ResearchPad - positive-strand-rna-viruses https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Identification and characterization of a Golgi retention signal in feline coronavirus accessory protein 7b]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_10354 Feline coronaviruses encode five accessory proteins with largely elusive functions. Here, one of these proteins, called 7b (206 residues), was investigated using a reverse genetic approach established for feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) strain 79–1146. Recombinant FIPVs (rFPIVs) expressing mutant and/or FLAG-tagged forms of 7b were generated and used to investigate the expression, processing, glycosylation, localization and trafficking of the 7b protein in rFIPV-infected cells, focusing on a previously predicted ER retention signal, KTEL, at the C-terminus of 7b. The study revealed that 7b is N-terminally processed by a cellular signalase. The cleavage site, 17-Ala|Thr-18, was unambiguously identified by N-terminal sequence analysis of a 7b processing product purified from rFIPV-infected cells. Based on this information, rFIPVs expressing FLAG-tagged 7b proteins were generated and the effects of substitutions in the C-terminal 202KTEL206 sequence were investigated. The data show that (i) 7b localizes to and is retained in the medial- and/or trans-Golgi compartment, (ii) the C-terminal KTEL sequence acts as a Golgi [rather than an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)] retention signal, (iii) minor changes in the KTEL motif (such as KTE, KTEV, or the addition of a C-terminal tag) abolish Golgi retention, resulting in relocalization and secretion of 7b, and (iv) a KTEL-to-KDEL replacement causes retention of 7b in the ER of rFIPV-infected feline cells. Taken together, this study provides interesting new insights into an efficient Golgi retention signal that controls the cellular localization and trafficking of the FIPV 7b protein in virus-infected feline cells.

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<![CDATA[Naturally occurring recombination in ferret coronaviruses revealed by complete genome characterization]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nba03e188-dd4d-42d0-9f3a-4401a1469f36

Ferret coronaviruses (FRCoVs) exist as an enteric and a systemic pathotype, of which the latter is highly lethal to ferrets. To our knowledge, this study provides the first full genome sequence of a FRCoV, tentatively called FRCoV-NL-2010, which was detected in 2010 in ferrets in The Netherlands. Phylogenetic analysis showed that FRCoV-NL-2010 is most closely related to mink CoV, forming a separate clade of mustelid alphacoronavirus that split off early from other alphacoronaviruses. Based on sequence homology of the complete genome, we propose that these mustelid coronaviruses may be assigned to a new species. Comparison of FRCoV-NL-2010 with the partially sequenced ferret systemic coronavirus MSU-1 and ferret enteric coronavirus MSU-2 revealed that recombination in the spike, 3c and envelope genes occurred between different FRCoVs.

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<![CDATA[Deletion of accessory genes 3a, 3b, 5a or 5b from avian coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus induces an attenuated phenotype both in vitro and in vivo]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ne6c6cbbb-79d7-45cd-9bf4-7d3e8605b893

Avian coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) infects domestic fowl, resulting in respiratory disease and causing serious losses in unprotected birds. Its control is mainly achieved by using live attenuated vaccines. Here we explored the possibilities for rationally attenuating IBV to improve our knowledge regarding the function of IBV accessory proteins and for the development of next-generation vaccines with the recently established reverse genetic system for IBV H52 based on targeted RNA recombination and selection of recombinant viruses in embryonated eggs. To this aim, we selectively removed accessory genes 3a, 3b, 5a and 5b individually, and rescued the resulting recombinant (r) rIBV-Δ3a, rIBV-Δ3b, rIBV-Δ5a and rIBV-Δ5b. In vitro inoculation of chicken embryo kidney cells with recombinant and wild-type viruses demonstrated that the accessory protein 5b is involved in the delayed activation of the interferon response of the host after IBV infection. Embryo mortality after the inoculation of 8-day-old embryonated chicken eggs with recombinant and wild-type viruses showed that rIBV-Δ3b, rIBV-Δ5a and rIBV-Δ5b had an attenuated phenotype in ovo, with reduced titres at 6 h p.i. and 12 h p.i. for all viruses, while growing to the same titre as wild-type rIBV at 48 h p.i. When administered to 1-day-old chickens, rIBV-Δ3a, rIBV-Δ3b, rIBV-Δ5a and rIBV-Δ5b showed reduced ciliostasis in comparison to the wild-type viruses. In conclusion, individual deletion of accessory genes in IBV H52 resulted in mutant viruses with an attenuated phenotype.

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<![CDATA[First detection of bovine coronavirus in Yak (Bos grunniens) and a bovine coronavirus genome with a recombinant HE gene]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N24b866ae-5359-4ba4-936d-40fff5946b26

The yak (Bosgrunniens) is a unique domestic bovine species that plays an indispensable role for herdsmen in the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau. Here, 336 diarrhoeic samples were collected from yaks on 29 farms in the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau from 2015 to 2017. Approximately 69.05 % (232/336) of the diarrhoeic samples were assessed as bovine coronavirus (BCoV)-positive by RT-PCR assay, and most of the detected strains showed a unique evolution based on 40 spike (S), nucleocapsid (N) and haemagglutinin-esterase (HE) gene fragments. Notably, the 12 complete S genes detected shared 1 identical amino acid mutation (E121V) in the S1 subunit compared with the other 150 complete S genes in the GenBank database. Furthermore, a BCoV strain (designated YAK/HY24/CH/2017) was isolated from one diarrhoeic sample (virus titre : 108.17TCID50 ml−1), and a phylogenetic analysis based on complete genome sequences revealed that strain YAK/HY24/CH/2017 has the closest genetic relationship with the BCoV prototype strain Mebus. Interestingly, 2 significant characteristics were observed in the genome of strain YAK/HY24/CH/2017 :  (1) the strain had 26 unique amino acid variations in the S gene compared with the other 150 BCoV S genes in the GenBank database and (2) a recombination event was identified between the esterase and lectin domains of the HE gene. In conclusion, this study revealed the high prevalence of BCoV in yaks in the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first description of the molecular prevalence of BCoV in yaks and of a BCoV genome with an HE gene recombination.

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<![CDATA[Evolution of infectious bronchitis virus in China over the past two decades]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nb44629d9-0739-44e3-9ac0-b1e9d7b22009

Avian infectious bronchitis is a highly contagious disease caused by infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) that affects poultry production worldwide. The absence of vaccine cross-protection and the frequent emergence of new variant strains complicate control of IBV. Here we designed a study to measure the evolution dynamics of IBV strains in China. One hundered and seven complete sequences and 1022 S1-region sequences of Chinese IBVs isolated between 1994 and 2014 were analysed by using MEGA 5.0 software and the Bayesian analysis sampling trees (BEAST) method, and selection pressure on different proteins was assessed. The phylogenetic dissimilarity of different gene trees in the data set indicated possible recombination. Fourteen isolates were identified as recombinants, possibly generated from vaccines of the Massachusetts serotype in recombination with circulating viruses. The earliest IBV in China was found to have existed in the early 1900s, and continues to evolve at a rate of approximately 10 5 substitutions per site per year. We found that purifying selection was the main evolutionary pressure in the protein-coding regions, while the S1 gene bears the greatest positive selection pressure. The proportion of QX-like genotype strains increased over time. These results indicate that the genotypes of Chinese IBVs have undergone a remarkable transition during the past 20 years.

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<![CDATA[Detection and characterization of a novel bat-borne coronavirus in Singapore using multiple molecular approaches]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N3f42d512-55b5-4162-ab40-b1cd320b6826

Bats are important reservoirs and vectors in the transmission of emerging infectious diseases. Many highly pathogenic viruses such as SARS-CoV and rabies-related lyssaviruses have crossed species barriers to infect humans and other animals. In this study we monitored the major roost sites of bats in Singapore, and performed surveillance for zoonotic pathogens in these bats. Screening of guano samples collected during the survey uncovered a bat coronavirus (Betacoronavirus) in Cynopterus brachyotis, commonly known as the lesser dog-faced fruit bat. Using a capture-enrichment sequencing platform, the full-length genome of the bat CoV was sequenced and found to be closely related to the bat coronavirus HKU9 species found in Leschenault’s rousette discovered in the Guangdong and Yunnan provinces.

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<![CDATA[Arterivirus nsp12 versus the coronavirus nsp16 2′-O-methyltransferase: comparison of the C-terminal cleavage products of two nidovirus pp1ab polyproteins]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nca830adf-a1a5-4ee1-96da-b95c5d87c075

The 3′-terminal domain of the most conserved ORF1b in three of the four families of the order Nidovirales (except for the family Arteriviridae) encodes a (putative) 2′-O-methyltransferase (2′-O-MTase), known as non structural protein (nsp) 16 in the family Coronaviridae and implicated in methylation of the 5′ cap structure of nidoviral mRNAs. As with coronavirus transcripts, arterivirus mRNAs are assumed to possess a 5′ cap although no candidate MTases have been identified thus far. To address this knowledge gap, we analysed the uncharacterized nsp12 of arteriviruses, which occupies the ORF1b position equivalent to that of the nidovirus 2′-O-MTase (coronavirus nsp16). In our in-depth bioinformatics analysis of nsp12, the protein was confirmed to be family specific whilst having diverged much further than other nidovirus ORF1b-encoded proteins, including those of the family Coronaviridae. Only one invariant and several partially conserved, predominantly aromatic residues were identified in nsp12, which may adopt a structure with alternating α-helices and β-strands, an organization also found in known MTases. However, no statistically significant similarity was found between nsp12 and the twofold larger coronavirus nsp16, nor could we detect MTase activity in biochemical assays using recombinant equine arteritis virus (EAV) nsp12. Our further analysis established that this subunit is essential for replication of this prototypic arterivirus. Using reverse genetics, we assessed the impact of 25 substitutions at 14 positions, yielding virus phenotypes ranging from WT-like to non-viable. Notably, replacement of the invariant phenylalanine 109 with tyrosine was lethal. We concluded that nsp12 plays an essential role during EAV replication, possibly by acting as a co-factor for another enzyme.

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<![CDATA[First complete genome sequence of European turkey coronavirus suggests complex recombination history related with US turkey and guinea fowl coronaviruses]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N65357a60-9da1-421e-8b89-f31a558ffee3

A full-length genome sequence of 27 739 nt was determined for the only known European turkey coronavirus (TCoV) isolate. In general, the order, number and size of ORFs were consistent with other gammacoronaviruses. Three points of recombination were predicted, one towards the end of 1a, a second in 1b just upstream of S and a third in 3b. Phylogenetic analysis of the four regions defined by these three points supported the previous notion that European and American viruses do indeed have different evolutionary pathways. Very close relationships were revealed between the European TCoV and the European guinea fowl coronavirus in all regions except one, and both were shown to be closely related to the European infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) Italy 2005. None of these regions of sequence grouped European and American TCoVs. The region of sequence containing the S gene was unique in grouping all turkey and guinea fowl coronaviruses together, separating them from IBVs. Interestingly the French guinea fowl virus was more closely related to the North American viruses. These data demonstrate that European turkey and guinea fowl coronaviruses share a common genetic backbone (most likely an ancestor of IBV Italy 2005) and suggest that this recombined in two separate events with different, yet related, unknown avian coronaviruses, acquiring their S-3a genes. The data also showed that the North American viruses do not share a common backbone with European turkey and guinea fowl viruses; however, they do share similar S-3a genes with guinea fowl virus.

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