ResearchPad - practice https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Patients’ views on involving general practice in bowel cancer screening: a South Australian focus group study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_12554 To explore patients’ experiences of bowel cancer screening and its promotion, and perspectives on possible input from general practice for improving screening rates.DesignQualitative focus group study underpinned by a phenomenological approach.SettingThree general practice clinics in metropolitan South Australia.ParticipantsThirty active general practice patients, aged 50–74 years (60% female) who were eligible for the National Bowel Cancer Screening Program.FindingsFactors affecting screening were described, with particular concerns regarding the nature of the test, screening process and culture. There were mixed views on the role for general practice in bowel cancer screening; some participants appreciated the current process and viewed screening as out of scope of primary care services, while others were in support of general practice involvement. Roles for general practice were proposed that comprised actions across the continuum from providing information through to reminders and the provision and collection of screening kits. With a view that multifaceted strategies are required to encourage participation, community-based solutions were suggested that centred on improving screening culture and education.ConclusionsThere was a view among participants that general practice could play a useful role in supporting the uptake of the National Bowel Cancer Screening Program, however participants saw a need for multiple strategies at different levels and under different jurisdictions. ]]> <![CDATA[Successful Conservative Management of Acute Appendicitis in a Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Patient]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_10711 Appendectomy is the gold standard of treatment for acute appendicitis; however, recent evidence suggests conservative management with intravenous antibiotics may provide similar outcomes and can be used as an alternative in selected patients. Performing appendectomy in acute appendicitis patients with 2019 novel Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) is challenging, as it involves considerable operative risks for the patients and risks for health care professionals (HCPs) exposed to COVID-19. Medical management eliminates the morbidity and mortality associated with surgery but involves significant risks of treatment failures that, in turn, may lead to perforation, peritonitis, and death. We are reporting a case of a middle-aged man with multiple co-morbidities, who was diagnosed with COVID-19 and acute appendicitis. Our patient received intravenous antibiotics for seven days with a significant improvement in symptoms. Our case report illustrates the implementation of successful conservative treatment for acute appendicitis in COVID-19 patients.

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<![CDATA[Independent medical evaluation of general practitioners’ follow-up of sick-listed patients: a cross-sectional study in Norway]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_9110 The study was designed to examine the sufficiency of general practitioners’ (GPs) follow-up of patients on sick leave, assessed by independent medical evaluators.DesignCross-sectional studySettingPrimary health care in the Western part of Norway. The study reuses data from a randomised controlled trial—the Norwegian independent medical evaluation trial (NIME trial).ParticipantsThe intervention group in the NIME trial: Sick-listed workers having undergone an independent medical evaluation by an experienced GP at 6 months of unremitting sick leave (n=937; 57% women). In the current study, the participants were distributed into six exposure groups defined by gender and main sick leave diagnoses (women/musculoskeletal, men/musculoskeletal, women/mental, men/mental, women/all other diagnoses and men/all other diagnoses).Outcome measureThe independent medical evaluators assessment (yes/no) of the sufficiency of the regular GPs follow-up of their sick-listed patients.ResultsEstimates from generalised linear models demonstrate a robust association between men with mental sick leave diagnoses and insufficient follow-up by their regular GP first 6 months of sick leave (adjusted relative risk (RR)=1.8, 95% CI=1.15–1.68). Compared with the reference group, women with musculoskeletal sick leave diagnoses, this was the only significant finding. Men with musculoskeletal diagnoses (adjusted RR=1.4, 95% CI=0.92–2.09); men with other diagnoses (adjusted RR=1.0, 95% CI=0.58–1.73); women with mental diagnoses (adjusted RR=1.2, 95% CI=0.75–1.77) and women with other diagnoses (adjusted RR=1.3, 95% CI=0.58–1.73).ConclusionsAssessment by an independent medical evaluator showed that men with mental sick leave diagnoses may be at risk of insufficient follow-up by their GP. Efforts should be made to clarify unmet needs to initiate relevant actions in healthcare and work life. Avoiding marginalisation in work life is of the utmost importance.Trial registration number NCT02524392; Post-results. ]]> <![CDATA[Triaging Telehealth in Wound Care: Embracing the Regulations within Your Workflows]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7059 <![CDATA[The Spectrum of Sleep Disorders Among Children: A Cross-sectional Study at a South Indian Tertiary Care Hospital]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N55939edb-8af6-4644-a4dc-8ec6d9f99e5d Introduction

Sleep problems during infancy and early childhood are fairly common and rarely recognized in pediatric practice. These are mostly related to the initiation and maintenance of night-time sleep. Understanding sleep patterns and disorders associated with sleep is challenging, especially in the pediatric age group. This study was done to estimate the magnitude of sleep disorders in children and to evaluate the associated risk factors.

Methods

This cross-sectional study was carried out among 450 children visiting the pediatric outpatient department of Sri Ramachandra Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, India between November 2018 and June 2019. Children with chronic illnesses and a history of physical or mental trauma in the past six months were excluded. The Sleep Disturbance Scale for Children (SDSC) was used to gather information regarding sleep disorders.

Results

It was observed that a majority of the participants (72.2%) slept 9-11 hours per day. Among 46.2% of the participants, the time lag between bedtime and sleep time was less than 15 minutes. Overall, sleep problems were present in 34% of the participants. History of sleep problems in infancy, absence of siblings, and parental presence while sleeping emerged as statistically significant risk factors for childhood sleep disorders (p: <0.05).

Conclusion

We believe our study provides a basis for exploring the pattern and problems associated with sleep behavior among children. There is a need for setting up routine screening measures in pediatric outpatient departments to facilitate early detection of sleep disorders in order to avoid complications.

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<![CDATA[Using implementation science theories and frameworks in global health]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N6afca5fb-8abc-4088-be01-b0252221deb7 In global health, researchers and decision makers, many of whom have medical, epidemiology or biostatistics background, are increasingly interested in evaluating the implementation of health interventions. Implementation science, particularly for the study of public policies, has existed since at least the 1930s. This science makes compelling use of explicit theories and analytic frameworks that ensure research quality and rigour. Our objective is to inform researchers and decision makers who are not familiar with this research branch about these theories and analytic frameworks. We define four models of causation used in implementation science: intervention theory, frameworks, middle-range theory and grand theory. We then explain how scientists apply these models for three main implementation studies: fidelity assessment, process evaluation and complex evaluation. For each study, we provide concrete examples from research in Cuba and Africa to better understand the implementation of health interventions in global health context. Global health researchers and decision makers with a quantitative background will not become implementation scientists after reading this article. However, we believe they will be more aware of the need for rigorous implementation evaluations of global health interventions, alongside impact evaluations, and in collaboration with social scientists.

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<![CDATA[Recognition of anxiety disorders in children: a cross-sectional vignette-based survey among general practitioners]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N274f3076-312b-403c-a48f-17e7349a14fe To quantify general practitioners’ (GPs) sensitivity to anxiety disorders (ADs) when confronted with the range of symptoms common to children with ADs. Also, to explore GPs’ conscious preferences and implicit tendencies for referral of children with ADs to mental healthcare.Design and settingIn a cross-sectional vignette-based survey, all attendees of a Dutch continuing medical education conference for primary care physicians were presented with subtitled audio fragments of five vignettes that we constructed to mimic symptom presentation of children with ADs in general practice. We asked attendees to select per vignette the most plausible diagnoses and most adequate referral option, and for their general referral preferences when they suspect each of the most common mental health problems.ParticipantsA sample of 229 GPs, resulting in a total of 1128 vignette evaluations.Main outcome measureGPs’ selection rate of ADs in the five vignettes compared with a benchmark provided by mental health professionals (MHPs).ResultsOverall, recognition of ADs was less likely in GPs compared with MHPs (OR=0.26, 95% CI 0.15 to 0.46). GPs varied in their recognition of anxiety, with 44.1% not once selecting anxiety as the probable presenting problem. When asked explicitly, 63.9% of the GPs reported that they would refer a child to mental healthcare when they suspect probable ADs. By contrast, only 12.0% of the GPs who recognised anxiety in the vignettes actually selected that referral option.ConclusionA significant fraction of GPs did not notice the depicted symptoms as anxiety. Despite the widespread prevalence of ADs, GPs seem to overlook anxiety already in their early diagnostic opinion. Improving GPs’ familiarity with initial symptom presentation, ADs’ base-rate, relevance and impact yields potential for timely recognition. ]]> <![CDATA[Comment on “Should COVID-19 Concern Nephrologists? Why and to What Extent? The Emerging Impasse of Angiotensin Blockade”]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N59459147-7779-486b-9460-99325d209325 <![CDATA[气管支气管成形术后患者的护理体会]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c0532c2d5eed0c4848b5c9c <![CDATA[Missed Abortion Presented with Worsening Hyperemesis Gravidarum]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nc9a9cab8-4066-4278-8064-0396d440fd30 Hyperemesis gravidarum (HG) is the most common cause of in-patient hospitalizations during the first half of pregnancy. The etiology of HG has not yet been elucidated, and the treatment is mainly symptomatic. Untreated severe HG can lead to catastrophic maternal complications such as cardiac arrhythmia and death. In contrast, the impact of untreated severe HG on the fetuses remains contradictory. Evidence suggested that HG may increase the risk of a small for gestational age (GA) fetus. We here report a case of 32-year-old nulliparous woman, GA of 14 weeks, who presented with worsening HG and later had a diagnosis of missed abortion. More research is needed to clarify the possibility of HG as a contributory cause of abortion.

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<![CDATA[‘Shawl Sign’ as a Paraneoplastic Dermatosis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N65efda44-6314-4da5-8742-a22a670a2158 Dermatomyositis (DM) is an idiopathic condition characterized by inflammation of muscles and skin lesions. It is often a paraneoplastic manifestation of internal malignancy. Hence, early recognition of this disorder is important. Although not all dermatomyositis are associated with malignancies, the ones with such association regress with the treatment of associated malignancy. In clinical practice, symptoms of muscle weakness can be vague, and skin lesions can be dismissed as sunburn. We present a case of an elder adult female who presented with dermatomyositis as a paraneoplastic syndrome secondary to an underlying Mullerian malignancy.

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<![CDATA[Responsible Prescribing for Upper Respiratory Tract Infections]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N62ff9049-1c11-42e7-965b-b0b83632c1a9

Upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) are responsible for a large amount of community antibacterial use worldwide. Recent systematic reviews have demonstrated that most URTIs resolve naturally, even when bacteria are the cause. The high consumer expectation for antibacterials in URTIs requires intervention by the general practitioner and a number of useful strategies have been developed.

Generic strategies, including eliciting patient expectations, avoiding the term ‘just a virus’, providing a value-for-money consultation, providing verbal and written information, empowering patients, conditional prescribing, directed education campaigns, and emphasis on symptomatic treatments, should be used as well as discussion of alternative medicines when relevant.

The various conditions have differing rates of bacterial infection and require different approaches. For acute rhinitis, laryngitis and tracheitis, viruses are the only cause and, therefore, antibacterials are never required. In acute sore throat (pharyngitis) Streptococcus pyogenes is the only important bacterial cause. A scoring system can help to increase the likelihood of distinguishing a streptococcal as opposed to viral infection, or alternatively patients should be given antibacterials only if certain conditions are fulfilled. Strategies for treating acute otitis media vary in different countries. Most favour the strategy of prescribing antibacterials only when certain criteria are fulfilled, delaying antibacterial prescribing for at least 24 hours. In otitis media with effusion, on the other hand, there is no primary role for antibacterials, as the condition resolves naturally in almost all patients aged >3 months. Detailed strategies for acute sinusitis have not been worked out but restricting antibacterial prescribing to certain clinical complexes is currently recommended by several authorities because of the high natural resolution rate.

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<![CDATA[Canadian Guidelines on Cannabis Use Disorder Among Older Adults]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N0f733b2d-58b2-4855-9f9a-e9b4600f623c

Background

Cannabis Use Disorder (CUD) is an emerging and diverse challenge among older adults.

Methods

The Canadian Coalition for Seniors’ Mental Health, with financial support from Health Canada, has produced evidence-based guidelines on the prevention, identification, assessment, and treatment of this form of substance use disorder.

Conclusions

Older adults may develop CUD in the setting of recreational and even medical use. Clinicians should remain vigilant for the detection of CUD, and they should be aware of strategies for prevention and managing its emergence and consequences The full version of these guidelines can be accessed at www.ccsmh.ca.

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<![CDATA[Canadian Guidelines on Opioid Use Disorder Among Older Adults]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nf064fa06-03be-4007-9e7e-0327655f488c

Background

In Canada, rates of hospital admission from opioid overdose are higher for older adults (≥ 65) than younger adults, and opioid use disorder (OUD) is a growing concern. In response, Health Canada commissioned the Canadian Coalition of Seniors’ Mental Health to create guidelines for the prevention, screening, assessment, and treatment of OUD in older adults.

Methods

A systematic review of English language literature from 2008–2018 regarding OUD in adults was conducted. Previously published guidelines were evaluated using AGREE II, and key guidelines updated using ADAPTE method, by drawing on current literature. Recommendations were created and assessed using the GRADE method.

Results

Thirty-two recommendations were created. Prevention recommendations: it is key to prioritize non-pharmacological and non-opioid strategies to treat acute and chronic noncancer pain. Assessment recommendations: a comprehensive assessment is important to help discern contributions of other medical conditions. Treatment recommendations: buprenorphine is first line for both withdrawal management and maintenance therapy, while methadone, slow-release oral morphine, or naltrexone can be used as alternatives under certain circumstances; non-pharmacological treatments should be offered as an integrated part of care.

Conclusion

These guidelines provide practical and timely clinical recommendations on the prevention, assessment, and treatment of OUD in older adults within the Canadian context.

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<![CDATA[Canadian Guidelines on Alcohol Use Disorder Among Older Adults]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N89aa6866-4315-4652-a8c9-66cdada705d6

Background

Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is an increasingly common, under-recognized, and under-treated health concern in older adults. Its prevalence is expected to reach unprecedented levels as the Canadian population ages. In response, Health Canada commissioned the Canadian Coalition of Seniors’ Mental Health to create guidelines for the prevention, screening, assessment, and treatment of AUD in older adults.

Methods

A systematic review of English language literature from 2008–2018 regarding AUD in adults was conducted. Previously published guidelines were evaluated using AGREE II, and key guidelines updated using ADAPTE method by drawing on current literature. Recommendations were created and assessed using the GRADE method.

Results

Twenty-two recommendations were created. Prevention recommendations: Best advice for older adults who choose to drink is to limit intake to well below the national Low-Risk Alcohol Drinking Guidelines. Screening recommendations: Alcohol consumption should be reviewed and discussed on an annual basis by primary care providers. This type of discussion needs to be normalized and approached in a simple, neutral, straight-forward manner. Assessment recommendations: Positive screens for AUD should be followed by a comprehensive assessment. Once more details are obtained an individualized treatment plan can be recommended, negotiated, and implemented. Treatment recommendations: AUD falls on a spectrum of mild, moderate, and severe. It can also be complicated by concurrent mental health, physical, or social issues, especially in older adults. Naltrexone and Acamprosate pharmacotherapies can be used for the treatment of AUD in older adults, as individually indicated. Psychosocial treatment and support should be offered as part of a comprehensive treatment plan.

Conclusion

These guidelines provide practical and timely clinical recommendations on the prevention, assessment, and treatment of AUD in older adults within the Canadian context.

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<![CDATA[Canadian Guidelines on Benzodiazepine Receptor Agonist Use Disorder Among Older Adults Title]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nc9d628ae-84aa-4826-8cc5-49dac0464cc8

Background

Benzodiazepine receptor agonist (BZRA) use disorder among older adults is a relatively common and challenging clinical condition.

Method

The Canadian Coalition for Seniors’ Mental Health, with financial support from Health Canada, has produced evidence-based guidelines on the prevention, identification, assessment, and management of this form of substance use disorder.

Results

Inappropriate use of BZRAs should be avoided by considering non-pharmacological approaches to the management of late life insomnia, anxiety, and other common indications for the use of BZRA. Older persons should only be prescribed BZRAs after they are fully informed of alternatives, benefits, and risks associated with their use. Clinicians should have a high index of suspicion for the presence of BZRA use disorders. The full version of these guidelines can be accessed at www.ccsmh.ca

Conclusions

A person-centred, stepped care approach utilizing gradual dose reductions should be used in the management of BZRA use disorder.

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<![CDATA[Primary Syphilis Presenting As a Chronic Lip Ulcer]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N7ce83909-422e-441f-9d37-a1c882c396e5

Syphilis is usually a sexually transmitted infection caused by the spirochete Treponema pallidum. Primary syphilis classically presents as a painless, ulcerated lesion on the genitals. However, the primary lesion is not restricted to this site and appears wherever the spirochete enters through the skin. The symptomatology and appearance of the primary lesion can also vary. 

We present a case of a 59-year-old man with a primary syphilitic chancre of the lower lip. The patient was referred to the dermatology clinic by their primary care provider after the ulceration failed to heal with antibiotic therapy. A biopsy of the lesion was taken at this time; the diagnosis of syphilis was then made by histologic examination and immunohistochemical staining. Subsequent serologic tests were also positive. Upon prompting, the patient did report a history of sexually transmitted disease but not of syphilis specifically. The patient was treated with penicillin, and there was clinical improvement of the lesion at the follow-up visit.

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<![CDATA[Efficacy and Tolerability of Ashwagandha Root Extract in the Elderly for Improvement of General Well-being and Sleep: A Prospective, Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nbe49d8a2-d159-48f2-8114-3733d98e0106

Background

Ashwagandha is an excellent adaptogen that is being used since ancient times in Ayurvedic medicine. Traditionally, it is used for various ailments and general well-being, including the treatment of geriatric patients. Managing quality of life (QoL) remains a challenge for the elderly population, especially joint pain management, sleep, and general well-being. With a growing global elderly population, QoL management with efficient medication and supplementation is the major healthcare requirement.

Objective

The objective of this study was to assess the safety, efficacy, and tolerability of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal.) root extract on the improvement of general health and sleep in elderly people.

Methods

This 12-week, prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted on individuals of either gender aged between 65-80 years. Participants were randomized to receive Ashwagandha root extract at a dose of 600 mg/day (n = 25) orally, or identical placebo capsules with the same dose (n = 25) for 12 weeks. Efficacy was assessed using the WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire, sleep quality, mental alertness on rising, and Physician’s Global Assessment of Efficacy to Therapy (PGAET). The safety and tolerability were assessed using the clinical adverse events reporting and Patient's Global Assessment of Tolerability to Therapy (PGATT).

Results

Statistically significant (P<0.0001) improvement was observed in the Ashwagandha treatment group compared to the placebo. The mean (SD) total score of WHOQOL-BREF improved from 140.53 (8.25) at the baseline to 161.84(9.32) at the end of the study. The individual domain scores were also improved. At baseline, the sleep quality and the mental alertness on rising were comparatively low in both the groups. However, upon intervention, a significant increase in the quality of sleep (P<0.0001) and mental alertness (P<0.034) was observed in the Ashwagandha treatment group when compared to the placebo group. Overall improvement was observed for the general wellbeing, sleep quality, and mental alertness in the study population. The experimental group population displayed good tolerability to the test product and it was reported as safe and beneficial by the study participants. 

Conclusion

The study outcomes suggest that Ashwagandha root extract was efficient in improving the QoL, sleep quality, and mental alertness as self-assessed by the elderly participants. The recommended dose used in this study could be effective for the elderly population. 

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<![CDATA[Treatment of Community-Acquired Lower Respiratory Tract Infections during Pregnancy]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N57b1c137-2c39-4d37-ab97-938da5de2e71

The incidence of lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) in women of child-bearing age is approximately 64 per 1000 population. The spectrum of illness ranges from acute bronchitis, which is very common, through influenza virus infection and exacerbations of underlying lung disease, to pneumonia, which, fortunately is uncommon (<1.5% LRTI), but can be severe.

Acute bronchitis is generally mild, self-limiting and usually does not require antibacterial therapy. Influenza virus infection in pregnant women has been recently related to increased hospitalization for acute cardiorespiratory conditions. At present, the safety of the newer neuraminidase inhibitors for the treatment of influenza virus infection has not been established in pregnancy and they are not routinely recommended. In influenza virus infection complicated by pneumonia, antibacterial agents active against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae superinfection should be used.

There are few data on infective complications of asthma or COPD in pregnancy. The latter is rare, as patients with COPD are usually male and aged over 45 years. Management is the same as for nonpregnant patients.

The incidence and mortality of pneumonia in pregnancy is similar to that in nonpregnant patients. Infants born to pregnant patients with pneumonia have been found to be born earlier and weigh less than controls. Risk factors for the development of pneumonia include anemia, asthma and use of antepartum corticosteroids and tocolytic agents. Based on the few available studies, the main pathogens causing pneumonia are S. pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae and viruses. β-Lactam and macrolide antibiotics therefore remain the antibiotics of choice in terms of both pathogen coverage and safety in pregnancy. In HIV-infected pregnant patients, recurrent bacterial pneumonia, but not Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP), is more common than in nonpregnant patients. Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (cotrimoxazole) has not definitely been associated with adverse clinical outcomes despite theoretical risks. Currently it is still the treatment of choice in PCP, where mortality remains high.

In conclusion, there are few data specifically related to pregnant women with different types of LRTI. Where data are available, no significant differences compared with nonpregnant patients have been identified. In considering the use of any therapeutic agent or investigation in pregnant patients with LRTI, safety aspects must be carefully weighed against potential benefit. Otherwise, management strategies should not differ from those for nonpregnant patients. Further research in this area is warranted.

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<![CDATA[Management of Influenza Virus Infections with Neuraminidase Inhibitors]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ncc55d9a5-47cf-40be-ac95-cae235011137

Although influenza vaccination remains the primary method for the prevention of influenza, efficacy may be limited by a poor match between the vaccine and circulating strains and the poor response of elderly patients. Hence, there is an important role for antiviral therapy in the management of influenza. While amantadine and rimantadine have been available for the treatment of influenza in some countries for several years, they are only effective against influenza A viruses, they can have neurological and gastrointestinal adverse effects, and resistant virus is rapidly generated. Neuraminidase inhibitors, a new class of drug, are potent and specific inhibitors of all strains of influenza virus, and they have minimal adverse effects. The greatest benefit is seen in those patients presenting <30 hours after development of influenza symptoms, those with severe symptoms or those in high-risk groups. In addition to treatment of the infection, both drugs are effective prophylactically and have been shown to limit spread of infection in close communities, such as families and in nursing homes. No resistant virus strains have been isolated from normal individuals treated with zanamivir. Resistant virus can be isolated from approximately 1% of adults and 5% of paediatric patients with influenza treated with oseltamivir. However, infectivity of mutant viruses is generally compromised. Governments spend millions of dollars on influenza vaccination campaigns; however, once influenza virus is circulating in the community, vaccination cannot limit the spread of disease. A greater promotion of the use of neuraminidase inhibitors for the treatment and prevention of influenza could have a significant impact on limiting its spread. This could result in saving millions of dollars, not only in direct costs associated with medical and hospital care, but also significant savings in indirect costs associated with the loss of productivity at work, school and home environments. For the benefit of all communities, there needs to be a greater awareness of the symptoms of influenza and the efficacy of neuraminidase inhibitors in disease treatment.

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