ResearchPad - precipitation-techniques https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Staurosporine and NEM mainly impair WNK-SPAK/OSR1 mediated phosphorylation of KCC2 and NKCC1]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14752 The pivotal role of KCC2 and NKCC1 in development and maintenance of fast inhibitory neurotransmission and their implication in severe human diseases arouse interest in posttranscriptional regulatory mechanisms such as (de)phosphorylation. Staurosporine (broad kinase inhibitor) and N-ethylmalemide (NEM) that modulate kinase and phosphatase activities enhance KCC2 and decrease NKCC1 activity. Here, we investigated the regulatory mechanism for this reciprocal regulation by mass spectrometry and immunoblot analyses using phospho-specific antibodies. Our analyses revealed that application of staurosporine or NEM dephosphorylates Thr1007 of KCC2, and Thr203, Thr207 and Thr212 of NKCC1. Dephosphorylation of Thr1007 of KCC2, and Thr207 and Thr212 of NKCC1 were previously demonstrated to activate KCC2 and to inactivate NKCC1. In addition, application of the two agents resulted in dephosphorylation of the T-loop and S-loop phosphorylation sites Thr233 and Ser373 of SPAK, a critical kinase in the WNK-SPAK/OSR1 signaling module mediating phosphorylation of KCC2 and NKCC1. Taken together, these results suggest that reciprocal regulation of KCC2 and NKCC1 via staurosporine and NEM is based on WNK-SPAK/OSR1 signaling. The key regulatory phospho-site Ser940 of KCC2 is not critically involved in the enhanced activation of KCC2 upon staurosporine and NEM treatment, as both agents have opposite effects on its phosphorylation status. Finally, NEM acts in a tissue-specific manner on Ser940, as shown by comparative analysis in HEK293 cells and immature cultured hippocampal neurons. In summary, our analyses identified phospho-sites that are responsive to staurosporine or NEM application. This provides important information towards a better understanding of the cooperative interactions of different phospho-sites.

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<![CDATA[SPOP promotes ubiquitination and degradation of MyD88 to suppress the innate immune response]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14645 MyD88 is a central adaptor that mediates initiation of the innate immune response and production of the proinflammatory cytokines that restrain pathogens and activate adaptive immunity. Although MyD88 is crucial for a host to prevent pathogenic infection, misregulation of its abundance might lead to autoimmune diseases. Thus, degradation of MyD88 is a key canonical mechanism for terminating cytokine production. Here, we characterized a novel E3 ligase, SPOP, that targets MyD88 for degradation. ChSPOP attenuated IL-1β production through K48-linked polyubiquitination and degradation of chMyD88, and thus impaired immune responses. Spop deficient mice showed more susceptibility to infection by Salmonella typhimurium. These findings demonstrate that SPOP is a negative regulator of MyD88-dependent pathway activation triggered by LPS and Salmonella typhimurium, which helps the host to maintain immune homeostasis.

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<![CDATA[The degradation-promoting roles of deubiquitinases Ubp6 and Ubp3 in cytosolic and ER protein quality control]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14498 The quality control of intracellular proteins is achieved by degrading misfolded proteins which cannot be refolded by molecular chaperones. In eukaryotes, such degradation is handled primarily by the ubiquitin-proteasome system. However, it remained unclear whether and how protein quality control deploys various deubiquitinases. To address this question, we screened deletions or mutation of the 20 deubiquitinase genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and discovered that almost half of the mutations slowed the removal of misfolded proteins whereas none of the remaining mutations accelerated this process significantly. Further characterization revealed that Ubp6 maintains the level of free ubiquitin to promote the elimination of misfolded cytosolic proteins, while Ubp3 supports the degradation of misfolded cytosolic and ER luminal proteins by different mechanisms.

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<![CDATA[Analysis of the nucleocytoplasmic shuttling RNA-binding protein HNRNPU using optimized HITS-CLIP method]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nb5a6160c-8969-498c-b6ff-671487ce7810

RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) control many types of post-transcriptional regulation, including mRNA splicing, mRNA stability, and translational efficiency, by directly binding to their target RNAs and their mutation and dysfunction are often associated with several human neurological diseases and tumorigenesis. Crosslinking immunoprecipitation (CLIP), coupled with high-throughput sequencing (HITS-CLIP), is a powerful technique for investigating the molecular mechanisms underlying disease pathogenesis by comprehensive identification of RBP target sequences at the transcriptome level. However, HITS-CLIP protocol is still required for some optimization due to experimental complication, low efficiency and time-consuming, whose library has to be generated from very small amounts of RNAs. Here we improved a more efficient, rapid, and reproducible CLIP method by optimizing BrdU-CLIP. Our protocol produced a 10-fold greater yield of pre-amplified CLIP library, which resulted in a low duplicate rate of CLIP-tag reads because the number of PCR cycles required for library amplification was reduced. Variance of the yields was also reduced, and the experimental period was shortened by 2 days. Using this, we validated IL-6 expression by a nuclear RBP, HNRNPU, which directly binds the 3’-UTR of IL-6 mRNA in HeLa cells. Importantly, this interaction was only observed in the cytoplasmic fraction, suggesting a role of cytoplasmic HNRNPU in mRNA stability control. This optimized method enables us to accurately identify target genes and provides a snapshot of the protein-RNA interactions of nucleocytoplasmic shuttling RBPs.

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<![CDATA[Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis associated POC5 mutation impairs cell cycle, cilia length and centrosome protein interactions]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c8accc4d5eed0c48498ff55

Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis (AIS) is a spinal deformity that affects approximately 3 percent of human adolescents. Although the etiology and molecular basis of AIS is unclear, several genes such as POC5 have been identified as possible causes of the condition. In order to understand the role of POC5 in the pathogenesis of AIS, we investigated the subcellular localization of POC5 in cilia of cells over-expressing either the wild type (wt) or an AIS-related POC5 variant POC5A429V. Mutation of POC5 was found to alter its subcellular localization and to induce ciliary retraction. Furthermore, we observed an impaired cell-cycle progression with the accumulation of cells in the S-phase in cells expressing POC5A429V. Using immunoprecipitation coupled to mass spectrometry, we identified specific protein interaction partners of POC5, most of which were components of cilia and cytoskeleton. Several of these interactions were altered upon mutation of POC5. Altogether, our results demonstrate major cellular alterations, disturbances in centrosome protein interactions and cilia retraction in cells expressing an AIS-related POC5 mutation. Our study suggests that defects in centrosomes and cilia may underlie AIS pathogenesis.

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<![CDATA[TRIM2, a novel member of the antiviral family, limits New World arenavirus entry]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c648d3dd5eed0c484c82342

Tripartite motif (TRIM) proteins belong to a large family with many roles in host biology, including restricting virus infection. Here, we found that TRIM2, which has been implicated in cases of Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease (CMTD) in humans, acts by blocking hemorrhagic fever New World arenavirus (NWA) entry into cells. We show that Trim2-knockout mice, as well as primary fibroblasts from a CMTD patient with mutations in TRIM2, are more highly infected by the NWAs Junín and Tacaribe virus than wild-type mice or cells are. Using mice with different Trim2 gene deletions and TRIM2 mutant constructs, we demonstrate that its antiviral activity is uniquely independent of the RING domain encoding ubiquitin ligase activity. Finally, we show that one member of the TRIM2 interactome, signal regulatory protein α (SIRPA), a known inhibitor of phagocytosis, also restricts NWA infection and conversely that TRIM2 limits phagocytosis of apoptotic cells. In addition to demonstrating a novel antiviral mechanism for TRIM proteins, these studies suggest that the NWA entry and phagocytosis pathways overlap.

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<![CDATA[O-GlcNAcylation of PERIOD regulates its interaction with CLOCK and timing of circadian transcriptional repression]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5ca281d5eed0c48441e509

Circadian clocks coordinate time-of-day-specific metabolic and physiological processes to maximize organismal performance and fitness. In addition to light and temperature, which are regarded as strong zeitgebers for circadian clock entrainment, metabolic input has now emerged as an important signal for clock entrainment and modulation. Circadian clock proteins have been identified to be substrates of O-GlcNAcylation, a nutrient sensitive post-translational modification (PTM), and the interplay between clock protein O-GlcNAcylation and other PTMs is now recognized as an important mechanism by which metabolic input regulates circadian physiology. To better understand the role of O-GlcNAcylation in modulating clock protein function within the molecular oscillator, we used mass spectrometry proteomics to identify O-GlcNAcylation sites of PERIOD (PER), a repressor of the circadian transcriptome and a critical biochemical timer of the Drosophila clock. In vivo functional characterization of PER O-GlcNAcylation sites indicates that O-GlcNAcylation at PER(S942) reduces interactions between PER and CLOCK (CLK), the key transcriptional activator of clock-controlled genes. Since we observe a correlation between clock-controlled daytime feeding activity and higher level of PER O-GlcNAcylation, we propose that PER(S942) O-GlcNAcylation during the day functions to prevent premature initiation of circadian repression phase. This is consistent with the period-shortening behavioral phenotype of per(S942A) flies. Taken together, our results support that clock-controlled feeding activity provides metabolic signals to reinforce light entrainment to regulate circadian physiology at the post-translational level. The interplay between O-GlcNAcylation and other PTMs to regulate circadian physiology is expected to be complex and extensive, and reach far beyond the molecular oscillator.

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<![CDATA[Retraction: A Functional Nuclear Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor, Src and Stat3 Heteromeric Complex in Pancreatic Cancer Cells]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c76fe1cd5eed0c484e5b51c ]]> <![CDATA[The Cdk8/19-cyclin C transcription regulator functions in genome replication through metazoan Sld7]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c59feebd5eed0c4841357c1

Accurate genome duplication underlies genetic homeostasis. Metazoan Mdm2 binding protein (MTBP) forms a main regulatory platform for origin firing together with Treslin/TICRR and TopBP1 (Topoisomerase II binding protein 1 (TopBP1)–interacting replication stimulating protein/TopBP1-interacting checkpoint and replication regulator). We report the first comprehensive analysis of MTBP and reveal conserved and metazoa-specific MTBP functions in replication. This suggests that metazoa have evolved specific molecular mechanisms to adapt replication principles conserved with yeast to the specific requirements of the more complex metazoan cells. We uncover one such metazoa-specific process: a new replication factor, cyclin-dependent kinase 8/19–cyclinC (Cdk8/19-cyclin C), binds to a central domain of MTBP. This interaction is required for complete genome duplication in human cells. In the absence of MTBP binding to Cdk8/19-cyclin C, cells enter mitosis with incompletely duplicated chromosomes, and subsequent chromosome segregation occurs inaccurately. Using remote homology searches, we identified MTBP as the metazoan orthologue of yeast synthetic lethal with Dpb11 7 (Sld7). This homology finally demonstrates that the set of yeast core factors sufficient for replication initiation in vitro is conserved in metazoa. MTBP and Sld7 contain two homologous domains that are present in no other protein, one each in the N and C termini. In MTBP the conserved termini flank the metazoa-specific Cdk8/19-cyclin C binding region and are required for normal origin firing in human cells. The N termini of MTBP and Sld7 share an essential origin firing function, the interaction with Treslin/TICRR or its yeast orthologue Sld3, respectively. The C termini may function as homodimerisation domains. Our characterisation of broadly conserved and metazoa-specific initiation processes sets the basis for further mechanistic dissection of replication initiation in vertebrates. It is a first step in understanding the distinctions of origin firing in higher eukaryotes.

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<![CDATA[Role of SpaO in the assembly of the sorting platform of a Salmonella type III secretion system]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c50c486d5eed0c4845e8885

Many bacterial pathogens and symbionts use type III secretion machines to interact with their hosts by injecting bacterial effector proteins into host target cells. A central component of this complex machine is the cytoplasmic sorting platform, which orchestrates the engagement and preparation of type III secreted proteins for their delivery to the needle complex, the substructure of the type III secretion system that mediates their passage through the bacterial envelope. The sorting platform is thought to be a dynamic structure whose components alternate between assembled and disassembled states. However, how this dynamic behavior is controlled is not understood. In S. Typhimurium a core component of the sorting platform is SpaO, which is synthesized in two tandemly translated products, a full length (SpaOL) and a short form (SpaOS) composed of the C-terminal 101 amino acids. Here we show that in the absence of SpaOS the assembly of the needle substructure of the needle complex, which requires a functional sorting platform, can still occur although with reduced efficiency. Consistent with this observation, in the absence of SpaOS secretion of effectors proteins, which requires a fully assembled injectisome, is only slightly compromised. In the absence of SpaOS we detect a significant number of fully assembled needle complexes that are not associated with fully assembled sorting platforms. We also find that although binding of SpaOL to SpaOS can be detected in the absence of other components of the sorting platform, this interaction is not detected in the context of a fully assembled sorting platform suggesting that SpaOS may not be a core structural component of the sorting platform. Consistent with this observation we find that SpaOS and OrgB, a component of the sorting platform, share the same binding surface on SpaOL. We conclude that SpaOS regulates the assembly of the sorting platform during type III secretion.

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<![CDATA[Early girl is a novel component of the Fat signaling pathway]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5b52c2d5eed0c4842bcfaa

The Drosophila protocadherins Dachsous and Fat regulate growth and tissue polarity by modulating the levels, membrane localization and polarity of the atypical myosin Dachs. Localization to the apical junctional membrane is critical for Dachs function, and the adapter protein Vamana/Dlish and palmitoyl transferase Approximated are required for Dachs membrane localization. However, how Dachs levels are regulated is poorly understood. Here we identify the early girl gene as playing an essential role in Fat signaling by limiting the levels of Dachs protein. early girl mutants display overgrowth of the wings and reduced cross vein spacing, hallmark features of mutations affecting Fat signaling. Genetic experiments reveal that it functions in parallel with Fat to regulate Dachs. early girl encodes an E3 ubiquitin ligase, physically interacts with Dachs, and regulates its protein stability. Concomitant loss of early girl and approximated results in accumulation of Dachs and Vamana in cytoplasmic punctae, suggesting that it also regulates their trafficking to the apical membrane. Our findings establish a crucial role for early girl in Fat signaling, involving regulation of Dachs and Vamana, two key downstream effectors of this pathway.

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<![CDATA[Merkel cell polyomavirus Tumor antigens expressed in Merkel cell carcinoma function independently of the ubiquitin ligases Fbw7 and β-TrCP]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c58d627d5eed0c484031780

Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) accounts for 80% of all Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) cases through expression of two viral oncoproteins: the truncated large T antigen (LT-t) and small T antigen (ST). MCPyV ST is thought to be the main driver of cellular transformation and has also been shown to increase LT protein levels through the activity of its Large-T Stabilization Domain (LSD). The ST LSD was reported to bind and sequester several ubiquitin ligases, including Fbw7 and β-TrCP, and thereby stabilize LT-t and several other Fbw7 targets including c-Myc and cyclin E. Therefore, the ST LSD is thought to contribute to transformation by promoting the accumulation of these oncoproteins. Targets of Fbw7 and β-TrCP contain well-defined, conserved, phospho-degrons. However, as neither MCPyV LT, LT-t nor ST contain the canonical Fbw7 phospho-degron, we sought to further investigate the proposed model of ST stabilization of LT-t and transformation. In this study, we provide several lines of evidence that fail to support a specific interaction between MCPyV T antigens and Fbw7 or β-TrCP by co-immunoprecipitation or functional consequence. Although MCPyV ST does indeed increase LT protein levels through its Large-T Stabilization domain (LSD), this is accomplished independently of Fbw7. Therefore, our study indicates a need for further investigation into the role and mechanism(s) of MCPyV T antigens in viral replication, latency, transformation, and tumorigenesis.

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<![CDATA[Bclaf1 critically regulates the type I interferon response and is degraded by alphaherpesvirus US3]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c57e68bd5eed0c484ef366f

Type I interferon response plays a prominent role against viral infection, which is frequently disrupted by viruses. Here, we report Bcl-2 associated transcription factor 1 (Bclaf1) is degraded during the alphaherpesvirus Pseudorabies virus (PRV) and Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infections through the viral protein US3. We further reveal that Bclaf1 functions critically in type I interferon signaling. Knockdown or knockout of Bclaf1 in cells significantly impairs interferon-α (IFNα) -mediated gene transcription and viral inhibition against US3 deficient PRV and HSV-1. Mechanistically, Bclaf1 maintains a mechanism allowing STAT1 and STAT2 to be efficiently phosphorylated in response to IFNα, and more importantly, facilitates IFN-stimulated gene factor 3 (ISGF3) binding with IFN-stimulated response elements (ISRE) for efficient gene transcription by directly interacting with ISRE and STAT2. Our studies establish the importance of Bclaf1 in IFNα-induced antiviral immunity and in the control of viral infections.

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<![CDATA[Effect of Sec61 interaction with Mpd1 on endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6448b0d5eed0c484c2eb9d

Proteins that misfold in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) are transported back to the cytosol for ER-associated degradation (ERAD). The Sec61 channel is one of the candidates for the retrograde transport conduit. Channel opening from the ER lumen must be triggered by ERAD factors and substrates. Here we aimed to identify new lumenal interaction partners of the Sec61 channel by chemical crosslinking and mass spectrometry. In addition to known Sec61 interactors we detected ERAD factors including Cue1, Ubc6, Ubc7, Asi3, and Mpd1. We show that the CPY* ERAD factor Mpd1 binds to the lumenal Sec61 hinge region. Deletion of the Mpd1 binding site reduced the interaction between both proteins and caused an ERAD defect specific for CPY* without affecting protein import into the ER or ERAD of other substrates. Our data suggest that Mpd1 binding to Sec61 is a prerequisite for CPY* ERAD and confirm a role of Sec61 in ERAD of misfolded secretory proteins.

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<![CDATA[Serum zonulin as a marker of intestinal mucosal barrier function: May not be what it seems]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c46651dd5eed0c4845177f7

The protein, zonulin, has emerged as a popular serological marker to assess the integrity of the intestinal mucosal barrier. However, there is limited information on the utility of serum zonulin to indicate gastrointestinal disease and the validity of zonulin detection in widely-used commercial assays. The current study reports differences in zonulin levels across patient groups with gastrointestinal dysfunction compared with healthy individuals, though methodological inconsistencies indicated that actual zonulin protein was not detected by the commercial assays applied. The nature of the assays’ detected antigen was investigated using immunoprecipitation followed by mass spectrometric analysis and sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) followed by protein staining. Top matches of the assays’ detected antigen included haptoglobin and complement C3 for the assay manufactured by CUSABIO (Wuhan, China) and complement C3 for the assay manufactured by Immundiagnostik AG (Bensheim, Germany). These findings confirm that current commercial zonulin assays are not detecting the actual protein as prehaptoglobin-2. Until assay methodology is improved, we advise the greater scientific and medical community to exercise caution in considering the measurement of serum zonulin as a marker of mucosal barrier integrity.

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<![CDATA[MEKK3 coordinates with FBW7 to regulate WDR62 stability and neurogenesis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c23f305d5eed0c484049ed6

Mutations of WD repeat domain 62 (WDR62) lead to autosomal recessive primary microcephaly (MCPH), and down-regulation of WDR62 expression causes the loss of neural progenitor cells (NPCs). However, how WDR62 is regulated and hence controls neurogenesis and brain size remains elusive. Here, we demonstrate that mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 3 (MEKK3) forms a complex with WDR62 to promote c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling synergistically in the control of neurogenesis. The deletion of Mekk3, Wdr62, or Jnk1 resulted in phenocopied defects, including premature NPC differentiation. We further showed that WDR62 protein is positively regulated by MEKK3 and JNK1 in the developing brain and that the defects of wdr62 deficiency can be rescued by the transgenic expression of JNK1. Meanwhile, WDR62 is also negatively regulated by T1053 phosphorylation, leading to the recruitment of F-box and WD repeat domain-containing protein 7 (FBW7) and proteasomal degradation. Our findings demonstrate that the coordinated reciprocal and bidirectional regulation among MEKK3, FBW7, WDR62, and JNK1, is required for fine-tuned JNK signaling for the control of balanced NPC self-renewal and differentiation during cortical development.

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<![CDATA[EBNA3C facilitates RASSF1A downregulation through ubiquitin-mediated degradation and promoter hypermethylation to drive B-cell proliferation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c3d00ded5eed0c484036313

EBV latent antigen 3C (EBNA3C) is essential for EBV-induced primary B-cell transformation. Infection by EBV induces hypermethylation of a number of tumor suppressor genes, which contributes to the development of human cancers. The Ras association domain family isoform 1A (RASSF1A) is a cellular tumor suppressor, which regulates a broad range of cellular functions, including apoptosis, cell-cycle arrest, mitotic arrest, and migration. However, the expression of RASSF1A is lost in many human cancers by epigenetic silencing. In the present study, we showed that EBNA3C promoted B-cell transformation by specifically suppressing the expression of RASSF1A. EBNA3C directly interacted with RASSF1A and induced RASSF1A degradation via the ubiquitin-proteasome-dependent pathway. SCFSkp2, an E3-ubiquitin ligase, was recruited by EBNA3C to enhance RASSF1A degradation. Moreover, EBNA3C decreased the transcriptional activity of RASSF1A promoter by enhancing its methylation through EBNA3C-mediated modulation of DNMTs expression. EBNA3C also inhibited RASSF1A-mediated cell apoptosis, disrupted RASSF1A-mediated microtubule and chromosomal stability, and promoted cell proliferation by upregulating Cyclin D1 and Cyclin E expression. Our data provides new details, which sheds light on additional mechanisms by which EBNA3C can induce B-cell transformation. This will also facilitate the development of novel therapeutic approaches through targeting of the RASSF1A pathway.

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<![CDATA[Identification of calnexin as a diacylglycerol acyltransferase-2 interacting protein]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c3d0124d5eed0c484038a83

Triacylglycerol synthesis is catalyzed by acyl CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase-2 (DGAT2). DGAT2 is an integral membrane protein that is localized to the endoplasmic reticulum and interacts with lipid droplets. Using BioId, a method to detect proximal and interacting proteins, we identified calnexin as a DGAT2-interacting protein. Co-immunoprecipitation and proximity ligation assays confirmed this finding. We found that calnexin-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts had reduced intracellular triacylglycerol levels and fewer large lipid droplets (>1.0 μm2 area). Despite the alterations in triacylglycerol metabolism, in vitro DGAT2 activity, localization and protein stability were not affected by the absence of calnexin.

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<![CDATA[Identification of transthyretin as a novel interacting partner for the δ subunit of GABAA receptors]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c3d014cd5eed0c48403a038

GABAA receptors (GABAA-Rs) play critical roles in brain development and synchronization of neural network activity. While synaptic GABAA-Rs can exert rapid inhibition, the extrasynaptic GABAA-Rs can tonically inhibit neuronal activity due to constant activation by ambient GABA. The δ subunit-containing GABAA-Rs are expressed abundantly in the cerebellum, hippocampus and thalamus to mediate the major tonic inhibition in the brain. While electrophysiological and pharmacological properties of the δ-GABAA-Rs have been well characterized, the molecular interacting partners of the δ-GABAA-Rs are not clearly defined. Here, using a yeast two-hybrid screening assay, we identified transthyretin (TTR) as a novel regulatory molecule for the δ-GABAA-Rs. Knockdown of TTR in cultured cerebellar granule neurons significantly decreased the δ receptor expression; whereas overexpressing TTR in cortical neurons increased the δ receptor expression. Electrophysiological analysis confirmed that knockdown or overexpression of TTR in cultured neurons resulted in a corresponding decrease or increase of tonic currents. Furthermore, in vivo analysis of TTR-/- mice revealed a significant decrease of the surface expression of the δ-GABAA-Rs in cerebellar granule neurons. Together, our studies identified TTR as a novel regulator of the δ-GABAA-Rs.

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<![CDATA[EspL is essential for virulence and stabilizes EspE, EspF and EspH levels in Mycobacterium tuberculosis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c25450fd5eed0c48442bdc9

The ESX-1, type VII, secretion system represents the major virulence determinant of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, one of the most successful intracellular pathogens. Here, by combining genetic and high-throughput approaches, we show that EspL, a protein of 115 amino acids, is essential for mediating ESX-1-dependent virulence and for stabilization of EspE, EspF and EspH protein levels. Indeed, an espL knock-out mutant was unable to replicate intracellularly, secrete ESX-1 substrates or stimulate innate cytokine production. Moreover, proteomic studies detected greatly reduced amounts of EspE, EspF and EspH in the espL mutant as compared to the wild type strain, suggesting a role for EspL as a chaperone. The latter conclusion was further supported by discovering that EspL interacts with EspD, which was previously demonstrated to stabilize the ESX-1 substrates and effector proteins, EspA and EspC. Loss of EspL also leads to downregulation in M. tuberculosis of WhiB6, a redox-sensitive transcriptional activator of ESX-1 genes. Overall, our data highlight the importance of a so-far overlooked, though conserved, component of the ESX-1 secretion system and begin to delineate the role played by EspE, EspF and EspH in virulence and host-pathogen interaction.

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