ResearchPad - post-translational-modifications https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[PINK1-dependent phosphorylation of Serine111 within the SF3 motif of Rab GTPases impairs effector interactions and LRRK2-mediated phosphorylation at Threonine72]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13881 Loss of function mutations in the PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) kinase are causal for autosomal recessive Parkinson's disease (PD) whilst gain of function mutations in the LRRK2 kinase cause autosomal dominant PD. PINK1 indirectly regulates the phosphorylation of a subset of Rab GTPases at a conserved Serine111 (Ser111) residue within the SF3 motif. Using genetic code expansion technologies, we have produced stoichiometric Ser111-phosphorylated Rab8A revealing impaired interactions with its cognate guanine nucleotide exchange factor and GTPase activating protein. In a screen for Rab8A kinases we identify TAK1 and MST3 kinases that can efficiently phosphorylate the Switch II residue Threonine72 (Thr72) in a similar manner as LRRK2 in vitro. Strikingly, we demonstrate that Ser111 phosphorylation negatively regulates the ability of LRRK2 but not MST3 or TAK1 to phosphorylate Thr72 of recombinant nucleotide-bound Rab8A in vitro and demonstrate an interplay of PINK1- and LRRK2-mediated phosphorylation of Rab8A in transfected HEK293 cells. Finally, we present the crystal structure of Ser111-phosphorylated Rab8A and nuclear magnetic resonance structure of Ser111-phosphorylated Rab1B. The structures reveal that the phosphorylated SF3 motif does not induce any major changes, but may interfere with effector-Switch II interactions through intramolecular H-bond formation and/or charge effects with Arg79. Overall, we demonstrate antagonistic regulation between PINK1-dependent Ser111 phosphorylation and LRRK2-mediated Thr72 phosphorylation of Rab8A indicating a potential cross-talk between PINK1-regulated mitochondrial homeostasis and LRRK2 signalling that requires further investigation in vivo.

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<![CDATA[Post-translational modifications and stress adaptation: the paradigm of FKBP51]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_9189 Adaptation to stress is a fundamental requirement to cope with changing environmental conditions that pose a threat to the homeostasis of cells and organisms. Post-translational modifications (PTMs) of proteins represent a possibility to quickly produce proteins with new features demanding relatively little cellular resources. FK506 binding protein (FKBP) 51 is a pivotal stress protein that is involved in the regulation of several executers of PTMs. This mini-review discusses the role of FKBP51 in the function of proteins responsible for setting the phosphorylation, ubiquitination and lipidation of other proteins. Examples include the kinases Akt1, CDK5 and GSK3β, the phosphatases calcineurin, PP2A and PHLPP, and the ubiquitin E3-ligase SKP2. The impact of FKBP51 on PTMs of signal transduction proteins significantly extends the functional versatility of this protein. As a stress-induced protein, FKBP51 uses re-setting of PTMs to relay the effect of stress on various signaling pathways.

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<![CDATA[Cross-talk between redox signalling and protein aggregation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_9183 It is well established that both an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS: i.e. O2•−, H2O2 and OH), as well as protein aggregation, accompany ageing and proteinopathies such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease. However, it is far from clear whether there is a causal relation between the two. This review describes how protein aggregation can be affected both by redox signalling (downstream of H2O2), as well as by ROS-induced damage, and aims to give an overview of the current knowledge of how redox signalling affects protein aggregation and vice versa. Redox signalling has been shown to play roles in almost every step of protein aggregation and amyloid formation, from aggregation initiation to the rapid oligomerization of large amyloids, which tend to be less toxic than oligomeric prefibrillar aggregates. We explore the hypothesis that age-associated elevated ROS production could be part of a redox signalling-dependent-stress response in an attempt to curb protein aggregation and minimize toxicity.

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<![CDATA[Cell signaling and cytomegalovirus reactivation: what do Src family kinases have to do with it?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_9180 Primary infection with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is usually asymptomatic and leads to the establishment of lifelong latent infection. A major site of latency are the CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor cells. Importantly, normal cellular differentiation of CD34+ cells to a macrophage or dendritic cell phenotype is concomitant with viral reactivation. Molecular studies of HCMV latency have shown that the latent viral genome is associated with histone proteins and that specific post-translational modifications of these histones correlates with the transcriptional activity of the genome arguing that expression of key viral genes that dictate latency and reactivation are subject to the rules of the histone code hypothesis postulated for the regulation of eukaryotic gene expression. Finally, many studies now point to a key role for multiple signaling pathways to provide the cue for HCMV reactivation. The challenge now is to understand the complex interplay between cell identity, transcriptional regulation and cell signaling that occurs to promote reactivation and, additionally, how HCMV may further manipulate these events to support reactivation. Understanding how HCMV utilizes these pathways to drive HCMV reactivation will provide new insight into the mechanisms that govern viral and host gene expression and, potentially, illuminate new, host-directed, therapeutic opportunities to support our attempts to control this important medical pathogen of immune-compromised individuals.

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<![CDATA[Expanding our understanding of the role polyprotein conformation plays in the coronavirus life cycle]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_9177 Coronavirus are the causative agents in many globally concerning respiratory disease outbreaks such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) and coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). It is therefore important that we improve our understanding of how the molecular components of the virus facilitate the viral life cycle. These details will allow for the design of effective interventions. Krichel and coauthors in their article in the Biochemical Journal provide molecular details of how the viral polyprotein (nsp7–10) produced from the positive single stranded RNA genome, is cleaved to form proteins that are part of the replication/transcription complex. The authors highlight the impact the polyprotein conformation has on the cleavage efficiency of the main protease (Mpro) and hence the order of release of non-structural proteins 7–10 (nsp7–10) of the SARS-CoV. Cleavage order is important in controlling viral processes and seems to have relevance in terms of the protein–protein complexes formed. The authors made use of mass spectrometry to advance our understanding of the mechanism by which coronaviruses control nsp 7, 8, 9 and 10 production in the virus life cycle.

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<![CDATA[Small molecules that target the ubiquitin system]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_9166 Eukaryotic life depends upon the interplay between vast networks of signaling pathways composed of upwards of 109–1010 proteins per cell. The integrity and normal operation of the cell requires that these proteins act in a precise spatial and temporal manner. The ubiquitin system is absolutely central to this process and perturbation of its function contributes directly to the onset and progression of a wide variety of diseases, including cancer, metabolic syndromes, neurodegenerative diseases, autoimmunity, inflammatory disorders, infectious diseases, and muscle dystrophies. Whilst the individual components and the overall architecture of the ubiquitin system have been delineated in some detail, how ubiquitination might be successfully targeted, or harnessed, to develop novel therapeutic approaches to the treatment of disease, currently remains relatively poorly understood. In this review, we will provide an overview of the current status of selected small molecule ubiquitin system inhibitors. We will further discuss the unique challenges of targeting this ubiquitous and highly complex machinery, and explore and highlight potential ways in which these challenges might be met.

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<![CDATA[Phosphorylation of vaccinia-related kinase 1 at threonine 386 transduces glucose stress signal in human liver cells]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N73cc61ba-43e9-4993-8cfb-1b246f3fa7b7 Vaccinia-related kinase 1 (VRK1) is a chromatin-associated Ser-Thr kinase that regulates numerous downstream factors including DNA repair as well as stress factors c-Jun and p53. Both c-Jun and p53 are phosphorylated at Ser63 and Thr18, respectively, in response to low glucose (40 mg/dl of medium) but not high glucose (140 mg/dl of medium) in human hepatoma-derived Huh-7 cells. Here, we have determined the molecular mechanism by which VRK1 phosphorylates these residues in response to glucose in Huh-7 cells. Human VRK1 auto-phosphorylates Ser376 and Thr386 in in vitro kinase assays. In Huh-7 cells, this auto-phosphorylation activity is regulated by glucose signaling; Thr386 is auto-phosphorylated only in low glucose medium, while Ser376 is not phosphorylated in either medium. A correlation of this low glucose response phosphorylation of Thr386 with the phosphorylation of c-Jun and p53 suggests that VRK1 phosphorylated at Thr386 catalyzes this phosphorylation. In fact, VRK1 knockdown by siRNA decreases and over-expression of VRK1 T386D increases phosphorylated c-Jun and p53 in Huh-7 cells. Phosphorylation by VRK1 of c-Jun but not p53 is regulated by cadherin Plakophilin-2 (PKP2). The PKP2 is purified from whole extracts of Huh-7 cells cultured in low glucose medium and is characterized to bind a C-terminal peptide of the VRK1 molecules to regulate its substrate specificity toward c-Jun. siRNA knockdowns show that PKP2 transduces low glucose signaling to VRK1 only to phosphorylate c-Jun, establishing the low glucose-PKP2-VRK1-c-Jun pathway as a glucose stress signaling pathway.

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<![CDATA[Modulation of CRMP2 via (S)-Lacosamide shows therapeutic promise but is ultimately ineffective in a mouse model of CLN6-Batten disease]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N12a57012-8ebd-4058-b121-c0cacf3f28c8

Abstract

CLN6-Batten disease is a rare neurodegenerative disorder with no cure, characterized by accumulation of lipofuscin in the lysosome, glial activation, and neuronal death. Here we test the therapeutic efficacy of modulating collapsin response mediator protein 2 (CRMP2) activity via S-N-benzy-2-acetamido-3-methoxypropionamide ((S)-Lacosamide) in a mouse model of CLN6-Batten disease. Promisingly, mouse neuronal cultures as well as Cln6 patient fibroblasts treated with varying concentrations of (S)-Lacosamide showed positive restoration of lysosomal associated deficits. However, while acute in vivo treatment enhanced glial activation in 3-month-old Cln6 mutant mice, chronic treatment over several months did not improve behavioral or long-term survival outcomes. Therefore, modulation of CRMP2 activity via (S)-Lacosamide alone is unlikely to be a viable therapeutic target for CLN6-Batten disease.

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