ResearchPad - postpartum-hemorrhage https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Predictors of change of health workers’ knowledge and skills after the Helping Mothers Survive Bleeding after Birth (HMS BAB) in-facility training in Tanzania]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_15768 Our study aimed to assess the effect of Helping Mothers Survive Bleeding after Birth on knowledge and skills of health workers and whether such effect varies by health workers characteristics.MethodsNested in a cluster-randomised trial to assess the effect of the training on health outcomes, we assessed changes in knowledge and simulated skills in 61 facilities. The assessments were done i) before, ii) immediately-after training session and iii) at 10-month follow-up for subset of health-workers of implementation facilities as defined by the trial. We used a self-administered questionnaire and Objective Structures Clinical Examinations to assess three skill sets: Active Management of Third Stage of Labour, removal of retained placenta and management of severe postpartum haemorrhage. We computed summary statistics and used the paired t-test to assess change of knowledge and skills immediately post-training and at 10-month follow-up. Linear regression was done to assess association of scores and health worker characteristics.ResultsOf the 636 health workers included, 606 (96.7%) and 591 (91.4%) completed the knowledge and skills assessments, respectively. Majority of the participants (68%) were nurse-midwives. Knowledge scores increased by 15 percentage-points from 77.5% to 93% (95% CI 14.3, 16.3, p-value <0.000), and skills scores by 47 percentage-points (95% CI 46.5, 49.2, p-value <0.000) from 37.5% to 83%. There was a 4.0% decline of skills at 10-month follow-up. The decline was higher in auxiliary staff (-11.8%) and least in nurse-midwives (-2.1%) p-value <0.001. Health workers who assisted less than 5 deliveries in the last month, those who never attended postpartum haemorrhage in-service training and profession experience >8 years were associated with lower mean skill change immediately post-training.ConclusionOur study supports the potential of the Helping Mothers Survive Bleeding after Birth training to increase knowledge and skills of postpartum haemorrhage among all professional groups. Auxiliary staff benefited most from the training but also showed higher skill decline at 10-month. Our study highlights the importance to disaggregate knowledge and skills by health workers characteristics. ]]> <![CDATA[Would you like to participate in this trial? The practice of informed consent in intrapartum research in the last 30 years]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Na45ec8a9-d35b-4ecd-a654-0f10371697fd

Background

Informed consent is the cornerstone of the ethical conduct and protection of the rights and wellbeing of participants in clinical research. Therefore, it is important to identify the most appropriate moments for the participants to be informed and to give consent, so that they are able to make a responsible and autonomous decision. However, the optimal timing of consent in clinical research during the intrapartum period remains controversial, and currently, there is no clear guidance.

Objective

We aimed to describe practices of informed consent in intrapartum care clinical research in the last three decades, as reported in uterotonics for postpartum haemorrhage prevention trials.

Methods

This is a secondary analysis of the studies included in the Cochrane review entitled “Uterotonic agents for preventing postpartum haemorrhage: a network meta-analysis” published in 2018. All the reports included in the Cochrane network meta-analysis were eligible for inclusion in this analysis, except for those reported in languages other than English, French or Spanish. We extracted and synthesized data on the time each of the components of the informed consent process occurred.

Results

We assessed data from 192 studies, out of 196 studies included in the Cochrane review. The majority of studies (59.9%, 115 studies) reported that women were informed about the study, without specifying the timing. When reported, most studies informed women at admission to the facility for childbirth. Most of the studies reported that consent was sought, but only 59.9% reported the timing, which in most of the cases, was at admission for childbirth. Among these, 32 studies obtained consent in the active phase of labour, 17 in the latent phase and in 10 studies the labour status was unknown. Women were consented antenatally in 6 studies and in 8 studies the consent was obtained indistinctly during antenatal care or at admission. Most of the studies did not specified who was the person who sought the informed consent.

Conclusion

Practices of informed consent in trials on use of uterotonics for prevention of postpartum haemorrhage showed variability and substandard reporting. Informed consent sought at admission for childbirth was the most frequent approach implemented in these trials.

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<![CDATA["Not taken seriously"—A qualitative interview study of postpartum Rwandan women who have experienced pregnancy-related complications]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6dc9bdd5eed0c48452a10e

Background

There is limited knowledge on the women’s experiences of pregnancy-related complications in Rwanda. This study aimed to investigate women’s experiences and perceptions of specific complications during pregnancy and delivery and the consequences of these complications on postpartum health and family situation.

Methods

Data were collected through individual in-depth interviews (N = 15). Participants who experienced complications such as postpartum haemorrhage, caesarean section due to prolonged labour/dystocia, pre-eclampsia, or fistula and who were 13–24 months postpartum were invited to participate in the study in July 2015. Interviews were held in Kinyarwanda, digitally recorded, transcribed verbatim, translated into English, and analysed using qualitative content analysis.

Results

Most participants reported that they were previously unaware of the complications they had developed, and they claimed that at discharge they should have been better informed about the potential consequences of these complications. Most participants blamed the health care system as the cause of their problems due to the provision of inadequate care. Participants elaborated different strategies for coping with persistent health problems. Pregnancy-related complications negatively affected participants’ economic situation due to increased health care expenses and lowered income because of impaired working capacity, and participants expressed fear of encountering the same pregnancy-related health problems during future pregnancies.

Conclusions

The findings of this study demonstrate how participants felt that inadequate health care provision during pregnancy, delivery, and the postpartum period was the source of their problems. Participants reported different coping strategies to improve their respective life situation despite persistent health problems. Women’s individual postpartum experiences need to be considered and actions taken at the policy level and also by the local community, in terms of the quality of antenatal and postpartum care services, and in sensitizing the local community about the existence of these complications and preparing the community to support the affected women.

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<![CDATA[Monitoring quality of obstetric care from hospital discharge databases: A Delphi survey to propose a new set of indicators based on maternal health outcomes]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6c7589d5eed0c4843cfe6b

Objectives

Most indicators proposed for assessing quality of care in obstetrics are process indicators and do not directly measure health effects, and cannot always be identified from routinely available databases. Our objective was to propose a set of indicators to assess the quality of hospital obstetric care from maternal morbidity outcomes identifiable in permanent hospital discharge databases.

Methods

Various maternal morbidity outcomes potentially reflecting quality of obstetric care were first selected from a systematic literature review. Then a three-round Delphi consensus survey was conducted online from 11/2016 through 02/2017 among a French panel of 37 expert obstetricians, anesthetists-critical-care specialists, midwives, quality-of-care researchers, and user representatives. For a given maternal outcome, several definitions could be proposed and the indicator (i.e. corresponding rate) could be applied to all women or restricted to specific subgroup(s).

Results

Of the 49 experts invited to participate, 37 agreed. The response rate was 92% in the second round and 97% in the third. Finally, a set of 13 indicators was selected to assess the quality of hospital obstetric care: rates of uterine rupture, postpartum hemorrhage, transfusion incident, severe perineal lacerations, episiotomy, cesarean, cesarean under general anesthesia, post-cesarean site infection, anesthesia-related complications, postpartum pulmonary embolism, maternal readmission and maternal mortality. Six were considered in specific subgroups, with, for example, the postpartum hemorrhage rate assessed among all women and also among women at low risk of PPH.

Implications

This Delphi process enabled us to define consensually a set of indicators to assess the quality of hospital obstetrics care from routine hospital data, based on maternal morbidity outcomes. Considering 6 of them in specific subgroups of women is especially interesting. These indicators, identifiable through codes used in international classifications, will be useful to monitor quality of care over time and across settings.

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<![CDATA[Incidence and risk factors for postpartum hemorrhage among transvaginal deliveries at a tertiary perinatal medical facility in Japan]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c3fa5b5d5eed0c484ca79d7

Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) remains a leading cause of maternal death worldwide, and it is important to understand the relative contributions of different risk factors. We assessed the incidence of these among cases of transvaginal delivery. Between June 2013 and July 2016, a prospective cohort study was conducted at a tertiary perinatal medical facility in Japan. Women were administered a questionnaire to ascertain risk factors for PPH, defined as a blood loss of 1,000 ml or more assessed using a calibrated under-buttocks drape and collection vessel at childbirth. We analyzed 1,068 transvaginal deliveries of singleton pregnancies. The incidence of PPH was 8.7%, and of severe PPH (1,500 ml blood loss or more) was 2.1%. Risk factors for postpartum hemorrhage among the deliveries were: fetal macrosomia (over 4000 g); pregnancy-induced hypertension; pregnancy generated by assisted reproductive technology; severe vaginal or perineal lacerations; and weight gain over 15 kg during pregnancy. Such high weight gain significantly increased the incidence of PPH compared with women showing less than 10 kg weight gain during pregnancy. Monitoring these identified risk factors could enable extra vigilance during labor, and preparedness for managing PPH in all women giving birth.

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<![CDATA[Variation in severe postpartum hemorrhage management: A national vignette-based study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c1c0ac6d5eed0c484426a7b

Objectives

To assess variations in management of severe postpartum hemorrhage: 1) between obstetricians in the same situation 2) by the same obstetrician in different situations.

Study design

A link to a vignette-based survey was emailed to obstetricians of 215 maternity units; the questionnaire asked them to report how they would manage the PPH described in 2 previously validated case-vignettes of different scenarios of severe PPH. Vignette 1 described a typical immediate, severe PPH, and vignette 2 a less typical case of severe but gradual PPH. They were constructed in 3 successive steps and included multiple-choice questions proposing several types of clinical practice options at each step. Variations in PPH were assessed in a descriptive analysis; agreement about management and its timing between vignette 1 and vignette 2 was assessed with the Kappa coefficient.

Results

Analysis of complete responses from 119 (43.4%) obstetricians from 53 (24.6%) maternity units showed delayed or inadequate management in both vignettes. While 82.3% and 83.2% of obstetricians (in vignettes 1 and 2, respectively) would administer oxytocin 15 minutes after PPH diagnosis, only 52.9% and 29.4% would alert other team members. Management by obstetricians of the two vignette situations was inconsistent in terms of choice of treatment and timing of almost all treatments.

Conclusion

Case vignettes demonstrated inadequate management as well as variations in management between obstetricians and in different PPH situations. Protocols or procedures are necessary in all maternity units to reduce the variations in practices that may explain a part of the delay in management that leads to PPH-related maternal mortality and morbidity.

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<![CDATA[Predicting peripartum blood transfusion in women undergoing cesarean delivery: A risk prediction model]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c1d5b51d5eed0c4846eb57d

Objective

There has been an appreciable rise in postpartum hemorrhage requiring blood transfusions in the United States. Our objective is to better define patients at greatest risk for peripartum transfusion at the time of cesarean in order to identify cases for early intervention and monitoring.

Methods

Our study is a secondary analysis of a retrospective cohort study. Cases of intraoperative and immediate postpartum blood transfusion among women undergoing cesarean delivery were identified. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to identify antepartum and intrapartum risk factors that were independently associated with blood transfusion. A risk calculator was then developed to predict the need for transfusion.

Results

Of 56,967 women, 1488 (2.6%) required any blood transfusion. The strongest risk factors for peripartum blood transfusion included anemia (odds ratio [OR] 3.7, 95% CI 3.3–4.3), abruption on presentation (OR 3.3, CI 2.6–4.1), general anesthesia (OR 5.2, CI 4.4–6.1) and abnormal placentation (OR 92.0, CI 57.4–147.6). An antepartum (model 1) and combined antepartum plus intrapartum risk model (model 2) were developed (model 1 AUC = 0.77, model 2 AUC = 0.83) and internally validated.

Conclusions

Among women who required cesarean delivery, we were able to identify risk factors which predispose women to peripartum blood transfusion and developed a prediction model with good discrimination.

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<![CDATA[Peer-assisted learning after onsite, low-dose, high-frequency training and practice on simulators to prevent and treat postpartum hemorrhage and neonatal asphyxia: A pragmatic trial in 12 districts in Uganda]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c21518dd5eed0c4843fabad

An urgent need exists to improve and maintain intrapartum skills of providers in sub-Saharan Africa. Peer-assisted learning may address this need, but few rigorous evaluations have been conducted in real-world settings. A pragmatic, cluster-randomized trial in 12 Ugandan districts provided facility-based, team training for prevention and management of postpartum hemorrhage and birth asphyxia at 125 facilities. Three approaches to facilitating simulation-based, peer assisted learning were compared. The primary outcome was the proportion of births with uterotonic given within one minute of birth. Outcomes were evaluated using observation of birth and supplemented by skills assessments and service delivery data. Individual and composite variables were compared across groups, using generalized linear models. Overall, 107, 195, and 199 providers were observed at three time points during 1,716 births across 44 facilities. Uterotonic coverage within one minute increased from: full group: 8% (CI 4%‒12%) to 50% (CI 42%‒59%); partial group: 19% (CI 9%‒30%) to 42% (CI 31%‒53%); and control group: 11% (5%‒7%) to 51% (40%‒61%). Observed care of mother and newborn improved in all groups. Simulated skills maintenance for postpartum hemorrhage prophylaxis remained high across groups 7 to 8 months after the intervention. Simulated skills for newborn bag-and-mask ventilation remained high only in the full group. For all groups combined, incidence of postpartum hemorrhage and retained placenta declined 17% and 47%, respectively, from during the intervention period compared to the 6‒9 month period after the intervention. Fresh stillbirths and newborn deaths before discharge decreased by 34% and 62%, respectively, from baseline to after completion, and remained reduced 6‒9 months post-implementation. Significant improvements in uterotonic coverage remained across groups 6 months after the intervention. Findings suggest that while short, simulation-based training at the facility improves care and is feasible, more complex clinical skills used infrequently such as newborn resuscitation may require more practice to maintain skills.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03254628.

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<![CDATA[Improved clinical management but not patient outcome in women with postpartum haemorrhage—An observational study of practical obstetric team training]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5bb530e440307c24312bb0b8

Objective

Postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) is the most common obstetric emergency. A well-established postpartum haemorrhage protocol in the labour ward is crucial for effective treatment. The aim of the study was to investigate if practical obstetric team training improves the patient outcome and clinical management of PPH.

Setting

The practical obstetric team training (PROBE) at Linköping University Hospital, Sweden, with approximate 3000 deliveries annually, was studied between the years of 2004–2011. Each team consisted of one or two midwives, one obstetrician or one junior doctor and one nurse assistant. Emergency obstetrics cases were trained in a simulation setting. PROBE was scheduled during work hours at an interval of 1.5 years.

Population

Pre-PROBE women (N = 419 were defined as all women with vaginal birth between the years of 2004–2007 with an estimated blood loss of ≥1000 ml within the first 24 hours of delivery. Post-PROBE women (N = 483) were defined as all women with vaginal birth between the years of 2008–2011 with an estimated blood loss of ≥1000 ml within the first 24 hours of delivery. The two groups were compared regarding blood loss parameters and management variables using retrospective data from medical records.

Results

No difference was observed in estimated blood loss, haemoglobin level, blood transfusions or the incidence of postpartum haemorrhage between the two groups. Post-PROBE women had more often secured venous access (p<0.001), monitoring of vital signs (p<0.001) and received fluid resuscitation (p<0.001) compared to pre-PROBE women. The use of uterine massage was also more common among the post-PROBE women compared with the pre-PROBE women (p<0.001).

Conclusion

PROBE improved clinical management but not patient outcome in women with postpartum haemorrhage in the labour ward. These new findings may have clinical implications since they confirm that training was effective concerning the management of postpartum haemorrhage. However, there is still no clear evidence that simulation training improve patient outcome in women with PPH.

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<![CDATA[Postpartum Hemorrhage in Women with Von Willebrand Disease – A Retrospective Observational Study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9fcab0ee8fa60b727a7

Introduction

von Willebrand disease (VWD) is a hereditary bleeding disorder, caused by a deficiency in the levels and/or function of von Willebrand factor (VWF). Women with VWD appear to be at increased risk of experiencing postpartum hemorrhage (PPH), though the levels of VWF increase during pregnancy. There is limited knowledge of how PPH is associated with the subtype of VWD, plasma levels of other coagulations factors than VWF and given hemostatic treatment.

Aims

The aims were to investigate the incidence of PPH in women with VWD and to analyse the correlation between PPH and: (1) type of VWD, (2) laboratory monitoring of VWF and FVIII and (3) hemostatic drug treatment.

Methods

This was a retrospective observational study. The study participants (n = 34) were recruited from the Coagulation Unit, Karolinska University hospital. Fifty-nine deliveries, which occurred in 14 different obstetrics units (years 1995–2012) were included in the study.

Results

The incidence of primary PPH was 44%, severe primary PPH 20% and secondary PPH 12%. VWD type 3 was associated with a higher risk of experiencing severe primary PPH compared to other subtypes. FVIII:C in pregnancy was inversely correlated to blood loss during delivery. There was a significantly higher incidence of secondary PPH when the VWD diagnosis was unknown at time of delivery.

Conclusions

The women with VWD are at higher risk of PPH, especially those with type 3 VWD or when diagnosis is unknown prior to delivery. Identification of pregnant women with undiagnosed VWD may be of importance in order to prevent PPH.

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<![CDATA[Implementing at-scale, community-based distribution of misoprostol tablets to mothers in the third stage of labor for the prevention of postpartum haemorrhage in Sokoto State, Nigeria: Early results and lessons learned]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db4fab0ee8fa60bdbca3

Background

Postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) is a leading cause of maternal death in Sokoto State, Nigeria, where 95% of women give birth outside of a health facility. Although pilot schemes have demonstrated the value of community-based distribution of misoprostol for the prevention of PPH, none have provided practical insight on taking such programs to scale.

Methods

A community-based system for the distribution of misoprostol tablets (in 600ug) and chlorhexidine digluconate gel 7.1% to mother-newborn dyads was introduced by state government officials and community leaders throughout Sokoto State in April 2013, with the potential to reach an estimated 190,467 annual births. A simple outcome form that collected distribution and consumption data was used to assess the percentage of mothers that received misoprostol at labor through December 2014. Mothers’ conditions were tracked through 6 weeks postpartum. Verbal autopsies were conducted on associated maternal deaths.

Results

Misoprostol distribution was successfully introduced and reached mothers in labor in all 244 wards in Sokoto State. Community data collection systems were successfully operational in all 244 wards with reliable capacity to record maternal deaths. 70,982 women or 22% of expected births received misoprostol from April 2013 to December 2014. Between April and December 2013, 33 women (< 1%) reported that heavy bleeding persisted after misoprostol use and were promptly referred. There were a total of 11 deaths in the 2013 cohort which were confirmed as maternal deaths by verbal autopsies. Between January and December of 2014, a total 434 women (1.25%) that ingested misoprostol reported associated side effects.

Conclusion

It is feasible and safe to utilize government guidelines on results-based primary health care to successfully introduce community distribution of life saving misoprostol at scale to reduce PPH and improve maternal outcomes. Lessons from Sokoto State’s at-scale program implementation, to assure every mother’s right to uterotonics, can inform scale-up elsewhere in Nigeria.

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<![CDATA[Determination of Normal Ranges of Shock Index and Other Haemodynamic Variables in the Immediate Postpartum Period: A Cohort Study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da28ab0ee8fa60b8167c

Objective

To determine the normal ranges of vital signs, including blood pressure (BP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR) and shock index (SI) (HR/systolic BP), in the immediate postpartum period to inform the development of robust obstetric early warning scores.

Study Design

We conducted a secondary analysis of a prospective observational cohort study evaluating vital signs collected within one hour following delivery in women with estimated blood loss (EBL) <500ml (316 women) delivering at a UK tertiary centre over a one-year period. Simple and multiple linear regression were used to explore associations of demographic and obstetric factors with SI.

Results

Median (90% reference range) was 120 (100–145) for systolic BP, 75 (58–90) for diastolic BP, 90 (73–108) for MAP, 81 (61–102) for HR, and 0.66 (0.52–0.89) for SI. Third stage Syntometrine® administration was associated with a 0.03 decrease in SI (p = 0.035) and epidural use with a 0.05 increase (p = 0.003). No other demographic or obstetric factors were associated with a change in shock index in this cohort.

Conclusion

This is the first study to determine normal ranges of maternal BP, MAP, HR and SI within one hour of birth, a time of considerable haemodynamic adjustment, with minimal effect of demographic and obstetric factors demonstrated. The lower 90% reference point for systolic BP and upper 90% reference point for HR correspond to triggers used to recognise shock in obstetric practice, as do the upper 90% reference points for systolic and diastolic BP for obstetric hypertensive triggers. The SI upper limit of 0.89 in well postpartum women supports current literature suggesting a threshold of 0.9 as indicating increased risk of adverse outcomes.

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<![CDATA[Using Misoprostol for Primary versus Secondary Prevention of Postpartum Haemorrhage – Do Costs Matter?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da6cab0ee8fa60b93446

Background

Postpartum heammorrhage (PPH), defined as blood loss greater than or equal to 500 ml within 24 hours after birth, is the leading cause of maternal deaths globally and in India. Misoprostol is an important option for PPH management in setting where oxytocin (the gold standard for PPH prevention and treatment) in not available or not feasible to use. For the substantial number of deliveries which take place at home or at lower level heatlh facilities in India, misoprostol pills can be adminstered to prevent PPH. The standard approach using misoprostol is to administer it prophylactically as primary prevention (600 mcg). An alternative strategy could be to administer misoprostol only to those who are at high risk of having PPH i.e. as secondary prevention.

Methods

This study reports on the relative cost per person of a strategy involving primary versus secondary prevention of PPH using misoprostol. It is based on a randomized cluster trial that was conducted in Bijapur district in Karnataka, India between December 2011 and March 2014 among pregnant women to compare two community-level strategies for the prevention of PPH: primary and secondary. The analysis was conducted from the government perspective using an ingredient approach.

Results

The cluster trial showed that there were no significant differences in clinical outcomes between the two study arms. However, the results of the cost analysis show that there is a difference of INR 6 (US$ 0.1) per birth for implementing the strategies primary versus secondary prevention. In India where 14.9 million births take place at sub-centres and at home, this additional cost of INR 6 per birth translates to an additional cost of INR 94 (US$ 1.6) million to the government to implement the primary prevention compared to the secondary prevention strategy.

Conclusion

As clinical outcomes did not differ significantly between the two arms in the trial, taking into account the difference in costs and potential issues with sustainability, secondary prevention might be a more strategic option.

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<![CDATA[Stakeholder Analysis of Community Distribution of Misoprostol in Lao PDR: A Qualitative Study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da1eab0ee8fa60b7dcf7

Background

Globally, significant progress has been made in reducing maternal mortality, yet in many low-resource contexts it remains unacceptably high. Many of these deaths are due to postpartum haemorrhage and are preventable with access to essential obstetric care. Where there are barriers to access, maternal deaths could be prevented if community-level misoprostol was available. The purpose of this study was to explore perceptions of stakeholders regarding misoprostol use in the Lao People’s Democratic Republic, a setting with high maternal mortality.

Methods

Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 35 stakeholders in the capital, Vientiane and in one northern province identified as a site for a possible intervention. The sample included international and national stakeholders involved in policy-making and providing maternal and reproductive health services.

Findings

Most stakeholders supported a pilot program for community distribution of misoprostol but levels of awareness of the drug’s use in preventing postpartum haemorrhage and level of influence over policy direction varied considerably. Some international organizations, all identified as powerful in influencing policy, were ambivalent about the use of community distribution of misoprostol. Concerns related to the capacity of village health workers or lay people to safely administer misoprostol, whether its distribution would undermine efforts to improve access to safe delivery services and active management of the third stage of labour, the ease with which prescription drugs can be bought over the counter, and technical, logistical, and financial constraints.

Conclusion

Access to appropriate oxytocic drugs is a matter of health equity. In settings without access to essential obstetrical care, misoprostol represents a viable solution for the prevention of postpartum haemorrhage. Understanding stakeholders’ perspectives and their legitimate concerns on misoprostol can inform interventions in order to assuage these concerns and enable disadvantaged women to access misoprostol and its potentially life-saving benefits.

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<![CDATA[Caesarean Delivery and Postpartum Maternal Mortality: A Population-Based Case Control Study in Brazil]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da57ab0ee8fa60b8f16a

Background

Cesarean delivery rates continue to increase worldwide and reached 57% in Brazil in 2014. Although the safety of this surgery has improved in the last decades, this trend is a concern because it carries potential risks to women’s health and may be a modifiable risk factor of maternal mortality. This paper aims to investigate the risk of postpartum maternal death directly associated with cesarean delivery in comparison to vaginal delivery in Brazil.

Methods

This was a population-based case—control study performed in eight Brazilian states. To control for indication bias, deaths due to antenatal morbidity were excluded. We included 73 cases of postpartum maternal deaths from 2009–2012. Controls were selected from the Birth in Brazil Study, a 2011 nationwide survey including 9,221 postpartum women. We examined the association of cesarean section and postpartum maternal death by multivariate logistic regression, adjusting for confounders.

Results

After controlling for indication bias and confounders, the risk of postpartum maternal death was almost three-fold higher with cesarean than vaginal delivery (OR 2.87, 95% CI 1.63–5.06), mainly due to deaths from postpartum hemorrhage and complications of anesthesia.

Conclusion

Cesarean delivery is an independent risk factor of postpartum maternal death. Clinicians and patients should consider this fact in balancing the benefits and risks of the procedure.

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<![CDATA[Maternal outcome after abdominal packing for uncontrolled postpartum hemorrhage despite peripartum hysterectomy]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db5cab0ee8fa60be01e6

Background

Intra-abdominal packing is a possible option for persistent bleeding following hysterectomy for postpartum hemorrhage. However, to date, only very limited data about maternal outcome after intra-abdominal packing for surgically uncontrolled hemorrhage following hysterectomy are available. The objective of the current study was to estimate maternal outcome after intra-abdominal packing following unsuccessful peripartum hysterectomy for postpartum hemorrhage.

Methods

A questionnaire was mailed to all maternity units performing more than 850 deliveries per year. Inclusion criteria were: all cases of abdominal packing performed following unsuccessful peripartum hysterectomy for postpartum hemorrhage between 2003 and 2013. The primary outcome was success of intra-abdominal packing, defined as the arrest of hemorrhage with no need of additional procedure.

Results

The total number of deliveries during the study period that occurred in the 51 participating centers was 1,430,142. The centers reported a total of 718 (1 per 2000 deliveries) peripartum hysterectomies for PPH and 53 abdominal packings performed after unsuccessful peripartum hysterectomy (about 1 per 14 hysterectomies). A median of 5 [IQR 3–7] pads were used for packing. Abdominal packing was removed after a median of 39.5 hours [IQR 24–48]. The success rate of abdominal packing was 62% (33/53). Among the 20 (38%) women in whom bleeding did not stop following the use of abdominal packing, 6 required a second surgical intervention, 6 a pelvic artery embolization and the 8 other women had “only” further intensive resuscitation and pharmacological treatments. Finally, mortality rate was 24% (13/53).

Conclusion

Our results suggest that abdominal packing, used for duration of 24 to 48 hours, seems to be an option as an ultimate procedure to control persistent life-threatening postpartum hemorrhage following peripartum hysterectomy.

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<![CDATA[Barriers to Timely and Safe Blood Transfusion for PPH Patients: Evidence from a Qualitative Study in Dhaka, Bangladesh]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daa8ab0ee8fa60ba832f

Background and Objectives

In Bangladesh, postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is the leading cause of maternal mortality accounting for 31% of all blood transfusions in the country. Although safe blood transfusion is one of the 8 signal functions of Comprehensive Emergency Obstetric Care (CEmOC) strategy, most of the designated public sector CEmOC facilities do not have on-site blood storage system. Emergent blood is mainly available from external blood banks. As a result, emergent patients are to rely on an unregulated network of brokers for blood which may raise question about blood safety. This study explored lived experiences of patients’ attendants, managers, providers, and blood brokers before and after the implementation of an on-line Blood Information and Management Application (BIMA) in regards to barriers and facilitators of blood transfusion for emergent patients.

Methods

Data were collected at Dhaka Medical College Hospital (DMCH), a tertiary-level teaching hospital before (January 2014) and after (March 2015) the introduction of an online BIMA system. Data collection methods included 24 key informant interviews (KIIs) and 40 in-depth interviews (IDIs). KIIs were conducted with formal health service providers, health managers and unlicensed blood brokers. IDIs were conducted with the relatives and husbands of women who suffered PPH, and needed emergency blood.

Results

Patients’ attendants were unaware of patients’ blood type and availability of blood in emergency situation. Newly introduced online BIMA system could facilitate blood transfusion process for poor patients at lower cost and during any time of day and night. However, service providers and service recipients were heavily dependent on a network of unlicensed blood brokers for required blood for emergent PPH patients. Blood collected through unlicensed blood brokers is un-screened, unregulated and probably unsafe. Blood brokers feel that they are providing a needed service, acknowledged a financial incentive and unaware about safety of blood that they supply.

Conclusions

Ensuring safe and timely blood transfusion is necessary to end preventable maternal mortality. In a context where facilities have no on-site blood, and both providers and patient attendants are heavily dependent on an unregulated cadre of unlicensed blood brokers, access to timely safe blood transfusion is seriously threatened. BIMA is a promising intervention to reduce inefficiencies in obtaining blood, but steps must be taken to ensure buy-in from current purveyors of blood, and to increase the acceptance of the intervention.

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<![CDATA[Measuring Post-Partum Haemorrhage in Low-Resource Settings: The Diagnostic Validity of Weighed Blood Loss versus Quantitative Changes in Hemoglobin]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da17ab0ee8fa60b7bbd8

Background

Accurate estimation of blood loss is central to prompt diagnosis and management of post-partum hemorrhage (PPH), which remains a leading cause of maternal mortality in low-resource countries. In such settings, blood loss is often estimated visually and subjectively by attending health workers, due to inconsistent availability of laboratory infrastructure. We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of weighed blood loss (WBL) versus changes in peri-partum hemoglobin to detect PPH.

Methods

Data from this analysis were collected as part of a randomized controlled trial comparing oxytocin with misoprostol for PPH (NCT01866241). Blood samples for complete blood count were drawn on admission and again prior to hospital discharge or before blood transfusion. During delivery, women were placed on drapes and had pre-weighed sanitary towels placed around their perineum. Blood was then drained into a calibrated container and the sanitary towels were added to estimate WBL, where each gram of blood was estimated as a milliliter. Sensitivity, specificity, negative and positive predictive values (PPVs) were calculated at various blood volume loss and time combinations, and we fit receiver-operator curves using blood loss at 1, 2, and 24 hours compared to a reference standard of haemoglobin decrease of >10%.

Results

A total of 1,140 women were enrolled in the study, of whom 258 (22.6%) developed PPH, defined as a haemoglobin drop >10%, and 262 (23.0%) had WBL ≥500mL. WBL generally had a poor sensitivity for detection of PPH (<75% for most volume-time combinations). In contrast, the specificity of WBL was high with blood loss ≥ 500mL at 1h and ≥750mL at any time points excluding PPH in over 97% of women. As such, WBL has a high PPV (>85%) in high prevalence settings when WBL exceeds 750mL.

Conclusion

WBL has poor sensitivity but high specificity compared to laboratory-based methods of PPH diagnosis. These characteristics correspond to a high PPV in areas with high PPH prevalence. Although WBL is not useful for excluding PPH, this low-cost, simple and reproducible method is promising as a reasonable method to identify significant PPH in such settings where quantifiable red cell indices are unavailable.

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<![CDATA[Fluoroscopy-free Resuscitative Endovascular Balloon Occlusion of the Aorta (REBOA) for controlling life threatening postpartum hemorrhage]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db52ab0ee8fa60bdc89f

Background

Severe postpartum hemorrhage occurs in 1/1000 women giving birth. This condition is often dramatic and may be life threatening. Resuscitative Endovascular Balloon Occlusion of the Aorta (REBOA) has in recent years been introduced as a novel treatment for hemorrhagic shock. We present a series of fluoroscopy-free REBOA for controlling life threatening postpartum hemorrhage.

Methods

In 2008 an ‘aortic occlusion kit’ was assembled and used in three Norwegian university hospitals. The on-call interventional radiologist (IR) was to be contacted with a response time < 30 minutes in case of life threatening PPH. Demographics and characteristics were noted from the medical records.

Results

This retrospective study includes 36 patients treated with fluoroscopy-free REBOA for controlling severe postpartum hemorrhage in the years 2008–2015. The REBOA success rate was 100% and no patients died from REBOA related complications. Uterine artery embolization was performed in 17 (47%) patients and a hysterectomy in 16 (44%) patients. A short (11cm) introducer length was strongly associated with iliac artery thrombus formation (ρ = 0.50, P = 0.002). In addition, there was a strong negative correlation between uterine artery embolization and hysterectomy (ρ = -0.50, P = 0.002).

Conclusions

Our Norwegian experience indicates the clinical safety and feasibility of REBOA in life threatening PPH. Also, REBOA can be used in an emergency situation without the use of fluoroscopy with a high degree of technical success. It is important that safety implementation of REBOA is established, especially through limited aortic balloon occlusion time and a thorough balloon deflation regime.

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<![CDATA[The Incidence of Postpartum Hemorrhage in Pregnant Women with Placenta Previa: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db54ab0ee8fa60bdcf62

Background

The global burden of postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) in women with placenta previa is a major public health concern. Although there are different reports on the incidence of PPH in different countries, to date, no research has reviewed them.

Objective

The aim of this study was to calculate the average point incidence of PPH in women with placenta previa.

Methods

A systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies estimating PPH in women with placenta previa was conducted through literature searches in four databases in Jul 2016. This study was totally conducted according to the MOOSE guidelines and in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses standard.

Results

From 1148 obtained studies, 11 included in the meta-analysis, which involved 5146 unique pregnant women with placenta previa. The overall pooled incidence of PPH was 22.3% (95% CI 15.8–28.7%). In the subgroup, the prevalence was 27.4% in placenta previas, and was 14.5% in low-lying placenta previa; the highest prevalence was estimated in Northern America (26.3%, 95%CI 11.0–41.6%), followed by the Asia (20.7%, 95%CI 12.8–28.6%), Australia (19.2%, 95% CI 17.2–21.1%) and Europe (17.8%, 95% CI, 11.5%-24.0%).

Conclusions

The summary estimate of the incidence of PPH among women with placenta previa was considerable in this systematic review. The results will be crucial in prevention, treatment, and identification of PPH among pregnant women with placenta previa and will be contributed to the planning and implantation of relevant public health strategies.

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