly yellow and one predominantly scarlet. The hand-pollination treatments were either self-pollination or cross pollination using pollen from within and between populations. Both color morphs were used as pollen donors for the within and between crosses. We found that both color morphs of C. coccinea were self-compatible. When the scarlet morph was the maternal plant it had higher seed set. When pollinators were excluded, the yellow morph outperformed the scarlet morph in fruit set and seed set. The apparent trade-offs between a higher reproductive output in the scarlet morph and a reproductive assurance advantage in the yellow morph may explain the maintenance of the polymorphism in C. coccinea. While many previous studies have provided evidence for pollinator preference playing a role in floral color polymorphism, the results of the current study indicate that reproductive assurance, which would be important for fluctuations in pollinator abundance or colonizing new areas, may act as a selective agent to maintain such polymorphisms.

]]>
<![CDATA[Measuring biological age to assess colony demographics in honeybees]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c1c0ae0d5eed0c484426d08

Honeybee colonies are increasingly exposed to environmental stress factors, which can lead to their decline or failure. However, there are major gaps in stressor risk assessment due to the difficulty of assessing the honeybee colony state and detecting abnormal events. Since stress factors usually induce a demographic disturbance in the colony (e.g. loss of foragers, early transition from nurse to forager state), we suggest that disturbances could be revealed indirectly by measuring the age- and task-related physiological state of bees, which can be referred to as biological age (an indicator of the changes in physiological state that occur throughout an individual lifespan). We therefore estimated the biological age of bees from the relationship between age and biomarkers of task specialization (vitellogenin and the adipokinetic hormone receptor). This relationship was determined from a calibrated sample set of known-age bees and mathematically modelled for biological age prediction. Then, we determined throughout the foraging season the evolution of the biological age of bees from colonies with low (conventional apiary) or high Varroa destructor infestation rates (organic apiary). We found that the biological age of bees from the conventional apiary progressively decreased from the spring (17 days) to the fall (6 days). However, in colonies from the organic apiary, the population aged from spring (13 days) to summer (18.5 days) and then rejuvenated in the fall (13 days) after Varroa treatment. Biological age was positively correlated with the amount of brood (open and closed cells) in the apiary with low Varroa pressure, and negatively correlated with Varroa infestation level in the apiary with high Varroa pressure. Altogether, these results show that the estimation of biological age is a useful and effective method for assessing colony demographic state and likely detrimental effects of stress factors.

]]>
<![CDATA[Pollen flow and paternity in an isolated and non-isolated black walnut (Juglans nigra L.) timber seed orchard]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c102877d5eed0c48424735b

Artificial pollination of black walnut (Juglans nigra L.) is not practical and timber breeders have historically utilized only open-pollinated half-sib families. An alternate approach called “breeding without breeding,” consists of genotyping open-pollinated progeny using DNA markers to identify paternal parents and then constructing full-sib families. In 2014, we used 12 SSR markers to genotype 884 open-pollinated half-sib progeny harvested from two clonal orchards containing 206 trees, comprised of 52 elite timber selections. Seed was harvested in 2011 from each of two ramets of 23 clones, one upwind and one downwind, based on prevailing wind direction from the west—southwest. One orchard was isolated from wild black walnut and composed of forward selections while the other orchard was adjacent to a natural forest containing mature black walnut composed of backward selections. Isolation significantly increased within-orchard pollination (85%) of the progeny from the isolated orchard compared to 42% from the non-isolated orchard. Neither prevailing wind direction nor seed tree position in the orchard affected paternity patterns or wild pollen contamination. Genetic diversity indices revealed that progeny from both orchards were in Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium with very little inbreeding and no selfing. A significant level of inbreeding was present among the forward selected parents, but not the first generation (backward selected) parents. Some orchard clones failed to sire any progeny while other clones pollinated upwards of 20% of progeny.

]]>
<![CDATA[Comparative analysis of the male inflorescence transcriptome profiles of an ms22 mutant of maize]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b6003a7463d7e38dd0d05b9

In modern agricultural production, maize is the most successful crop utilizing heterosis. 712C-ms22 is an important male sterile material in maize. In this study, we performed transcriptome sequencing analysis of the V10 stage of male inflorescence. Through this analysis, 27.63 million raw reads were obtained, and trimming of the raw data revealed 26.63 million clean reads, with an average match rate of 94.64%. Using Tophat software, we matched these clean reads to the maize reference genome. The abundance of 39,622 genes was measured, and 35,399 genes remained after filtering out the non-expressed genes across all the samples. These genes were classified into 19 categories by clusters of orthologous groups of protein annotation. Transcriptome sequencing analysis of the male sterile and fertile 712C-ms22 maize revealed some key DEGs that may be related to metabolic pathways. qRT-PCR analysis validated the gene expression patterns identified by RNA-seq. This analysis revealed some of the essential genes responsible for pollen development and for pollen tube elongation. Our findings provide useful markers of male sterility and new insights into the global mechanisms mediating male sterility in maize.

]]>
<![CDATA[Pesticide residue survey of pollen loads collected by honeybees (Apis mellifera) in daily intervals at three agricultural sites in South Germany]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b4a2886463d7e4513b897fd

In agricultural landscapes honeybees and other pollinators are exposed to pesticides, often surveyed by residue analysis of bee bread. However, bee bread is a mixture of pollen pellets of different plants collected over a longer time period. Therefore, pesticide content in the hive varies with plant species and time of pollen collection. Hence, the analysis of bee bread is an approximate approach to gain information on detailed pesticide exposure during the agronomic active season. As high-resolution data is missing, we carried out a pesticide residue survey over five years (2012–2016) of daily collected pollen pellets at three agricultural distinct sites in southern Germany. 281 single day pollen samples were selected and subjected to a multi-pesticide residue analysis. Pesticide contaminations of pollen differed between the sites. Intensive pesticide exposure can be seen by high pesticide concentrations as well as a high amount of different pesticides detected. During the five years of observation 73 different pesticides were found, of which 84% are characterized as non-harmful to honeybees. To estimate pesticide risks for honeybees, the pollen hazard quotient (PHQ) was calculated. Even though pesticides were detected in sublethal concentrations, we found substances not supposed to be exposed to honey bees, indicating the necessity for further improvement of seed treatments and increasing awareness of flowering shrubs, field margins and pesticide drift. Additionally, an in-depth analysis of nine pollen samples, divided into sub-fractions dominated by single plant species, revealed even higher concentrations in single crops for some pesticides. We give precise residue data of 1,657 single pesticide detections, which should be used for realistic laboratory and field tests.

]]>
<![CDATA[Elevated temperature increases meiotic crossover frequency via the interfering (Type I) pathway in Arabidopsis thaliana]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b07d0e9463d7e0d4a37a6ee

For most eukaryotes, sexual reproduction is a fundamental process that requires meiosis. In turn, meiosis typically depends on a reciprocal exchange of DNA between each pair of homologous chromosomes, known as a crossover (CO), to ensure proper chromosome segregation. The frequency and distribution of COs are regulated by intrinsic and extrinsic environmental factors, but much more is known about the molecular mechanisms governing the former compared to the latter. Here we show that elevated temperature induces meiotic hyper-recombination in Arabidopsis thaliana and we use genetic analysis with mutants in different recombination pathways to demonstrate that the extra COs are derived from the major Type I interference sensitive pathway. We also show that heat-induced COs are not the result of an increase in DNA double-strand breaks and that the hyper-recombinant phenotype is likely specific to thermal stress rather than a more generalized stress response. Taken together, these findings provide initial mechanistic insight into how environmental cues modulate plant meiotic recombination and may also offer practical applications.

]]>
<![CDATA[An ARID Domain-Containing Protein within Nuclear Bodies Is Required for Sperm Cell Formation in Arabidopsis thaliana]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da0eab0ee8fa60b78ae9

In plants, each male meiotic product undergoes mitosis, and then one of the resulting cells divides again, yielding a three-celled pollen grain comprised of a vegetative cell and two sperm cells. Several genes have been found to act in this process, and DUO1 (DUO POLLEN 1), a transcription factor, plays a key role in sperm cell formation by activating expression of several germline genes. But how DUO1 itself is activated and how sperm cell formation is initiated remain unknown. To expand our understanding of sperm cell formation, we characterized an ARID (AT-Rich Interacting Domain)-containing protein, ARID1, that is specifically required for sperm cell formation in Arabidopsis. ARID1 localizes within nuclear bodies that are transiently present in the generative cell from which sperm cells arise, coincident with the timing of DUO1 activation. An arid1 mutant and antisense arid1 plants had an increased incidence of pollen with only a single sperm-like cell and exhibited reduced fertility as well as reduced expression of DUO1. In vitro and in vivo evidence showed that ARID1 binds to the DUO1 promoter. Lastly, we found that ARID1 physically associates with histone deacetylase 8 and that histone acetylation, which in wild type is evident only in sperm, expanded to the vegetative cell nucleus in the arid1 mutant. This study identifies a novel component required for sperm cell formation in plants and uncovers a direct positive regulatory role of ARID1 on DUO1 through association with histone acetylation.

]]>
<![CDATA[The Effect of Consumers and Mutualists of Vaccinium membranaceum at Mount St. Helens: Dependence on Successional Context]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daa7ab0ee8fa60ba7cde

In contrast to secondary succession, studies of terrestrial primary succession largely ignore the role of biotic interactions, other than plant facilitation and competition, despite the expectation that simplified interaction webs and propagule-dependent demographics may amplify the effects of consumers and mutualists. We investigated whether successional context determined the impact of consumers and mutualists by quantifying their effects on reproduction by the shrub Vaccinium membranaceum in primary and secondary successional sites at Mount St. Helens (Washington, USA), and used simulations to explore the effects of these interactions on colonization. Species interactions differed substantially between sites, and the combined effect of consumers and mutualists was much more strongly negative for primary successional plants. Because greater local control of propagule pressure is expected to increase successional rates, we evaluated the role of dispersal in the context of these interactions. Our simulations showed that even a small local seed source greatly increases population growth rates, thereby balancing strong consumer pressure. The prevalence of strong negative interactions in the primary successional site is a reminder that successional communities will not exhibit the distribution of interaction strengths characteristic of stable communities, and suggests the potential utility of modeling succession as the consequence of interaction strengths.

]]>
<![CDATA[Capturing the Surface Texture and Shape of Pollen: A Comparison of Microscopy Techniques]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9e6ab0ee8fa60b6b5ec

Research on the comparative morphology of pollen grains depends crucially on the application of appropriate microscopy techniques. Information on the performance of microscopy techniques can be used to inform that choice. We compared the ability of several microscopy techniques to provide information on the shape and surface texture of three pollen types with differing morphologies. These techniques are: widefield, apotome, confocal and two-photon microscopy (reflected light techniques), and brightfield and differential interference contrast microscopy (DIC) (transmitted light techniques). We also provide a first view of pollen using super-resolution microscopy. The three pollen types used to contrast the performance of each technique are: Croton hirtus (Euphorbiaceae), Mabea occidentalis (Euphorbiaceae) and Agropyron repens (Poaceae). No single microscopy technique provided an adequate picture of both the shape and surface texture of any of the three pollen types investigated here. The wavelength of incident light, photon-collection ability of the optical technique, signal-to-noise ratio, and the thickness and light absorption characteristics of the exine profoundly affect the recovery of morphological information by a given optical microscopy technique. Reflected light techniques, particularly confocal and two-photon microscopy, best capture pollen shape but provide limited information on very fine surface texture. In contrast, transmitted light techniques, particularly differential interference contrast microscopy, can resolve very fine surface texture but provide limited information on shape. Texture comprising sculptural elements that are spaced near the diffraction limit of light (∼250 nm; NDL) presents an acute challenge to optical microscopy. Super-resolution structured illumination microscopy provides data on the NDL texture of A. repens that is more comparable to textural data from scanning electron microscopy than any other optical microscopy technique investigated here. Maximizing the recovery of morphological information from pollen grains should lead to more robust classifications, and an increase in the taxonomic precision with which ancient vegetation can be reconstructed.

]]>
<![CDATA[Characteristics Analysis of F1 Hybrids between Genetically Modified Brassica napus and B. rapa]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da89ab0ee8fa60b9d52b

A number of studies have been conducted on hybridization between transgenic Brassica napus and B. rapa or backcross of F1 hybrid to their parents. However, trait changes must be analyzed to evaluate hybrid sustainability in nature. In the present study, B. rapa and transgenic (BrAGL20) B. napus were hybridized to verify the early flowering phenomenon of F1 hybrids, and F1 hybrid traits were analyzed to predict their impact on sustainability. Flowering of F1 hybrid has been induced slightly later than that of the transgenic B. napus, but flowering was available in the greenhouse without low temperature treatment to young plant, similar to the transgenic B. napus. It is because the BrAGL20 gene has been transferred from transgenic B. napus to F1 hybrid. The size of F1 hybrid seeds was intermediate between those of B. rapa and transgenic B. napus, and ~40% of F1 pollen exhibited abnormal size and morphology. The form of the F1 stomata was also intermediate between that of B. rapa and transgenic B. napus, and the number of stomata was close to the parental mean. Among various fatty acids, the content of erucic acid exhibited the greatest change, owing to the polymorphism of parental FATTY ACID ELONGASE 1 alleles. Furthermore, F2 hybrids could not be obtained. However, BC1 progeny were obtained by hand pollination of B. rapa with F1 hybrid pollen, with an outcrossing rate of 50%.

]]>
<![CDATA[Feeding toxicity and impact of imidacloprid formulation and mixtures with six representative pesticides at residue concentrations on honey bee physiology (Apis mellifera)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db5dab0ee8fa60be0443

Imidacloprid is the most widely used insecticide in agriculture. In this study, we used feeding methods to simulate in-hive exposures of formulated imidacloprid (Advise® 2FL) alone and mixtures with six representative pesticides for different classes. Advise, fed at 4.3 mg/L (equal to maximal residue detection of 912 ppb active ingredient [a.i.] in pollen) induced 36% mortality and 56% feeding suppression after 2-week feeding. Treatments with individual Bracket (acephate), Karate (λ-cyhalothrin), Vydate (oxamyl), Domark (tetraconazole), and Roundup (glyphosate) at residue level had a mortality range of 1.3–13.3%, statistically similar to that of control (P>0.05). The additive/synergistic toxicity was not detected from binary mixtures of Advise with different classes of pesticides at residue levels. The feeding of the mixture of all seven pesticides increased mortality to 53%, significantly higher than Advise only but still without synergism. Enzymatic data showed that activities of invertase, glutathione S-transferase, and acetylcholinesterase activities in imidacloprid-treated survivors were mostly similar to those found in control. Esterase activity mostly increased, but was significantly suppressed by Bracket (acephate). The immunity-related phenoloxidase activity in imidacloprid-treated survivors tended to be lower, but most treatments were statistically similar to the control. Increase of cytochrome P450 activity was correlated with Advise concentrations and reached significant difference at 56 mg/L (12 ppm a.i.). Our data demonstrated that residue levels of seven pesticide in pollens/hive may not adversely affect honey bees, but long term exclusive ingestion of the maximal residue levels of imidacloprid (912 ppb) and sulfoxaflor (3 ppm a.i.) may induce substantial bee mortality. Rotating with other insecticides is a necessary and practical way to reduce the residue level of any given pesticide.

]]>
<![CDATA[Pollen-mediated gene flow from transgenic perennial creeping bentgrass and hybridization at the landscape level]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db50ab0ee8fa60bdbdaf

The planting of 162 ha of transgenic glyphosate-resistant creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera) near Madras, OR, USA, allowed a unique opportunity to study gene flow over time from a perennial outcrossing species at the landscape level. While conducting a four year in situ survey, we collected panicles and leaf tissue samples from creeping bentgrass and its sexually compatible species. Seeds from the panicles were planted, and seedlings were tested in the greenhouse for expression of the transgene. Gene flow via pollen was found in all four years, at frequencies of 0.004 to 2.805%. Chloroplast markers, in combination with internal transcribed spacer nuclear sequence analysis, were used to aid in identification of transgenic interspecific and intergeneric hybrid seedlings found during the testing and of established plants that could not be positively identified in the field. Interspecific transgenic hybrids produced on redtop (Agrostis gigantea) plants in situ were identified three of the four years and one intergeneric transgenic creeping bentgrass x rabbitfoot grass (Polypogon monspeliensis) hybrid was identified in 2005. In addition, we confirmed a non-transgenic creeping bentgrass x redtop hybrid in situ, demonstrating that interspecific hybrids have established in the environment outside production fields. Results of this study should be considered for deregulation of transgenic events, studies of population dynamics, and prediction of gene flow in the environment.

]]>
<![CDATA[Molecular Phylogeny of Gueldenstaedtia and Tibetia (Fabaceae) and Their Biogeographic Differentiation within Eastern Asia]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da99ab0ee8fa60ba3164

Tibetia and Gueldenstaedtia are two morphologically similar and small genera in Fabaceae, with distributions largely corresponding to the Sino-Himalayan and Sino-Japanese subkingdoms in eastern Asia, respectively. These two genera have confusing relationships based on morphology; therefore, we aimed to provide a clear understanding of their phylogenetic and biogeographic evolution within eastern Asia. In our investigations we included 88 samples representing five Gueldenstaedtia species, five Tibetia species, and outgroup species were sequenced using five markers (nuclear: ITS; chloroplast: matK, trnL-F, psbA-trnH and rbcL). Our phylogenetic results support (1) the monophyly of Tibetia and of Gueldenstaedtia, respectively; and (2) that Tibetia and Gueldenstaedtia are sister genera. Additionally, our data identified that Tibetia species had much higher sequence variation than Gueldenstaedtia species. Our results suggest that the two genera were separated from each other about 17.23 million years ago, which is congruent with the Himalayan orogeny and the uplift of the Tibetan Plateau in the mid Miocene. The divergence of Tibetia and Gueldenstaedtia is strongly supported by the separation of the Sino-Himalayan and Sino-Japanese region within eastern Asia. In addition, the habitat heterogeneity may accelerate the molecular divergence of Tibetia in the Sino-Himalayan region.

]]>
<![CDATA[Spatial Distribution of Flower Color Induced by Interspecific Sexual Interaction]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daa4ab0ee8fa60ba6d23

Understanding the mechanisms shaping the spatiotemporal distribution of species has long been a central concern of ecology and evolutionary biology. Contemporary patterns of plant assemblies suggest that sexual interactions among species, i.e., reproductive interference, lead to the exclusive distributions of closely related species that share pollinators. However, the fitness consequences and the initial ecological/evolutionary responses to reproductive interference remain unclear in nature, since reproductive isolation or allopatric distribution has already been achieved in the natural community. In Japan, three species of blue-eyed grasses (Sisyrinchium) with incomplete reproductive isolation have recently colonized and occur sympatrically. Two of them are monomorphic with white flowers, whereas the other exhibits heritable color polymorphism (white and purple morphs). Here we investigated the effects of the presence of two monomorphic species on the distribution and reproductive success of color morphs. The frequency and reproductive success of white morphs decreased in area where monomorphic species were abundant, while those of purple morphs did not. The rate of hybridization between species was higher in white morphs than in the purple ones. Resource competition and habitat preference seemed not to contribute to the spatial distribution and reproductive success of two morphs. Our results supported that color-dependent reproductive interference determines the distribution of flower color polymorphism in a habitat, implying ecological sorting promoted by pollinator-mediated reproductive interference. Our study helps us to understand the evolution and spatial structure of flower color in a community.

]]>