ResearchPad - preventive-medicine https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Barriers and facilitating factors in the prevention of diabetes type 2 and gestational diabetes in vulnerable groups: A scoping review]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13859 Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and gestational diabetes (GDM) are globally on the rise, accompanied by comorbidities and associated health costs. Increased physical activity, healthy nutrition, and weight loss have shown the potential to prevent T2DM/GDM. Despite this, reaching vulnerable groups remains a key challenge. The aim of this scoping review was to identify barriers and facilitating factors in the prevention of T2DM/GDM in vulnerable groups.MethodsWe conducted a systematic literature search in May 2018, updated in September 2019, in several databases (e.g. PubMed, Embase) to identify barriers and facilitating factors in the prevention of T2DM/GDM in vulnerable groups. Two reviewers independently screened the results. Extracted data was charted, categorized, and summarized.ResultsWe included 125 articles. Ninety-eight studies were extracted, and eight categories of barriers and facilitating factors were formed. The most common categories of barriers were limited knowledge, family/friends, and economic factors, and the most common categories of facilitating factors were family/friends, social support, and knowledge.ConclusionThis scoping review identified various barriers and facilitating factors in vulnerable groups. Preventive interventions should consider these barriers and facilitating factors in developing preventive interventions or in adapting existing ones. ]]> <![CDATA[Mortality estimates by age and sex among persons living with HIV after ART initiation in Zambia using electronic medical records supplemented with tracing a sample of lost patients: A cohort study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13858 Despite many studies demonstrating differences in HIV-related outcomes between men and women on antiretroviral therapy (ART) in sub-Saharan Africa, few studies use a probability sample that would enable them to offer regionally representative estimates.Many studies taken from routine service delivery settings are unable to account for outcomes among individuals lost to follow-up, which may threaten the validity of estimates comparing mortality in men and women.Furthermore, whether differences in survival between men and women vary across other important sociodemographic characteristics (such as age) remains underexplored.What did the researchers do and find?We used a multistage sampling approach to enumerate an analysis population of HIV-positive patients visiting public health facilities in 4 provinces in Zambia (Lusaka, Southern, Eastern, and Western).We estimated the association between sex and mortality overall and by age, adjusting for other sociodemographic and clinical characteristics.Of 49,129 adults newly initiating ART, the mortality rate was almost twice as high in men compared to women.Analysis of age-by-sex interactions revealed particularly elevated mortality among young males (as compared to females of the same age). While mortality rates appeared to fall with age among men, mortality rates rose with age among women, and by 50 years of age, women had a 2–3 times higher rate of death compared to women under 30.What do these findings mean?Among adults living with HIV in Zambia, men on average experience greater mortality compared to women, but this difference varies markedly by age, even after adjustment for other sociodemographic and clinical characteristics (e.g., baseline level of immunosuppression).Additional means of engaging and supporting younger men in HIV care is urgently needed and may include improved access to self-testing, use of financial incentives, and male-friendly services that feature flexible hours, an integrated multi-disease care model, and reduced visit frequency.Rising mortality associated with age in women greater than would be expected in the general population suggests that health services targeting women of reproductive age may be in part responsible for good clinical outcomes in younger women, but also highlights the need for specific programs to engage older women in care. ]]> <![CDATA[A model for the assessment of bluetongue virus serotype 1 persistence in Spain]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_11225 Bluetongue virus (BTV) is an arbovirus of ruminants that has been circulating in Europe continuously for more than two decades and has become endemic in some countries such as Spain. Spain is ideal for BTV epidemiological studies since BTV outbreaks from different sources and serotypes have occurred continuously there since 2000; BTV-1 has been reported there from 2007 to 2017. Here we develop a model for BTV-1 endemic scenario to estimate the risk of an area becoming endemic, as well as to identify the most influential factors for BTV-1 persistence. We created abundance maps at 1-km2 spatial resolution for the main vectors in Spain, Culicoides imicola and Obsoletus and Pulicaris complexes, by combining environmental satellite data with occurrence models and a random forest machine learning algorithm. The endemic model included vector abundance and host-related variables (farm density). The three most relevant variables in the endemic model were the abundance of C. imicola and Obsoletus complex and density of goat farms (AUC 0.86); this model suggests that BTV-1 is more likely to become endemic in central and southwestern regions of Spain. It only requires host- and vector-related variables to identify areas at greater risk of becoming endemic for bluetongue. Our results highlight the importance of suitable Culicoides spp. prediction maps for bluetongue epidemiological studies and decision-making about control and eradication measures.

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<![CDATA[Pooling individual participant data from randomized controlled trials: Exploring potential loss of information]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7838 Pooling individual participant data to enable pooled analyses is often complicated by diversity in variables across available datasets. Therefore, recoding original variables is often necessary to build a pooled dataset. We aimed to quantify how much information is lost in this process and to what extent this jeopardizes validity of analyses results.MethodsData were derived from a platform that was developed to pool data from three randomized controlled trials on the effect of treatment of cardiovascular risk factors on cognitive decline or dementia. We quantified loss of information using the R-squared of linear regression models with pooled variables as a function of their original variable(s). In case the R-squared was below 0.8, we additionally explored the potential impact of loss of information for future analyses. We did this second step by comparing whether the Beta coefficient of the predictor differed more than 10% when adding original or recoded variables as a confounder in a linear regression model. In a simulation we randomly sampled numbers, recoded those < = 1000 to 0 and those >1000 to 1 and varied the range of the continuous variable, the ratio of recoded zeroes to recoded ones, or both, and again extracted the R-squared from linear models to quantify information loss.ResultsThe R-squared was below 0.8 for 8 out of 91 recoded variables. In 4 cases this had a substantial impact on the regression models, particularly when a continuous variable was recoded into a discrete variable. Our simulation showed that the least information is lost when the ratio of recoded zeroes to ones is 1:1.ConclusionsLarge, pooled datasets provide great opportunities, justifying the efforts for data harmonization. Still, caution is warranted when using recoded variables which variance is explained limitedly by their original variables as this may jeopardize the validity of study results. ]]> <![CDATA[Inferring the immune response from repertoire sequencing]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7765 High-throughput immune repertoire sequencing (RepSeq) experiments are becoming a common way to study the diversity, structure and composition of lymphocyte repertoires, promising to yield unique insight into individuals’ past infection history. However, the analysis of these sequences remains challenging, especially when comparing two different temporal or tissue samples. Here we develop a new theoretical approach and methodology to extract the characteristics of the lymphocyte repertoire response from different samples. The method is specifically tailored to RepSeq experiments and accounts for the multiple sources of noise present in these experiments. Its output provides expansion parameters, as well as a list of potentially responding clonotypes. We apply the method to describe the response to yellow fever vaccine obtained from samples taken at different time points. We also use our results to estimate the diversity and clone size statistics from data.

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<![CDATA[Adherence to antiretroviral therapy and associated factors among Human immunodeficiency virus positive patients accessing treatment at Nekemte referral hospital, west Ethiopia, 2019]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7637 Antiretroviral therapy has a remarkable clinical effect in reducing the progress of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. The clinical outcome of Anti-Retroviral therapy depends on strict adherence. Poor adherence reduces the effectiveness of antiretroviral therapy and increases viral replication. With changes in service delivery over time and differences in socio-demographic status from region to region, it is essential to measure adherence. Therefore, this study aimed to assess adherence to antiretroviral therapy and its associated factors among HIV/AIDS patients accessing treatment at Nekemte referral hospital, West Ethiopia.MethodsInstitutional based cross-sectional study was conducted on 311 HIV/AIDS patients from March 01 to March 30, 2019. The study participants were selected by a simple random sampling method and interviewed using structured questionnaires. Bivariable logistic regression was conducted to find an association between each independent variable and adherence to antiretroviral medication. Multivariable logistic regression was used to find the independent variables which best predict adherence. The statistical significance was measured using odds ratio at a 95% confidence interval with a p-value of less than 0.05.ResultsOut of a total of 311 patients sampled, 305 were participated in the study, making a response rate of 98.07%. From these 305 study participants,73.1% (95% CI = 68.2, 78.0) were adherent to their medication. Having knowledge about HIV and its treatment (AOR = 8.24, 95% CI: 3.10, 21.92), having strong family/social support (AOR = 6.21, 95% CI: 1.39, 27.62), absence of adverse drug reaction (AOR = 5.33, 95% CI: 1.95, 14.57), absence of comorbidity of other chronic diseases (AOR = 5.72, 95% CI: 1.91, 17.16) and disclosing HIV status to the family (AOR = 5.08, 95% CI: 2.09, 12.34) were significantly associated with an increased likelihood of adherence to antiretroviral medication.ConclusionThe level of adherence to antiretroviral therapy was found low compared to WHO recommendation. The clinician should emphasize reducing adverse drug reaction, detecting and treating co-morbidities early, improving knowledge through health education, and encouraging the patients to disclose their HIV status to their families. ]]> <![CDATA[Frequent Hand Washing for COVID-19 Prevention Can Cause Hand Dermatitis: Management Tips]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N2f939939-8cff-4d8a-a82d-4a7d57746646 Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) continues to spread globally, outpacing the capacity and resources of health systems worldwide. A therapeutic vaccine is not yet on the rise, and preventive measures are the current approach to restraint the transmission of cases. As the virus is highly contagious via respiratory route (droplets from infected persons, widely spread by coughing or sneezing) and via contact with contaminated surfaces, community transmission and spread can be decreased through the practice of regular and diligent hand hygiene. Frequent hand washing implies a prolonged exposure to water and other chemical or physical agents and may induce several pathophysiologic changes, such as epidermal barrier disruption, impairment of keratinocytes, the subsequent release of proinflammatory cytokines, activation of the skin immune system, and delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions. Adverse dermatologic effects, such as excessive skin dryness or even contact dermatitis (particularly the irritant subtype and, to a lesser extent, the allergic subtype), can occur, especially in individuals with a history of atopic dermatitis. These skin conditions are perfectly manageable, and applying a moisturizer immediately after washing hands or after using a portable hand sanitizer is the cornerstone in preventing the development of eczematous changes in the hands. In the current global context, the potential occurrence of these dermatological adverse events should in no way cause people to deviate from strict hand hygiene rules.

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<![CDATA[Barriers to linking high-risk jail detainees to HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N6cdd8894-eb56-44cf-b406-5a297c3ac14c

Individuals involved in the criminal justice (CJ) system continue to be at disproportionate risk for HIV infection, and often have a greater prevalence of substance use and sexual related risk behaviors relative to their non-CJ involved peers. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), a once daily antiretroviral medicine, is an evidence-based approach for reducing the risk of contracting HIV but limited data exist regarding the use of PrEP among CJ populations, especially in the U.S. South. This study was conducted at the Pulaski County Regional Detention Facility (PCRDF) in Little Rock, Arkansas (AR), the largest county jail in the state. We explored knowledge about PrEP and HIV, perceptions about PrEP feasibility in both the jail and community settings and barriers to PrEP program implementation, through in-depth qualitative interviews with 21 jail detainees. We purposively sampled individuals based on specific self-reported risk behavior, including sexual risk (both heterosexual and same-sex) and drug related risk (e.g. IDU), among all eligible individuals. We identified five primary themes from the interviews: 1) accessing healthcare during community reentry was a low priority; 2) perception of risk and interaction with people with HIV was low; 3) there are many barriers to disclosing HIV risk behaviors in jail settings; 4) knowledge of PrEP is low but willingness to use is high; and 5) multiple barriers exist to PrEP uptake post-release. Our findings are contextually unique and therefore have important implications for future implementation of PrEP access either within jail settings or linkage to PrEP post release.

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<![CDATA[Feasibility of establishing an HIV vaccine preparedness cohort in a population of the Uganda Police Force: Lessons learnt from a prospective study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ne890bb8a-5661-4c39-82f7-6f40a2e69675

Background

Members of uniformed armed forces are considered to be at high risk for HIV infection and have been proposed as suitable candidates for participation in HIV intervention studies. We report on the feasibility of recruitment and follow up of individuals from the community of the Uganda Police Force (UPF) for an HIV vaccine preparedness study.

Methods

HIV-negative volunteers aged 18–49 years, were identified from UPF facilities situated in Kampala and Wakiso districts through community HIV counselling and testing. Potential volunteers were referred to the study clinic for screening, enrolment and quarterly visits for one year. HIV incidence, retention rates were estimated and expressed as cases per 100 person years of observation (PYO). Rate ratios were used to determine factors associated with retention using Poisson regression models.

Results

We screened 560 to enroll 500 volunteers between November 2015 and May 2016. One HIV seroconversion occurred among 431 PYO, for an incidence rate of 0.23/100 PYO (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.03–1.64). Overall, retention rate was 87% at one year, and this was independently associated with residence duration (compared to <1 year, 1 to 5 years adjusted rate ratio (aRR) = 1.19, 95%CI: 1.00–1.44); and >5 years aRR = 1.34, 95%CI: 0.95–1.37); absence of genital discharge in the last 3 months (aRR = 1.97, 95% CI: 1.38–2.83, absence of genital ulcers (aRR = 1.90, 95%CI: 1.26–2.87, reporting of new sexual partner in the last month (aRR = 0.57, 95%CI: 0.45–0.71, being away from home for more than two nights (aRR = 1.27, 95%CI: 1.04–1.56, compared to those who had not travelled) and absence of knowledge on HIV prevention (aRR = 2.67, 95%CI: 1.62–4.39).

Conclusions

While our study demonstrates the feasibility of recruiting and retaining individuals from the UPF for HIV research, we did observe lower than anticipated HIV incidence, perhaps because individuals at lower risk of HIV infection may have been the first to come forward to participate or participants followed HIV risk reduction measures. Our findings suggest lessons for recruitment of populations at high risk of HIV infection.

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<![CDATA[“It is always better for a man to know his HIV status” – A qualitative study exploring the context, barriers and facilitators of HIV testing among men in Nairobi, Kenya]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N633bb09e-858a-4016-b37a-13e5d588b21f

HIV testing services are an important component of HIV program and provide an entry point for clinical care for persons newly diagnosed with HIV. Although uptake of HIV testing has increased in Kenya, men are still less likely than women to get tested and access services. There is, however, limited understanding of the context, barriers and facilitators of HIV testing among men in the country. Data are from in-depth interviews with 30 men living with HIV and 8 HIV testing counsellors that were conducted to gain insights on motivations and drivers for HIV testing among men in the city of Nairobi. Men were identified retroactively by examining clinical CD4 registers on early and late diagnosis (e.g. CD4 of ≥500 cells/mm, early diagnosis and <500 cells/mm, late diagnosis). Analysis involved identifying broad themes and generating descriptive codes and categories. Timing for early testing is linked with strong social support systems and agency to test, while cost of testing, choice of facility to test and weak social support systems (especially poor inter-partner relations) resulted in late testing. Minimal discussions occurred prior to testing and whenever there was dialogue it happened with partners or other close relatives. Interrelated barriers at individual, health-care system, and interpersonal levels hindered access to testing services. Specifically, barriers to testing included perceived providers attitudes, facility location and set up, wait time/inconvenient clinic times, low perception of risk, limited HIV knowled ge, stigma, discrimination and fear of having a test. High risk perception, severe illness, awareness of partner’s status, confidentiality, quality of services and supplies, flexible/extended opening hours, and pre–and post–test counselling were facilitators. Experiences between early and late testers overlapped though there were minor differences. In order to achieve the desired impact nationally and to attain the 90-90-90 targets, multiple interventions addressing both barriers and facilitators to testing are needed to increase uptake of testing and to link the positive to care.

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<![CDATA[Changes in Subway Ridership in Response to COVID-19 in Seoul, South Korea: Implications for Social Distancing]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nb0d55967-e944-43a2-81ef-22514e4f6df8

Introduction

While numerous episodes of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection and subsequent government announcements in South Korea were accompanied by widespread social distancing efforts by the people, it is unclear whether these episodes and government announcements were actually influential in improving social distancing, or whether the level of response among different demographic groups varied.

Methods

Data were downloaded from Seoul Data Open Plaza, and changes in the number of passengers on the Seoul Metropolitan Subway network between January 1, 2020, and March 31, 2020, were used to assess the extent to which people in Seoul practiced social distancing. Five events regarding COVID-19 that received wide public attention between January and March 2020 were identified and the changes in the number of passengers before and after each event were analyzed. Also, similar analyses were performed for 16 stations that were specific in either the age or purpose of the visit of the passengers.

Results

Compared to the third week of January 2020 (January 13-19), the mean daily number of passengers in all stations decreased by 2,984,857.4 or 40.6% by the first week of March (March 2-8). The percentage decrease in individual stations between this period was not significantly different between “young” and “old” stations (46.3% vs. 49.2%; p = 0.551) but was significantly smaller in “work” stations than in “leisure” stations (36.2% vs. 51.6%; p = 0.021). Of the five events, the first reported death due to COVID-19 in South Korea and the identification of a mass infection cluster in Daegu on February 20 were accompanied by the greatest decrease of the mean daily number of passengers (1,352,153.3 or 20.8%), while the first mass infection in Seoul on March 10 and the announcement of aggressive social distancing campaign on March 22 were accompanied by an increase in the number of passengers.

Conclusions

The number of subway passengers in Seoul decreased markedly during late February but slowly increased afterward, suggesting decreasing levels of risk perception and adherence to social distancing. Understanding the differing patterns of subway use by age or purpose of the visit may guide policymakers and the general public in shaping their future response to the current pandemic.

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<![CDATA[Global Trends and Forecast of the Burden of Adverse Effects of Medical Treatment: Epidemiological Analysis Based on the Global Burden of Disease Study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N07449161-3236-454a-80ff-30548dc37f38

Aim

To quantify and update the years of life lost (YLL), years lived with disability (YLD) and disability-adjusted life years (DALY) due to the adverse effects of medical treatment (AEMT) between 1990 and 2017.

Subject and methods

We analyzed the latest dataset from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2017 study. We described the burden of AEMT based on the number of DALY. We additionally evaluated the global age and sex-specific DALY and compared the age-standardized rates of DALY across the World Health Organization (WHO) regions from 1990 to 2017.

Results

Worldwide, the total DALYs due to AEMT were 84.93 [95% uncertainty interval (UI), 62.52 to 102.21] in 1990 and 62.79 (52.09 to 75.45) in 2017 per 100,000 population. The global percentage of change in DALY showed a negative trend of −26.06 % (−41.52 to −10.59) across all WHO regions between 1990 and 2017. The YLD has increased during the period from 1997 to 2017 by 29.47% (17.87 to 41.06). In 2017, men were affected more than women with a DALY of 66.78 in comparison to 58.91 DALY in women. DALY rates per 100,000 were highest across all the WHO regions in the first years of life. The predicted DALY rates were 59.92 (57.52 to 62.32) in the year 2020, 50.36 (32.03 to 68.70) in 2030, and 40.8 (−1.33 to 82.93) in 2040.

Conclusion

Using the GBD 2017 study data, we found a decrease in the DALY rate due to AEMT between 1990 and 2017 with a varying range of DALY between different WHO regions. DALY also differed by age and sex. The forecasting analyses showed a decrease in DALY due to AEMTs with a significant drop in the European region when compared to the African and American regions. However, the increasing trend for YLD signifies an increasing burden of people living with poor health due to AEMT. Our study proposes to identify disability due to AEMT as a significant public health crisis and calls for policymakers to create a robust revised policy.

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<![CDATA[Global Incidence and Mortality Trends due to Adverse Effects of Medical Treatment, 1990–2017: A Systematic Analysis from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries and Risk Factors Study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ndf7599f1-3475-4c0a-be3b-71d00c40e2a6

Aim

To quantify the global incidence and mortality of adverse effects of medical treatment (AEMT) and forecast the possible emerging trends of AEMT.

Materials and methods

We analyzed the latest data from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2017 study. We describe the burden of AEMT based on age- and region-specific incidence and mortality rates between 1990 and 2017. Additionally, we evaluated the change of burden due to AEMT by different periods between 1990 and 2017, and compared the age-standardized incidence and mortality rates among different World Health Organization (WHO) regions.

Results

Globally, AEMT incidence rates varied across WHO regions and countries. The estimated age-standardized average incidence rates of AEMT were 309 [95% uncertainty interval (UI), 270 to 351], 340 (298 to 384), 401 (348 to 458), and 439 (376 to 505) per 100,000 population across the world in 1990, 2000, 2010, and 2017, respectively, showing an increasing trend in the new occurrence of adverse events. The incidence rate among women (469/100,000) was higher compared to men (409/100,000) in 2017. Between 1990 and 2017, we observed an upward trend in the incidence rates of AEMT across global regions, with a substantial increase in the incidence by 42% (27 to 57) between the years 1990 and 2017, translated to an annualized rate of incline of 1.5%. In the age group of 60-64 years, the incidence rates increased by 96% in 2017 compared to 1990. The global incidence rate due to AEMT is forecasted to increase to 446.94 (433.65 to 460.22) by 2020, 478.49 (376.88 to 580.09) in 2030, and to reach 510.03 (276.58 to 743.49) per 100,000 by 2040. We observed a decline in mortality rates due to AEMT across global regions, and the annualized rate of mortality change was -0.90 percentage points between 1990 and 2017. Overall, the AEMT mortality rate was higher in men (1.73/100,000) than in women (1.48/100,000), and age-specific mortality rates showed a bimodal increase between the age group of birth to one year, and an increase in the age group of 65 years and above. The global mortality rate due to AEMT is expected to be 1.55 (1.48 to 1.61) in 2020, 1.37 (0.88 to 1.86 ) in 2030 and 1.2 deaths per 100,000 (0.08 to 2.32) by 2040.

Conclusion

Using the GBD 2017 study data, we found an increase in the incidence of AEMT, and an overall decrease in the mortality rate between 1990 and 2017, with varying estimates between different countries and regions, gender and age groups. The forecast analysis displayed the same trends - an increase in AEMT incidence and a decline in mortality between 2020 and 2040. The high burden of AEMT warrants the implementation of robust policies in the healthcare system including appropriate patient safety training for the healthcare professionals, and safe culture of feedback with the implementation of electronic medical records to achieve WHO patient safety strategy goals.

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<![CDATA[Self-reported Morisky Eight-item Medication Adherence Scale for Statins Concords with the Pill Count Method and Correlates with Serum Lipid Profile Parameters and Serum HMGCoA Reductase Levels]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N12b8e9de-a11e-42a2-9efa-961878e89387

Background

It is imperative that non-compliance with statins be identified and addressed to maximize their clinical benefits. Patient self-reporting methods are convenient to apply in clinical practice but need to be validated.

Objective

We studied the concordance of a patient self-report method, Morisky eight-item medication adherence scale (MMAS)), with the pill count method in measuring adherence with statins and their correlation with extended lipid profile parameters and serum hydroxyl-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGCoA-R) enzyme levels.

Methods

MMAS and the pill count method were used to measure the adherence with statins in patients on statins for any duration. Patients were subjected to an estimation of extended lipid profile and serum HMGCoA-R levels at the end of three months follow-up.

Results

Out of a total of 200 patients included in the study, 117 patients had a low adherence (score less than 6 on MMAS) whereas 65 and 18 patients had medium (score 6 or 7) and high adherence (score of 8), respectively. The majority of patients who had low adherence to statins by MMAS were nonadherent by the pill count method yielding a concordance of 96.5%. Medium or high adherence to statins by the MMAS method had a concordance of 89.1% with the pill count method. The levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, apolipoprotein B, and HMGCoA-R were negatively correlated with compliance measured by pill count and MMAS in a statistically significant way and with similar correlation coefficients. HMGCoA-R levels demonstrated a plateau phenomenon, with levels being 9-10 ng/ml when compliance with statin therapy was greater than 60% by pill count and greater than 6 on the Morisky scale.

Conclusion

In conclusion, MMAS and the pill count method showed concordance in measuring adherence to statins. These methods need to be explored further for their interchangeability as surrogates for biomarker levels.

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<![CDATA[Interventions for Increasing the Quality of Preventive Care at a Free Clinic]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nd9784a8a-5bab-4b1f-b748-3b9dc8ad4364

A quality improvement committee targeted six clinically meaningful measures in order to determine which interventions improved preventative care in a free clinic as well as to qualify for certification as a Patient-Centered Medical Home. Four quality improvement interventions were designed and implemented. The outcomes of these interventions were compared with the national average performance and the Center for Disease Control's Healthy People 2020 goals. All outcomes measured exceeded the national averages, and five out of six outcomes were above the Healthy People 2020 goals. The approach outlined may be used by other free clinics aiming to provide quality preventive care for their patient population and to help obtain Patient-Centered Medical Home certifications.

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<![CDATA[Evaluation of liposomal ciprofloxacin formulations in a murine model of anthrax]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ne17111d7-5152-4c88-81b1-0e84a1b58e42

The in vivo efficacy of liposomal encapsulated ciprofloxacin in two formulations, lipoquin and apulmiq, were evaluated against the causative agent of anthrax, Bacillus anthracis. Liposomal encapsulated ciprofloxacin is attractive as a therapy since it allows for once daily dosing and achieves higher concentrations of the antibiotic at the site of initial mucosal entry but lower systemic drug concentrations. The in vivo efficacy of lipoquin and apulmiq delivered by intranasal instillation was studied at different doses and schedules in both a post exposure prophylaxis (PEP) therapy model and in a delayed treatment model of murine inhalational anthrax. In the mouse model of infection, the survival curves for all treatment cohorts differed significantly from the vehicle control. Ciprofloxacin, lipoquin and apulmiq provided a high level of protection (87–90%) after 7 days of therapy when administered within 24 hours of exposure. Reducing therapy to only three days still provided protection of 60–87%, if therapy was provided within 24 hours of exposure. If treatment was initiated 48 hours after exposure the survival rate was reduced to 46–65%. These studies suggest that lipoquin and apulmiq may be attractive therapies as PEP and as part of a treatment cocktail for B. anthracis.

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<![CDATA[Prevalence and Risk Factors for Microalbuminuria in Children with Sickle Cell Disease at King Abdulaziz University Hospital: A Retrospective Cross-sectional Study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ne9681fc9-5521-4fd6-bd4e-ed3a43831b68

Objectives: Previous studies have not addressed microalbuminuria in pediatric patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of microalbuminuria and to identify associated risk factors in children with SCD at King Abdulaziz University Hospital.

Results: Overall, 42.5% of the patients enrolled were Saudi Arabian and 51% were male. The mean age was 12.4 years, and the highest percentage (40%) was in the age group of 15-18 years. The prevalence of microalbuminuria was 9.6%, and hematuria was present in 8% of cases. The percentage of patients with hematuria was significantly higher in the microalbuminuria group (22.6%) than in the nonmicroalbuminuria group (6.5%; P = 0.007). The percentage of patients with acute chest syndrome was also higher in the microalbuminuria group (26%) than in the nonmicroalbuminuria group (8%; P = 0.005). The percentage of patients with gallbladder stones was higher in the microalbuminuria group (13%) than in the nonmicroalbuminuria group (2.4%; P = 0.014). However, the mean number of blood transfusions was higher in the nonmicroalbuminuria group than in the microalbuminuria group (P = 0.002). Sickle cell nephropathy manifests as microalbuminuria, begins at an early age, occurs in all types of SCD, and is associated with disease severity.

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<![CDATA[A Study to Assess the Factors Affecting Adherence to Exercise in the Indian Population]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ncef85142-be95-4e9c-9e54-d6626a497480

Introduction

As proven by many previous studies, physical inactivity is associated with many diseases, including heart conditions and cancer. The elimination of physical inactivity helps increase life expectancy and reduce morbidity. Nonadherence to exercise is a common problem faced by many people. The goal of this study was to determine the percentage of people in the Indian population who regularly exercise. We also assessed factors for nonadherence, motivating factors, and the intensity of exercise usually performed and explored any association between adherence to exercise and demographic factors.

Materials and methods

We conducted an anonymous questionnaire-based, cross-sectional study in an adult Indian population (participants were older than 18 years) from rural and urban areas having no contraindication to at least some form of voluntary exercise. Data were collected via email by sending a questionnaire, and an appropriate statistical methodology was used to derive the results.

Results

This study included 220 individuals older than 18 years, and most participants were aged 25 to 30 years (35.5%). Most participants (67.3%) were women, and 32.7% were men. Forty-one percent of the total population reported suffering from some medical condition. Nearly half (51.8%) of the subjects were involved in physical activity, and 48.2% were not involved in physical activity. The most common reason for not exercising was a lack of time followed by a lack of motivation. Maintenance of good health was the main reported benefit of physical exercise, with self-motivation being the main motivator. Low-intensity exercise was the preferred form of exercise for most of the participants; high-intensity exercise was preferred by younger participants, though less commonly than low-intensity exercise. Older participants (i.e., those aged > 40 years) preferred moderate-intensity exercise. Only half the study population were educated regarding physical activity by a healthcare professional. We found no statistically significant association between the presence of a medical condition, body mass index (BMI), or healthcare education and adherence to exercise.

Conclusion

The inclusion of exercise in a daily routine is one of the more important lifestyle changes advised for all ailments and for improvements in patient quality of life. Nearly half the Indian population does not exercise daily. Because we found no statistical significance between demographic factors, health conditions, BMI, or general healthcare education, an individualized education and exercise plan may help improve exercise adherence.

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<![CDATA[Diphenoxylate-atropine (Lomotil) Toxicity in Infantile Diarrhea: A Case Report of Therapeutic Failure]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N7c61c3ae-3dc2-458a-92ce-33b3d74f6425

Diphenoxylate-atropine (Lomotil) intoxication incidence was significantly high in the past, but seeing such cases in the present day of modern and advanced medicine, hints about the gaps in the practice of medicine. In our case, a general physician maltreated an infant for diarrhea with an adult dose of diphenoxylate-atropine (Lomotil), a Food and Drug Administration (FDA) unapproved drug, which caused labored breathing and pinpoint pupils. After being maltreated, at the time of presentation to the emergency room (ER), she was being misdiagnosed as a case of dehydration until doctors noticed miosis and reached the diagnosis of diphenoxylate-atropine (Lomotil) toxicity. Her condition completely reversed with a single dose of naloxone. Hence, this case highlights the need for basic knowledge about the dosage of drugs for different age groups, especially infants, along with the importance of adherence to the evaluation protocols for accurate management.

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<![CDATA[Projections of Ebola outbreak size and duration with and without vaccine use in Équateur, Democratic Republic of Congo, as of May 27, 2018]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c8accd5d5eed0c4849900f7

As of May 27, 2018, 6 suspected, 13 probable and 35 confirmed cases of Ebola virus disease (EVD) had been reported in Équateur Province, Democratic Republic of Congo. We used reported case counts and time series from prior outbreaks to estimate the total outbreak size and duration with and without vaccine use. We modeled Ebola virus transmission using a stochastic branching process model that included reproduction numbers from past Ebola outbreaks and a particle filtering method to generate a probabilistic projection of the outbreak size and duration conditioned on its reported trajectory to date; modeled using high (62%), low (44%), and zero (0%) estimates of vaccination coverage (after deployment). Additionally, we used the time series for 18 prior Ebola outbreaks from 1976 to 2016 to parameterize the Thiel-Sen regression model predicting the outbreak size from the number of observed cases from April 4 to May 27. We used these techniques on probable and confirmed case counts with and without inclusion of suspected cases. Probabilistic projections were scored against the actual outbreak size of 54 EVD cases, using a log-likelihood score. With the stochastic model, using high, low, and zero estimates of vaccination coverage, the median outbreak sizes for probable and confirmed cases were 82 cases (95% prediction interval [PI]: 55, 156), 104 cases (95% PI: 58, 271), and 213 cases (95% PI: 64, 1450), respectively. With the Thiel-Sen regression model, the median outbreak size was estimated to be 65.0 probable and confirmed cases (95% PI: 48.8, 119.7). Among our three mathematical models, the stochastic model with suspected cases and high vaccine coverage predicted total outbreak sizes closest to the true outcome. Relatively simple mathematical models updated in real time may inform outbreak response teams with projections of total outbreak size and duration.

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