ResearchPad - postsynaptic-potentials https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Inferring a simple mechanism for alpha-blocking by fitting a neural population model to EEG spectra]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13836 One of the most striking features of the human electroencephalogram (EEG) is the presence of neural oscillations in the range of 8-13 Hz. It is well known that attenuation of these alpha oscillations, a process known as alpha blocking, arises from opening of the eyes, though the cause has remained obscure. In this study we infer the mechanism underlying alpha blocking by fitting a neural population model to EEG spectra from 82 different individuals. Although such models have long held the promise of being able to relate macroscopic recordings of brain activity to microscopic neural parameters, their utility has been limited by the difficulty of inferring these parameters from fits to data. Our approach involves fitting eyes-open and eyes-closed EEG spectra in a way that minimizes unnecessary differences in model parameters between the two states. Surprisingly, we find that changes in just one parameter, the level of external input to the inhibitory neurons in cortex, is sufficient to explain the attenuation of alpha oscillations. This indicates that opening of the eyes reduces alpha activity simply by increasing external inputs to the inhibitory neurons in the cortex.

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<![CDATA[Function and energy consumption constrain neuronal biophysics in a canonical computation: Coincidence detection]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c12cf09d5eed0c484913d9f

Neural morphology and membrane properties vary greatly between cell types in the nervous system. The computations and local circuit connectivity that neurons support are thought to be the key factors constraining the cells’ biophysical properties. Nevertheless, additional constraints can be expected to further shape neuronal design. Here, we focus on a particularly energy-intense system (as indicated by metabolic markers): principal neurons in the medial superior olive (MSO) nucleus of the auditory brainstem. Based on a modeling approach, we show that a trade-off between the level of performance of a functionally relevant computation and energy consumption predicts optimal ranges for cell morphology and membrane properties. The biophysical parameters appear most strongly constrained by functional needs, while energy use is minimized as long as function can be maintained. The key factors that determine model performance and energy consumption are 1) the saturation of the synaptic conductance input and 2) the temporal resolution of the postsynaptic signals as they reach the soma, which is largely determined by active membrane properties. MSO cells seem to operate close to pareto optimality, i.e., the trade-off boundary between performance and energy consumption that is formed by the set of optimal models. Good performance for drastically lower costs could in theory be achieved by small neurons without dendrites, as seen in the avian auditory system, pointing to additional constraints for mammalian MSO cells, including their circuit connectivity.

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<![CDATA[Auditory Stimuli Coding by Postsynaptic Potential and Local Field Potential Features]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dab3ab0ee8fa60bac30a

The relation between physical stimuli and neurophysiological responses, such as action potentials (spikes) and Local Field Potentials (LFP), has recently been experimented in order to explain how neurons encode auditory information. However, none of these experiments presented analyses with postsynaptic potentials (PSPs). In the present study, we have estimated information values between auditory stimuli and amplitudes/latencies of PSPs and LFPs in anesthetized rats in vivo. To obtain these values, a new method of information estimation was used. This method produced more accurate estimates than those obtained by using the traditional binning method; a fact that was corroborated by simulated data. The traditional binning method could not certainly impart such accuracy even when adjusted by quadratic extrapolation. We found that the information obtained from LFP amplitude variation was significantly greater than the information obtained from PSP amplitude variation. This confirms the fact that LFP reflects the action of many PSPs. Results have shown that the auditory cortex codes more information of stimuli frequency with slow oscillations in groups of neurons than it does with slow oscillations in neurons separately.

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<![CDATA[Molecular Mechanism of Disease-Associated Mutations in the Pre-M1 Helix of NMDA Receptors and Potential Rescue Pharmacology]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db54ab0ee8fa60bdd05b

N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs), ligand-gated ionotropic glutamate receptors, play key roles in normal brain development and various neurological disorders. Here we use standing variation data from the human population to assess which protein domains within NMDAR GluN1, GluN2A and GluN2B subunits show the strongest signal for being depleted of missense variants. We find that this includes the GluN2 pre-M1 helix and linker between the agonist-binding domain (ABD) and first transmembrane domain (M1). We then evaluate the functional changes of multiple missense mutations in the NMDAR pre-M1 helix found in children with epilepsy and developmental delay. We find mutant GluN1/GluN2A receptors exhibit prolonged glutamate response time course for channels containing 1 or 2 GluN2A-P552R subunits, and a slow rise time only for receptors with 2 mutant subunits, suggesting rearrangement of one GluN2A pre-M1 helix is sufficient for rapid activation. GluN2A-P552R and analogous mutations in other GluN subunits increased the agonist potency and slowed response time course, suggesting a functionally conserved role for this residue. Although there is no detectable change in surface expression or open probability for GluN2A-P552R, the prolonged response time course for receptors that contained GluN2A-P552R increased charge transfer for synaptic-like activation, which should promote excitotoxic damage. Transfection of cultured neurons with GluN2A-P552R prolonged EPSPs, and triggered pronounced dendritic swelling in addition to excitotoxicity, which were both attenuated by memantine. These data implicate the pre-M1 region in gating, provide insight into how different subunits contribute to gating, and suggest that mutations in the pre-M1 helix can compromise neuronal health. Evaluation of FDA-approved NMDAR inhibitors on the mutant NMDAR-mediated current response and neuronal damage provides a potential clinical path to treat individuals harboring similar mutations in NMDARs.

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<![CDATA[Control of Ca2+ Influx and Calmodulin Activation by SK-Channels in Dendritic Spines]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daeaab0ee8fa60bbeda9

The key trigger for Hebbian synaptic plasticity is influx of Ca2+ into postsynaptic dendritic spines. The magnitude of [Ca2+] increase caused by NMDA-receptor (NMDAR) and voltage-gated Ca2+ -channel (VGCC) activation is thought to determine both the amplitude and direction of synaptic plasticity by differential activation of Ca2+ -sensitive enzymes such as calmodulin. Ca2+ influx is negatively regulated by Ca2+ -activated K+ channels (SK-channels) which are in turn inhibited by neuromodulators such as acetylcholine. However, the precise mechanisms by which SK-channels control the induction of synaptic plasticity remain unclear. Using a 3-dimensional model of Ca2+ and calmodulin dynamics within an idealised, but biophysically-plausible, dendritic spine, we show that SK-channels regulate calmodulin activation specifically during neuron-firing patterns associated with induction of spike timing-dependent plasticity. SK-channel activation and the subsequent reduction in Ca2+ influx through NMDARs and L-type VGCCs results in an order of magnitude decrease in calmodulin (CaM) activation, providing a mechanism for the effective gating of synaptic plasticity induction. This provides a common mechanism for the regulation of synaptic plasticity by neuromodulators.

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<![CDATA[Direct administration of 2-Hydroxypropyl-Beta-Cyclodextrin into guinea pig cochleae: Effects on physiological and histological measurements]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db51ab0ee8fa60bdc27a

2-Hydroxypropyl-Beta-Cyclodextrin (HPβCD) can be used to treat Niemann-Pick type C disease, Alzheimer’s disease, and atherosclerosis. But, a consequence is that HPβCD can cause hearing loss. HPβCD was recently found to be toxic to outer hair cells (OHCs) in the organ of Corti. Previous studies on the chronic effects of in vivo HPβCD toxicity did not know the intra-cochlear concentration of HPβCD and attributed variable effects on OHCs to indirect drug delivery to the cochlea. We studied the acute effects of known HPβCD concentrations administered directly into intact guinea pig cochleae. Our novel approach injected solutions through pipette sealed into scala tympani in the cochlear apex. Solutions were driven along the length of the cochlear spiral toward the cochlear aqueduct in the base. This method ensured that therapeutic levels were achieved throughout the cochlea, including those regions tuned to mid to low frequencies and code speech vowels and background noise. A wide variety of measurements were made. Results were compared to measurements from ears treated with the HPβCD analog methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD), salicylate that is well known to attenuate the gain of the cochlear amplifier, and injection of artificial perilymph alone (controls). Histological data showed that OHCs appeared normal after treatment with a low dose of HPβCD, and physiological data was consistent with attenuation of cochlear amplifier gain and disruption of non-linearity associated with transferring acoustic sound into neural excitation, an origin of distortion products that are commonly used to objectively assess hearing and hearing loss. A high dose of HPβCD caused sporadic OHC losses and markedly affected all physiologic measurements. MβCD caused virulent destruction of OHCs and physiologic responses. Toxicity of HPβCD to OHC along the cochlear length is variable even when a known intra-cochlear concentration is administered, at least for the duration of our acute studies.

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<![CDATA[Plasticity in Single Axon Glutamatergic Connection to GABAergic Interneurons Regulates Complex Events in the Human Neocortex]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da01ab0ee8fa60b740de

In the human neocortex, single excitatory pyramidal cells can elicit very large glutamatergic EPSPs (VLEs) in inhibitory GABAergic interneurons capable of triggering their firing with short (3–5 ms) delay. Similar strong excitatory connections between two individual neurons have not been found in nonhuman cortices, suggesting that these synapses are specific to human interneurons. The VLEs are crucial for generating neocortical complex events, observed as single pyramidal cell spike-evoked discharge of cell assemblies in the frontal and temporal cortices. However, long-term plasticity of the VLE connections and how the plasticity modulates neocortical complex events has not been studied. Using triple and dual whole-cell recordings from synaptically connected human neocortical layers 2–3 neurons, we show that VLEs in fast-spiking GABAergic interneurons exhibit robust activity-induced long-term depression (LTD). The LTD by single pyramidal cell 40 Hz spike bursts is specific to connections with VLEs, requires group I metabotropic glutamate receptors, and has a presynaptic mechanism. The LTD of VLE connections alters suprathreshold activation of interneurons in the complex events suppressing the discharge of fast-spiking GABAergic cells. The VLEs triggering the complex events may contribute to cognitive processes in the human neocortex, and their long-term plasticity can alter the discharging cortical cell assemblies by learning.

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<![CDATA[cGMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Inhibition Extends the Upper Temperature Limit of Stimulus-Evoked Calcium Responses in Motoneuronal Boutons of Drosophila melanogaster Larvae]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dae6ab0ee8fa60bbd96d

While the mammalian brain functions within a very narrow range of oxygen concentrations and temperatures, the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, has employed strategies to deal with a much wider range of acute environmental stressors. The foraging (for) gene encodes the cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG), has been shown to regulate thermotolerance in many stress-adapted species, including Drosophila, and could be a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of hyperthermia in mammals. Whereas previous thermotolerance studies have looked at the effects of PKG variation on Drosophila behavior or excitatory postsynaptic potentials at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ), little is known about PKG effects on presynaptic mechanisms. In this study, we characterize presynaptic calcium ([Ca2+]i) dynamics at the Drosophila larval NMJ to determine the effects of high temperature stress on synaptic transmission. We investigated the neuroprotective role of PKG modulation both genetically using RNA interference (RNAi), and pharmacologically, to determine if and how PKG affects presynaptic [Ca2+]i dynamics during hyperthermia. We found that PKG activity modulates presynaptic neuronal Ca2+ responses during acute hyperthermia, where PKG activation makes neurons more sensitive to temperature-induced failure of Ca2+ flux and PKG inhibition confers thermotolerance and maintains normal Ca2+ dynamics under the same conditions. Targeted motoneuronal knockdown of PKG using RNAi demonstrated that decreased PKG expression was sufficient to confer thermoprotection. These results demonstrate that the PKG pathway regulates presynaptic motoneuronal Ca2+ signaling to influence thermotolerance of presynaptic function during acute hyperthermia.

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<![CDATA[Adaptive Spike Threshold Enables Robust and Temporally Precise Neuronal Encoding]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daf8ab0ee8fa60bc3a6f

Neural processing rests on the intracellular transformation of information as synaptic inputs are translated into action potentials. This transformation is governed by the spike threshold, which depends on the history of the membrane potential on many temporal scales. While the adaptation of the threshold after spiking activity has been addressed before both theoretically and experimentally, it has only recently been demonstrated that the subthreshold membrane state also influences the effective spike threshold. The consequences for neural computation are not well understood yet. We address this question here using neural simulations and whole cell intracellular recordings in combination with information theoretic analysis. We show that an adaptive spike threshold leads to better stimulus discrimination for tight input correlations than would be achieved otherwise, independent from whether the stimulus is encoded in the rate or pattern of action potentials. The time scales of input selectivity are jointly governed by membrane and threshold dynamics. Encoding information using adaptive thresholds further ensures robust information transmission across cortical states i.e. decoding from different states is less state dependent in the adaptive threshold case, if the decoding is performed in reference to the timing of the population response. Results from in vitro neural recordings were consistent with simulations from adaptive threshold neurons. In summary, the adaptive spike threshold reduces information loss during intracellular information transfer, improves stimulus discriminability and ensures robust decoding across membrane states in a regime of highly correlated inputs, similar to those seen in sensory nuclei during the encoding of sensory information.

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<![CDATA[Biophysical Network Modelling of the dLGN Circuit: Different Effects of Triadic and Axonal Inhibition on Visual Responses of Relay Cells]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da9fab0ee8fa60ba54ed

Despite its prominent placement between the retina and primary visual cortex in the early visual pathway, the role of the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) in molding and regulating the visual signals entering the brain is still poorly understood. A striking feature of the dLGN circuit is that relay cells (RCs) and interneurons (INs) form so-called triadic synapses, where an IN dendritic terminal can be simultaneously postsynaptic to a retinal ganglion cell (GC) input and presynaptic to an RC dendrite, allowing for so-called triadic inhibition. Taking advantage of a recently developed biophysically detailed multicompartmental model for an IN, we here investigate putative effects of these different inhibitory actions of INs, i.e., triadic inhibition and standard axonal inhibition, on the response properties of RCs. We compute and investigate so-called area-response curves, that is, trial-averaged visual spike responses vs. spot size, for circular flashing spots in a network of RCs and INs. The model parameters are grossly tuned to give results in qualitative accordance with previous in vivo data of responses to such stimuli for cat GCs and RCs. We particularly investigate how the model ingredients affect salient response properties such as the receptive-field center size of RCs and INs, maximal responses and center-surround antagonisms. For example, while triadic inhibition not involving firing of IN action potentials was found to provide only a non-linear gain control of the conversion of input spikes to output spikes by RCs, axonal inhibition was in contrast found to substantially affect the receptive-field center size: the larger the inhibition, the more the RC center size shrinks compared to the GC providing the feedforward excitation. Thus, a possible role of the different inhibitory actions from INs to RCs in the dLGN circuit is to provide separate mechanisms for overall gain control (direct triadic inhibition) and regulation of spatial resolution (axonal inhibition) of visual signals sent to cortex.

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<![CDATA[Topology, Cross-Frequency, and Same-Frequency Band Interactions Shape the Generation of Phase-Amplitude Coupling in a Neural Mass Model of a Cortical Column]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9ecab0ee8fa60b6ccd0

Phase-amplitude coupling (PAC), a type of cross-frequency coupling (CFC) where the phase of a low-frequency rhythm modulates the amplitude of a higher frequency, is becoming an important indicator of information transmission in the brain. However, the neurobiological mechanisms underlying its generation remain undetermined. A realistic, yet tractable computational model of the phenomenon is thus needed. Here we analyze a neural mass model of a cortical column, comprising fourteen neuronal populations distributed across four layers (L2/3, L4, L5 and L6). A control analysis showed that the conditional transfer entropy (cTE) measure is able to correctly estimate the flow of information between neuronal populations. Then, we computed cTE from the phases to the amplitudes of the oscillations generated in the cortical column. This approach provides information regarding directionality by distinguishing PAC from APC (amplitude-phase coupling), i.e. the information transfer from amplitudes to phases, and can be used to estimate other types of CFC such as amplitude-amplitude coupling (AAC) and phase-phase coupling (PPC). While experiments often only focus on one or two PAC combinations (e.g., theta-gamma or alpha-gamma), we found that a cortical column can simultaneously generate almost all possible PAC combinations, depending on connectivity parameters, time constants, and external inputs. PAC interactions with and without an anatomical equivalent (direct and indirect interactions, respectively) were analyzed. We found that the strength of PAC between two populations was strongly correlated with the strength of the effective connections between the populations and, on average, did not depend on whether the PAC connection was direct or indirect. When considering a cortical column circuit as a complex network, we found that neuronal populations making indirect PAC connections had, on average, higher local clustering coefficient, efficiency, and betweenness centrality than populations making direct connections and populations not involved in PAC connections. This suggests that their interactions were more effective when transmitting information. Since approximately 60% of the obtained interactions represented indirect connections, our results highlight the importance of the topology of cortical circuits for the generation of the PAC phenomenon. Finally, our results demonstrated that indirect PAC interactions can be explained by a cascade of direct CFC and same-frequency band interactions, suggesting that PAC analysis of experimental data should be accompanied by the estimation of other types of frequency interactions for an integrative understanding of the phenomenon.

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<![CDATA[Injection of Fully-Defined Signal Mixtures: A Novel High-Throughput Tool to Study Neuronal Encoding and Computations]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da92ab0ee8fa60ba07d6

Understanding of how neurons transform fluctuations of membrane potential, reflecting input activity, into spike responses, which communicate the ultimate results of single-neuron computation, is one of the central challenges for cellular and computational neuroscience. To study this transformation under controlled conditions, previous work has used a signal immersed in noise paradigm where neurons are injected with a current consisting of fluctuating noise that mimics on-going synaptic activity and a systematic signal whose transmission is studied. One limitation of this established paradigm is that it is designed to examine the encoding of only one signal under a specific, repeated condition. As a result, characterizing how encoding depends on neuronal properties, signal parameters, and the interaction of multiple inputs is cumbersome. Here we introduce a novel fully-defined signal mixture paradigm, which allows us to overcome these problems. In this paradigm, current for injection is synthetized as a sum of artificial postsynaptic currents (PSCs) resulting from the activity of a large population of model presynaptic neurons. PSCs from any presynaptic neuron(s) can be now considered as “signal”, while the sum of all other inputs is considered as “noise”. This allows us to study the encoding of a large number of different signals in a single experiment, thus dramatically increasing the throughput of data acquisition. Using this novel paradigm, we characterize the detection of excitatory and inhibitory PSCs from neuronal spike responses over a wide range of amplitudes and firing-rates. We show, that for moderately-sized neuronal populations the detectability of individual inputs is higher for excitatory than for inhibitory inputs during the 2–5 ms following PSC onset, but becomes comparable after 7–8 ms. This transient imbalance of sensitivity in favor of excitation may enhance propagation of balanced signals through neuronal networks. Finally, we discuss several open questions that this novel high-throughput paradigm may address.

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<![CDATA[D-Serine and Glycine Differentially Control Neurotransmission during Visual Cortex Critical Period]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da3fab0ee8fa60b89315

N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) play a central role in synaptic plasticity. Their activation requires the binding of both glutamate and d-serine or glycine as co-agonist. The prevalence of either co-agonist on NMDA-receptor function differs between brain regions and remains undetermined in the visual cortex (VC) at the critical period of postnatal development. Here, we therefore investigated the regulatory role that d-serine and/or glycine may exert on NMDARs function and on synaptic plasticity in the rat VC layer 5 pyramidal neurons of young rats. Using selective enzymatic depletion of d-serine or glycine, we demonstrate that d-serine and not glycine is the endogenous co-agonist of synaptic NMDARs required for the induction and expression of Long Term Potentiation (LTP) at both excitatory and inhibitory synapses. Glycine on the other hand is not involved in synaptic efficacy per se but regulates excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission by activating strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors, then producing a shunting inhibition that controls neuronal gain and results in a depression of synaptic inputs at the somatic level after dendritic integration. In conclusion, we describe for the first time that in the VC both D-serine and glycine differentially regulate somatic depolarization through the activation of distinct synaptic and extrasynaptic receptors.

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<![CDATA[Assessment of Methods for the Intracellular Blockade of GABAA Receptors]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da4eab0ee8fa60b8d69d

Selective blockade of inhibitory synaptic transmission onto specific neurons is a useful tool for dissecting the excitatory and inhibitory synaptic components of ongoing network activity. To achieve this, intracellular recording with a patch solution capable of blocking GABAA receptors has advantages over other manipulations, such as pharmacological application of GABAergic antagonists or optogenetic inhibition of populations of interneurones, in that the majority of inhibitory transmission is unaffected and hence the remaining network activity preserved. Here, we assess three previously described methods to block inhibition: intracellular application of the molecules picrotoxin, 4,4’-dinitro-stilbene-2,2’-disulphonic acid (DNDS) and 4,4’-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2’-disulphonic acid (DIDS). DNDS and picrotoxin were both found to be ineffective at blocking evoked, monosynaptic inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) onto mouse CA1 pyramidal cells. An intracellular solution containing DIDS and caesium fluoride, but lacking nucleotides ATP and GTP, was effective at decreasing the amplitude of IPSCs. However, this effect was found to be independent of DIDS, and the absence of intracellular nucleotides, and was instead due to the presence of fluoride ions in this intracellular solution, which also blocked spontaneously occurring IPSCs during hippocampal sharp waves. Critically, intracellular fluoride ions also caused a decrease in both spontaneous and evoked excitatory synaptic currents and precluded the inclusion of nucleotides in the intracellular solution. Therefore, of the methods tested, only fluoride ions were effective for intracellular blockade of IPSCs but this approach has additional cellular effects reducing its selectivity and utility.

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<![CDATA[Unsupervised Learning in an Ensemble of Spiking Neural Networks Mediated by ITDP]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dad7ab0ee8fa60bb8724

We propose a biologically plausible architecture for unsupervised ensemble learning in a population of spiking neural network classifiers. A mixture of experts type organisation is shown to be effective, with the individual classifier outputs combined via a gating network whose operation is driven by input timing dependent plasticity (ITDP). The ITDP gating mechanism is based on recent experimental findings. An abstract, analytically tractable model of the ITDP driven ensemble architecture is derived from a logical model based on the probabilities of neural firing events. A detailed analysis of this model provides insights that allow it to be extended into a full, biologically plausible, computational implementation of the architecture which is demonstrated on a visual classification task. The extended model makes use of a style of spiking network, first introduced as a model of cortical microcircuits, that is capable of Bayesian inference, effectively performing expectation maximization. The unsupervised ensemble learning mechanism, based around such spiking expectation maximization (SEM) networks whose combined outputs are mediated by ITDP, is shown to perform the visual classification task well and to generalize to unseen data. The combined ensemble performance is significantly better than that of the individual classifiers, validating the ensemble architecture and learning mechanisms. The properties of the full model are analysed in the light of extensive experiments with the classification task, including an investigation into the influence of different input feature selection schemes and a comparison with a hierarchical STDP based ensemble architecture.

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<![CDATA[The TNFα-Transgenic Rat: Hippocampal Synaptic Integrity, Cognition, Function, and Post-Ischemic Cell Loss]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daa7ab0ee8fa60ba7ce6

The cytokine, tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), is a key regulator of neuroinflammation linked to numerous neurodegenerative conditions and diseases. The present study used transgenic rats that overexpress a murine TNFα gene, under the control of its own promoter, to investigate the impact of chronically elevated TNFα on hippocampal synaptic function. Neuronal viability and cognitive recovery in TNFα Tg rats were also determined following an ischemic insult arising from reversible middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Basal CA3-CA1 synaptic strength, recorded in acute brain slices, was not significantly different between eight-week-old TNFα Tg rats and non-Tg rats. In contrast, slices from TNFα Tg rats showed significantly greater levels of long-term potentiation (LTP) in response to 100 Hz stimulation, suggesting that synaptic networks may be hyperexcitable in the context of elevated TNFα. Cognitive and motor deficits (assessed on the Morris Water Maze and Rotarod task, respectively) were present in TNFα Tg rats in the absence of significant differences in the loss of cortical and hippocampal neurons. TNF overexpression exacerbated MCAO-dependent deficits on the rotarod, but ameliorated cortical neuron loss in response to MCAO.

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