ResearchPad - polyacrylamides https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Atco, a yeast mitochondrial complex of Atp9 and Cox6, is an assembly intermediate of the ATP synthase]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14724 Mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (oxphos) is the process by which the ATP synthase conserves the energy released during the oxidation of different nutrients as ATP. The yeast ATP synthase consists of three assembly modules, one of which is a ring consisting of 10 copies of the Atp9 subunit. We previously reported the existence in yeast mitochondria of high molecular weight complexes composed of mitochondrially encoded Atp9 and of Cox6, an imported structural subunit of cytochrome oxidase (COX). Pulse-chase experiments indicated a correlation between the loss of newly translated Atp9 complexed to Cox6 and an increase of newly formed Atp9 ring, but did not exclude the possibility of an alternate source of Atp9 for ring formation. Here we have extended studies on the functions and structure of this complex, referred to as Atco. We show that Atco is the exclusive source of Atp9 for the ATP synthase assembly. Pulse-chase experiments show that newly translated Atp9, present in Atco, is converted to a ring, which is incorporated into the ATP synthase with kinetics characteristic of a precursor-product relationship. Even though Atco does not contain the ring form of Atp9, cross-linking experiments indicate that it is oligomeric and that the inter-subunit interactions are similar to those of the bona fide ring. We propose that, by providing Atp9 for biogenesis of ATP synthase, Atco complexes free Cox6 for assembly of COX. This suggests that Atco complexes may play a role in coordinating assembly and maintaining proper stoichiometry of the two oxphos enzymes

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<![CDATA[Purification of human butyrylcholinesterase from frozen Cohn fraction IV-4 by ion exchange and Hupresin affinity chromatography]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c3fa5afd5eed0c484ca75ae

Human butyrylcholinesterase (HuBChE) is being developed as a therapeutic for protection from the toxicity of nerve agents. An enriched source of HuBChE is Cohn fraction IV-4 from pooled human plasma. For the past 40 years, purification of HuBChE has included affinity chromatography on procainamide-Sepharose. The present report supports a new affinity sorbent, Hupresin, for purification of HuBChE from Cohn fraction IV-4. Nine batches of 70–80 kg frozen Cohn fraction were extracted with water, filtered, and chromatographed on 30 L of Q-Ceramic ion exchange sorbent at pH 4.5. The 4% pure Q-eluent was pumped onto 4.2 L Hupresin, where contaminants were washed off with 0.3 M NaCl in 20 mM sodium phosphate pH 8.0, before 99% pure HuBChE was eluted with 0.1 M tetramethylammonium bromide. The average yield was 1.5 g of HuBChE from 80 kg Cohn paste. Recovery of HuBChE was reduced by 90% when the paste was stored at -20°C for 1 year, and reduced 100% when stored at 4°C for 24h. No reduction in HuBChE recovery occurred when paste was stored at -80°C for 3 months or 3 years. Hupresin and procainamide-Sepharose were equally effective at purifying HuBChE from Cohn fraction. HuBChE in Cohn fraction required 1000-fold purification to attain 99% purity, but 15,000-fold purification when the starting material was plasma. HuBChE (P06276) purified from Cohn fraction was a 340 kDa tetramer of 4 identical N-glycated subunits, stable for years in solution or as a lyophilized product.

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<![CDATA[Vinculin association with actin cytoskeleton is necessary for stiffness-dependent regulation of vinculin behavior]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db53ab0ee8fa60bdcabb

The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a major regulator of cell behavior. Recent studies have indicated the importance of the physical properties of the ECM, including its stiffness, for cell migration and differentiation. Using actomyosin-generated forces, cells pull the ECM and sense stiffness via cell-ECM adhesion structures called focal adhesions (FAs). Vinculin, an actin-binding FA protein, has emerged as a major player in FA-mediated mechanotransduction. Although vinculin is important for sensing ECM stiffness, the role of vinculin binding to actin in the ECM stiffness-mediated regulation of vinculin behavior remains unknown. Here, we show that an actin binding-deficient mutation disrupts the ECM stiffness-dependent regulation of CSB (cytoskeleton stabilization buffer) resistance and the stable localization of vinculin. These results suggest that the vinculin-actin interaction participates in FA-mediated mechanotransduction.

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<![CDATA[Validation of Cis and Trans Modes in Multistep Phosphotransfer Signaling of Bacterial Tripartite Sensor Kinases by Using Phos-Tag SDS-PAGE]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dabeab0ee8fa60bafb68

Tripartite sensor kinases (TSKs) have three phosphorylation sites on His, Asp, and His residues, which are conserved in a histidine kinase (HK) domain, a receiver domain, and a histidine-containing phosphotransmitter (HPt) domain, respectively. By means of a three-step phosphorelay, TSKs convey a phosphoryl group from the γ-phosphate group of ATP to the first His residue in the HK domain, then to the Asp residue in the receiver domain, and finally to the second His residue in the HPt domain. Although TSKs generally form homodimers, it was unknown whether the mode of phosphorylation in each step was intramolecular (cis) or intermolecular (trans). To examine this mode, we performed in vitro complementation analyses using Ala-substituted mutants of the ATP-binding region and three phosphorylation sites of recombinant ArcB, EvgS, and BarA TSKs derived from Escherichia coli. Phosphorylation profiles of these kinases, determined by using Phos-tag SDS-PAGE, showed that the sequential modes of the three-step phosphoryl-transfer reactions of ArcB, EvgS, and BarA are all different: cis-trans-trans, cis-cis-cis, and trans-trans-trans, respectively. The inclusion of a trans mode is consistent with the need to form a homodimer; the fact that all the steps for EvgS have cis modes is particularly interesting. Phos-tag SDS-PAGE therefore provides a simple method for identifying the unique and specific phosphotransfer mode for a given kinase, without taking complicated intracellular elements into consideration.

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<![CDATA[Carrageenan as a dry strength additive for papermaking]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db4fab0ee8fa60bdb8b3

Carrageenans are commercially important sulfated gums found in various species of red seaweeds (Rhodophyta), wherein they serve a structural function similar to that of pectins in land plants. In this study, carrageenan was used independently or in combination with cationic polyacrylamide (CPAM) and/or Al2(SO4)3 to explore its application as a dry strength additive in papermaking. Strength index determination, ash content detection, FTIR characterization and SEM observation were performed on prepared handsheets. The results showed that with 0.6% Al2(SO4)3 and 0.2% carrageenan as additives, the tensile index increased by 13.53% and precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC) retention increased by 57.06%. With 0.6% Al2(SO4)3, 0.2% carrageenan and 0.03% CPAM as additives, PCC retention increased by 121% while the tensile index did not fall compared to handsheets without additives, indicating that carrageenan could enhance the strength of handsheets and be used as an anionic dry strength agent.

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