ResearchPad - position-statement https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[COVID-19 and Acute Heart Failure: Screening the Critically Ill – A Position Statement of the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ)<a href="#fn1">☆</a>]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_12968 Up to one-third of COVID-19 patients admitted to intensive care develop an acute cardiomyopathy, which may represent myocarditis or stress cardiomyopathy. Further, while mortality in older patients with COVID-19 appears related to multi-organ failure complicating acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), the cause of death in younger patients may be related to acute heart failure. Cardiac involvement needs to be considered early on in critically ill COVID-19 patients, and even after the acute respiratory phase is passing. This Statement presents a screening algorithm to better identify COVID-19 patients at risk for severe heart failure and circulatory collapse, while balancing the need to protect health care workers and preserve personal protective equipment (PPE). The significance of serum troponin levels and the role of telemetry and targeted transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) in patient investigation and management are addressed, as are fundamental considerations in the management of acute heart failure in COVID-19 patients.

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<![CDATA[CSANZ Imaging Council Position Statement on Echocardiography Services During the COVID-19 Pandemic<sup><a href="#d35e567">☆</a></sup>]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nb30a37f0-da25-4395-bc5f-43d1c08b0452 This Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ) Imaging Council Position Statement aims to guide local, regional and national clinical practice, and facilitate resource and echocardiographic service planning appropriately during the current COVID-19 global pandemic. General considerations include workforce arrangements and contingency plans, patient risk assessment for COVID-19 and level of care (personal protective equipment) for staff. Both outpatient and inpatient settings are addressed, including specific considerations in the in-patient setting including scanning protocols, screening modalities and indications for echocardiograms in the context of COVID-19 infection.

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<![CDATA[Diagnosis and treatment of lung disease associated with alpha one‐antitrypsin deficiency: A position statement from the Thoracic Society of Australia and New Zealand*]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N5b58fd1f-a565-43e1-a3e6-a1426bcac358

ABSTRACT

AATD is a common inherited disorder associated with an increased risk of developing pulmonary emphysema and liver disease. Many people with AATD‐associated pulmonary emphysema remain undiagnosed and therefore without access to care and counselling specific to the disease. AAT augmentation therapy is available and consists of i.v. infusions of exogenous AAT protein harvested from pooled blood products. Its clinical efficacy has been the subject of some debate and the use of AAT augmentation therapy was recently permitted by regulators in Australia and New Zealand, although treatment is not presently subsidized by the government in either country. The purpose of this position statement is to review the evidence for diagnosis and treatment of AATD‐related lung disease with reference to the Australian and New Zealand population. The clinical efficacy and adverse events of AAT augmentation therapy were evaluated by a systematic review, and the GRADE process was employed to move from evidence to recommendation. Other sections address the wide range of issues to be considered in the care of the individual with AATD‐related lung disease: when and how to test for AATD, changing diagnostic techniques, monitoring of progression, disease in heterozygous AATD and pharmacological and non‐pharmacological therapy including surgical options for severe disease. Consideration is also given to broader issues in AATD that respiratory healthcare staff may encounter: genetic counselling, patient support groups, monitoring for liver disease and the need to establish national registries for people with AATD in Australia and New Zealand.

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<![CDATA[Neurofibromatosis 1 French national guidelines based on an extensive literature review since 1966]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Na1e15611-56fc-427d-b8c8-87bbfb2d4ac0

Neurofibromatosis type 1 is a relatively common genetic disease, with a prevalence ranging between 1/3000 and 1/6000 people worldwide. The disease affects multiple systems with cutaneous, neurologic, and orthopedic as major manifestations which lead to significant morbidity or mortality. Indeed, NF1 patients are at an increased risk of malignancy and have a life expectancy about 10–15 years shorter than the general population. The mainstay of management of NF1 is a patient-centered longitudinal care with age-specific monitoring of clinical manifestations, aiming at the early recognition and symptomatic treatment of complications as they occur. Protocole national de diagnostic et de soins (PNDS) are mandatory French clinical practice guidelines for rare diseases required by the French national plan for rare diseases. Their purpose is to provide health care professionals with guidance regarding the optimal diagnostic and therapeutic management of patients affected with a rare disease; and thus, harmonizing their management nationwide. PNDS are usually developed through a critical literature review and a multidisciplinary expert consensus. The purpose of this article is to present the French guidelines on NF1, making them even more available to the international medical community. We further dwelled on the emerging new evidence that might have therapeutic potential or a strong impact on NF1 management in the coming feature. Given the complexity of the disease, the management of children and adults with NF1 entails the full complement healthcare providers and communication among the various specialties.

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<![CDATA[Rare diseases in Chile: challenges and recommendations in universal health coverage context]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ne5e8db1c-7bad-4081-b686-cc48eee14eb4

Rare diseases (RDs) are a large number of diverse conditions with low individual prevalence, but collectively may affect up to 3.5–5.9% of the population. They have psychosocial and economic impact on patients and societies, and are a significant problem for healthcare systems, especially for countries with limited resources. In Chile, financial protection exists for 20 known RDs through different programs that cover diagnosis and treatments. Although beneficial for a number of conditions, most RD patients are left without a proper legal structure that guarantees a financial coverage, and in a vulnerable situation. In this review, we present and analyze the main challenges of the Chilean healthcare system and legislation on RDs, and other ambits of the RD ecosystem, including patient advocacy groups and research. Finally, we propose a set of policy recommendations that includes creating a patient registry, eliciting social preferences on health and financial coverage, improving access to clinical genetic services and therapies, promoting research on RDs and establishing a Latin-American cooperation network, all aimed at promoting equitable quality healthcare access for people living with RDs.

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<![CDATA[Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes—2018Abridged for Primary Care Providers]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c354686d5eed0c484d9bf27 ]]> <![CDATA[2017 National Standards for Diabetes Self-Management Education and Support]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c11c0bdd5eed0c4847851ab

This article was copublished in Diabetes Care 2017;40:1409–1419 and The Diabetes Educator 2017;43:449–464 and is reprinted with permission. The previous version of this article, also copublished in Diabetes Care and The Diabetes Educator, can be found at Diabetes Care 2012;35:2393–2401 (https://doi.org/10.2337/dc12-1707).

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<![CDATA[Orphan devices: yesterday is history; tomorrow is mystery: towards a European orphan device directive?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db26ab0ee8fa60bd03f7

Background

Regulatory and economic frameworks stimulated the research and development of orphan drugs, but very little has been done for devices necessary for the in-vivo diagnosis, prevention and treatment of life-threatening conditions with a low prevalence/incidence.

Discussion

A general public consultation in Europe has shown a positive attitude towards an “orphan device” directive. The United States of America have a Humanitarian Use Device exemption, but Europe is still waiting for such a stimulating framework. Post-marketing surveillance (“materio-vigilance”) will be necessary for follow-up, patient-reported outcome measures (quality of life versus survival) needed and off-label use data available for patient-safety reasons.

Summary

The marketing period for devices is shorter than for medicinal products. Incentives are necessary to stimulate research and development of such “orphan devices” especially when surgical intervention is the only option.

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<![CDATA[Behavioral disturbance and treatment strategies in Smith-Magenis syndrome]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9d4ab0ee8fa60b6550f

Background

Smith-Magenis syndrome is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder that includes intellectual deficiency, speech delay, behavioral disturbance and typical sleep disorders. Ninety percent of the cases are due to a 17p11.2 deletion encompassing the RAI1 gene; other cases are linked to mutations of the same gene. Behavioral disorders often include outbursts, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorders, self-injury with onychotillomania and polyembolokoilamania (insertion of objects into body orifices), etc. Interestingly, the stronger the speech delay and sleep disorders, the more severe the behavioral issues. Sleep disturbances associate excessive daytime sleepiness with nighttime agitation. They are underpinned by an inversion of the melatonin secretion cycle. However, the combined intake of beta-blockers in the morning and melatonin in the evening may radically alleviate the circadian rhythm problems.

Discussion

Once sleep disorders are treated, the next challenge is finding an effective treatment for the remaining behavioral problems. Unfortunately, there is a lack of objective guidelines. A comprehensive evaluation of such disorders should include sleep disorders, potential causes of pain, neurocognitive level and environment (i.e. family and school). In any case, efforts should focus on improving communication skills, identifying and treating attention deficit/hyperactivity, aggressiveness and anxiety.

Summary

Treatment of Smith-Magenis syndrome is complex and requires a multidisciplinary team including, among others, geneticists, psychiatrists, neuropediatricians/neurologists, somnologists, developmental and behavioral pediatricians, and speech and language therapists.

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<![CDATA[Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5abfe0af463d7e2518adcf21 ]]> <![CDATA[International Association for Hospice and Palliative Care Position Statement: Euthanasia and Physician-Assisted Suicide]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b2b03a0463d7e3e6ca57646

Abstract

Background: Reports about regulations and laws on Euthanasia and Physician Assisted Suicide (PAS) are becoming increasingly common in the media. Many groups have expressed opposition to euthanasia and PAS while those in favor argue that severely chronically ill and debilitated patients have a right to control the timing and manner of their death. Others argue that both PAS and euthanasia are ethically legitimate in rare and exceptional cases. Given that these discussions as well as the new and proposed laws and regulations may have a powerful impact on patients, caregivers, and health care providers, the International Association for Hospice and Palliative Care (IAHPC) has prepared this statement.

Purpose: To describe the position of the IAHPC regarding Euthanasia and PAS.

Method: The IAHPC formed a working group (WG) of seven board members and two staff officers who volunteered to participate in this process. An online search was performed using the terms “position statement”, “euthanasia” “assisted suicide” “PAS” to identify existing position statements from health professional organizations. Only statements from national or pan-national associations were included. Statements from seven general medical and nursing associations and statements from seven palliative care organizations were identified. A working document including a summary of the different position statements was prepared and based on these, an initial draft was prepared. Online discussions among the members of the WG took place for a period of three months. The differences were reconciled by email discussions. The resulting draft was shared with the full board. Additional comments and suggestions were incorporated. This document represents the final version approved by the IAHPC Board of Directors.

Result: IAHPC believes that no country or state should consider the legalization of euthanasia or PAS until it ensures universal access to palliative care services and to appropriate medications, including opioids for pain and dyspnea.

Conclusion: In countries and states where euthanasia and/or PAS are legal, IAHPC agrees that palliative care units should not be responsible for overseeing or administering these practices. The law or policies should include provisions so that any health professional who objects must be allowed to deny participating.

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<![CDATA[The TREAT-NMD advisory committee for therapeutics (TACT): an innovative de-risking model to foster orphan drug development]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da4bab0ee8fa60b8cbd3

Despite multiple publications on potential therapies for neuromuscular diseases (NMD) in cell and animal models only a handful reach clinical trials. The ability to prioritise drug development according to objective criteria is particularly critical in rare diseases with large unmet needs and a limited numbers of patients who can be enrolled into clinical trials. TREAT-NMD Advisory Committee for Therapeutics (TACT) was established to provide independent and objective guidance on the preclinical and development pathway of potential therapies (whether novel or repurposed) for NMD.

We present our experience in the establishment and operation of the TACT. TACT provides a unique resource of recognized experts from multiple disciplines. The goal of each TACT review is to help the sponsor to position the candidate compound along a realistic and well-informed plan to clinical trials, and eventual registration. The reviews and subsequent recommendations are focused on generating meaningful and rigorous data that can enable clear go/no-go decisions and facilitate longer term funding or partnering opportunities. The review process thereby acts to comment on viability, de-risking the process of proceeding on a development programme.

To date TACT has held 10 review meeting and reviewed 29 program applications in several rare neuromuscular diseases: Of the 29 programs reviewed, 19 were from industry and 10 were from academia; 15 were for novel compounds and 14 were for repurposed drugs; 16 were small molecules and 13 were biologics; 14 were preclinical stage applications and 15 were clinical stage applications. 3 had received Orphan drug designation from European Medicines Agency and 3 from Food and Drug Administration. A number of recurrent themes emerged over the course of the reviews and we found that applicants frequently require advice and education on issues concerned with preclinical standard operating procedures, interactions with regulatory agencies, formulation, repurposing, clinical trial design, manufacturing and ethics.

Over the 5 years since its establishment TACT has amassed a body of experience that can be extrapolated to other groups of rare diseases to improve the community’s chances of successfully bringing new rare disease drugs to registration and ultimately to market.

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<![CDATA[Consensus for genes to be included on cancer panel tests offered by UK genetics services: guidelines of the UK Cancer Genetics Group]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b5aa456463d7e0c4334c368

Genetic testing for hereditary cancer predisposition has evolved rapidly in recent years with the discovery of new genes, but there is much debate over the clinical utility of testing genes for which there are currently limited data regarding the degree of associated cancer risk. To address the discrepancies that have arisen in the provision of these tests across the UK, the UK Cancer Genetics Group facilitated a 1-day workshop with representation from the majority of National Health Service (NHS) clinical genetics services. Using a preworkshop survey followed by focused discussion of genes without prior majority agreement for inclusion, we achieved consensus for panels of cancer genes with sufficient evidence for clinical utility, to be adopted by all NHS genetics services. To support consistency in the delivery of these tests and advice given to families across the country, we also developed management proposals for individuals who are found to have pathogenic mutations in these genes. However, we fully acknowledge that the decision regarding what test is most appropriate for an individual family rests with the clinician, and will depend on factors including specific phenotypic features and the family structure.

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<![CDATA[Principles for consistent value assessment and sustainable funding of orphan drugs in Europe]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dabbab0ee8fa60bae961

The European Orphan Medicinal Products (OMP) Regulation has successfully encouraged research to develop treatments for rare diseases resulting in the authorisation of new OMPs in Europe. While decisions on OMP designation and marketing authorisation are made at the European Union level, reimbursement decisions are made at the national level. OMP value and affordability are high priority issues for policymakers and decisions regarding their pricing and funding are highly complex. There is currently no European consensus on how OMP value should be assessed and inequalities of access to OMPs have previously been observed. Against this background, policy makers in many countries are considering reforms to improve access to OMPs. This paper proposes ten principles to be considered when undertaking such reforms, from the perspective of an OMP manufacturer. We recommend the continued prioritisation of rare diseases by policymakers, an increased alignment between payer and regulatory frameworks, pricing centred on OMP value, and mechanisms to ensure long-term financial sustainability allowing a continuous and virtuous development of OMPs. Our recommendations support the development of more consistent frameworks and encourage collaboration between all stakeholders, including research-based industry, payers, clinicians, and patients.

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<![CDATA[The context for the thematic grouping of rare diseases to facilitate the establishment of European Reference Networks]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db42ab0ee8fa60bd7209

Background

In the past few years there has been a political imperative driving the creation of European Reference Networks as these are considered a promising way to achieve equity in access to the most up to date medical care across Europe. The right to equity in the access to care was established by the directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on the application of patients' rights in cross-border healthcare. The particular situation for Rare Diseases whereby sharing of expertise can be regarded as especially valuable, as well as the work that is already in place in the networking of Rare Diseases experts means that Rare Diseases are considered excellent models for the development of European Reference Networks.

Discussion

To be effective, a Rare Disease network should be based on the common effort of different stakeholders and be built on what is present in the community. European Reference Networks are an excellent model to overcome some of the specificities of rare diseases: scarcity of patients, resources and expertise. European Reference Networks with broad scope will allow the rare disease community the possibility of reaching a larger number of patients and more diversified rare diseases. The practical value of grouping rare diseases in broad networks is well demonstrated in different grouping systems present in Europe (EURORDIS grouping of diseases, “Les filières de santé maladies rares”, Orphanet classification and the UK Research Model).

Summary

In this paper the authors, partners of EUCERD Joint Action, address some of the questions that surround the establishment of European Reference Networks. We will focus on how Rare Diseases could be efficiently grouped in order to constitute European Reference Networks and how they might be structured to allow each and every disease to benefit from networking.

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<![CDATA[Position statement on the role of healthcare professionals, patient organizations and industry in European Reference Networks]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da9dab0ee8fa60ba46fb

A call from the EU for the set-up of European Reference Networks (ERNs) is expected to be launched in the first quarter of 2016. ERNs are intended to improve the care for patients with low prevalent or rare diseases throughout the EU by, among other things, facilitating the pooling and exchange of experience and knowledge and the development of protocols and guidelines. In the past, for example where costly orphan drugs have been concerned, industry has played an important role in facilitating consensus meetings and publication of guidelines. The ERNs should provide a unique opportunity for healthcare professionals and patients to lead these activities in an independent way. However, currently costs for networking activities are not to be covered by EU funds and alternative sources of funding are being explored. There is growing concern that any involvement of the industry in the funding of ERNs and their core activities may create a risk of undue influence. To date, the European Commission has not been explicit in how industry will be engaged in ERNs. We believe that public funding and a conflict of interest policy are needed at the level of the ERNs, Centers of Expertise (CEs), healthcare professionals and patient organizations with the aim of maintaining scientific integrity and independence. Specific attention is needed where it concerns the development of clinical practice guidelines. A proposal for a conflict of interest policy is presented, which may support the development of a framework to facilitate collaboration, safeguard professional integrity and to establish and maintain public acceptability and trust among patients, their organizations and the general public.

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<![CDATA[Pharmaceutical pricing, cost containment and new treatments for rare diseases in children]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daafab0ee8fa60baaa20

Cost-containment in healthcare spending has become a central issue in public policy and healthcare reform, especially as the affordable care act adds millions of people to public and private insurance rolls. In this climate, longstanding criticism of pharmaceutical pricing has grown sharper, and many in both policy and medicine have characterized the costs of newly developed drugs as both exorbitant and wasteful of scarce healthcare resources. At the same time, pharmaceutical research and development pipeline costs are increasing exponentially.

Price resistance poses a significant threat to the development of drugs to treat rare pediatric diseases, where exceptionally high prices are a sine qua non of commercial viability. This article examines the trends in public discussion of high cost drugs and the potential consequences for orphan drug development. We conclude that despite growing public hostility towards high unit costs, drugs that treat rare diseases in children are likely to remain well-compensated and commercially viable.

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<![CDATA[A proposed definition of rare diseases for China: from the perspective of return on investment in new orphan drugs]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dac5ab0ee8fa60bb2444

A prevalence threshold to define rare diseases is needed for orphan drug designation. Here, we propose a bottom-up approach to defining rare diseases for China, based on the minimum number of patients needed for the industry to make a reasonable profit on a new drug. To obtain this patient population size, we considered three factors: (1) the industry research and development cost per new drug; (2) the sales per new drug to recoup its research and development costs and generate profit; (3) the highest affordable cost for one patient’s treatment in a given healthcare system. Using this model, we estimate that, with the current level of innovation in the pharmaceutical industry in China, between 300,000 and 500,000 patients could be a reference threshold to define rare diseases. Compared with other proposals, this evidence-based definition is more useful for designing rare diseases and orphan drug policies for China.

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<![CDATA[Recommendations from the European Working Group for Value Assessment and Funding Processes in Rare Diseases (ORPH-VAL)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db55ab0ee8fa60bdda32

Rare diseases are an important public health issue with high unmet need. The introduction of the EU Regulation on orphan medicinal products (OMP) has been successful in stimulating investment in the research and development of OMPs. Despite this advancement, patients do not have universal access to these new medicines. There are many factors that affect OMP uptake, but one of the most important is the difficulty of making pricing and reimbursement (P&R) decisions in rare diseases. Until now, there has been little consensus on the most appropriate assessment criteria, perspective or appraisal process. This paper proposes nine principles to help improve the consistency of OMP P&R assessment in Europe and ensure that value assessment, pricing and funding processes reflect the specificities of rare diseases and contribute to both the sustainability of healthcare systems and the sustainability of innovation in this field. These recommendations are the output of the European Working Group for Value Assessment and Funding Processes in Rare Diseases (ORPH-VAL), a collaboration between rare disease experts, patient representatives, academics, health technology assessment (HTA) practitioners, politicians and industry representatives. ORPH-VAL reached its recommendations through careful consideration of existing OMP P&R literature and through a wide consultation with expert stakeholders, including payers, regulators and patients. The principles cover four areas: OMP decision criteria, OMP decision process, OMP sustainable funding systems and European co-ordination. This paper also presents a guide to the core elements of value relevant to OMPs that should be consistently considered in all OMP appraisals. The principles outlined in this paper may be helpful in drawing together an emerging consensus on this topic and identifying areas where consistency in payer approach could be achievable and beneficial. All stakeholders have an obligation to work together to ensure that the promise of OMP’s is realised.

Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13023-017-0601-9) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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<![CDATA[Management of Hyperglycemia in Type 2 Diabetes: A Patient-Centered Approach]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b9523ea40307c6d945defaf ]]>