ResearchPad - protein-structure https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Sequence-structure-function relationships in class I MHC: A local frustration perspective]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_15751 Class I Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) binds short antigenic peptides with the help of Peptide Loading Complex (PLC), and presents them to T-cell Receptors (TCRs) of cytotoxic T-cells and Killer-cell Immunglobulin-like Receptors (KIRs) of Natural Killer (NK) cells. With more than 10000 alleles, human MHC (Human Leukocyte Antigen, HLA) is the most polymorphic protein in humans. This allelic diversity provides a wide coverage of peptide sequence space, yet does not affect the three-dimensional structure of the complex. Moreover, TCRs mostly interact with HLA in a common diagonal binding mode, and KIR-HLA interaction is allele-dependent. With the aim of establishing a framework for understanding the relationships between polymorphism (sequence), structure (conserved fold) and function (protein interactions) of the human MHC, we performed here a local frustration analysis on pMHC homology models covering 1436 HLA I alleles. An analysis of local frustration profiles indicated that (1) variations in MHC fold are unlikely due to minimally-frustrated and relatively conserved residues within the HLA peptide-binding groove, (2) high frustration patches on HLA helices are either involved in or near interaction sites of MHC with the TCR, KIR, or tapasin of the PLC, and (3) peptide ligands mainly stabilize the F-pocket of HLA binding groove.

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<![CDATA[NMR resonance assignment and structure prediction of the C-terminal domain of the microtubule end-binding protein 3]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_15736 End-binding proteins (EBs) associate with the growing microtubule plus ends to regulate microtubule dynamics as well as the interaction with intracellular structures. EB3 contributes to pathological vascular leakage through interacting with the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor 3 (IP3R3), a calcium channel located at the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. The C-terminal domain of EB3 (residues 200–281) is functionally important for this interaction because it contains the effector binding sites, a prerequisite for EB3 activity and specificity. Structural data for this domain is limited. Here, we report the backbone chemical shift assignments for the human EB3 C-terminal domain and computationally explore its EB3 conformations. Backbone assignments, along with computational models, will allow future investigation of EB3 structural dynamics, interactions with effectors, and will facilitate the development of novel EB3 inhibitors.

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<![CDATA[Insight into the protein solubility driving forces with neural attention]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13832 The solubility of proteins is a crucial biophysical aspect when it comes to understanding many human diseases and to improve the industrial processes for protein production. Due to its relevance, computational methods have been devised in order to study and possibly optimize the solubility of proteins. In this work we apply a deep-learning technique, called neural attention to predict protein solubility while “opening” the model itself to interpretability, even though Machine Learning models are usually considered black boxes. Thank to the attention mechanism, we show that i) our model implicitly learns complex patterns related to emergent, protein folding-related, aspects such as to recognize β-amyloidosis regions and that ii) the N-and C-termini are the regions with the highes signal fro solubility prediction. When it comes to enhancing the solubility of proteins, we, for the first time, propose to investigate the synergistic effects of tandem mutations instead of “single” mutations, suggesting that this could minimize the number of required proposed mutations.

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<![CDATA[Physicochemical and biological evaluation of JR-131 as a biosimilar to a long-acting erythropoiesis-stimulating agent darbepoetin alfa]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Na789b0ff-1b14-409c-afa6-0c7a70fc7c42

Renal anemia is predominantly caused by a relative deficiency in erythropoietin (EPO). Conventional treatment for renal anemia includes the use of recombinant human EPO (rhEPO) or a long-acting erythropoiesis-activating agent named darbepoetin alfa, which is a modified rhEPO with a carbohydrate chain structure that differs from native hEPO. We have developed a biosimilar to darbepoetin alfa designated JR-131. Here, we comprehensively compare the physicochemical and biological characteristics of JR-131 to darbepoetin alfa. JR-131 demonstrated similar protein structure to the originator, darbepoetin alfa, by peptide mapping and circular dichroism spectroscopy. Additionally, mass spectroscopic analyses and capillary zone electrophoresis revealed similar glycosylation patterns between the two products. Human bone marrow-derived erythroblasts differentiated and proliferated to form colonies with JR-131 to a similar degree as darbepoetin alfa. Finally, JR-131 stimulated erythropoiesis and improved anemia in rats similarly to darbepoetin alfa. Our data show the similarity in physicochemical and biological properties of JR-131 to those of darbepoetin alfa, and JR-131 therefore represents a biosimilar for use in the treatment of renal anemia.

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<![CDATA[Protein secondary structure determines the temporal relationship between folding and disulfide formation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N26a40ca1-ab06-47e4-b6dd-ca30f514766d

How and when disulfide bonds form in proteins relative to the stage of their folding is a fundamental question in cell biology. Two models describe this relationship: the folded precursor model, in which a nascent structure forms before disulfides do, and the quasi-stochastic model, where disulfides form prior to folding. Here we investigated oxidative folding of three structurally diverse substrates, β2-microglobulin, prolactin, and the disintegrin domain of ADAM metallopeptidase domain 10 (ADAM10), to understand how these mechanisms apply in a cellular context. We used a eukaryotic cell-free translation system in which we could identify disulfide isomers in stalled translation intermediates to characterize the timing of disulfide formation relative to translocation into the endoplasmic reticulum and the presence of non-native disulfides. Our results indicate that in a domain lacking secondary structure, disulfides form before conformational folding through a process prone to nonnative disulfide formation, whereas in proteins with defined secondary structure, native disulfide formation occurs after partial folding. These findings reveal that the nascent protein structure promotes correct disulfide formation during cotranslational folding.

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<![CDATA[Single-residue physicochemical characteristics kinetically partition membrane protein self-assembly and aggregation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N4a035fc0-5136-4c33-9cae-c1819cd6a0fb

Ninety-five percent of all transmembrane proteins exist in kinetically trapped aggregation-prone states that have been directly linked to neurodegenerative diseases. Interestingly, the primary sequence almost invariably avoids off-pathway aggregate formation, by folding reliably into its native, thermodynamically stabilized structure. However, with the rising incidence of protein aggregation diseases, it is now important to understand the underlying mechanism(s) of membrane protein aggregation. Micromolecular physicochemical and biochemical alterations in the primary sequence that trigger the formation of macromolecular cross-β aggregates can be measured only through combinatorial spectroscopic experiments. Here, we developed spectroscopic thermal perturbation with 117 experimental variables to assess how subtle protein sequence variations drive the molecular transition of the folded protein to oligomeric aggregates. Using the Yersinia pestis outer transmembrane β-barrel Ail as a model, we delineated how a single-residue substitution that alters the membrane-anchoring ability of Ail significantly contributes to the kinetic component of Ail stability. We additionally observed a stabilizing role for interface aliphatics, and that interface aromatics physicochemically contribute to Ail self-assembly and aggregation. Moreover, our method identified the formation of structured oligomeric intermediates during Ail aggregation. We show that the self-aggregation tendency of Ail is offset by the evolution of a thermodynamically compromised primary sequence that balances folding, stability, and oligomerization. Our approach provides critical information on how subtle changes in protein primary sequence trigger cross-β fibril formation, with insights that have direct implications for deducing the molecular progression of neurodegeneration and amyloidogenesis in humans.

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<![CDATA[BioJava 5: A community driven open-source bioinformatics library]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6730bad5eed0c484f37fa8

BioJava is an open-source project that provides a Java library for processing biological data. The project aims to simplify bioinformatic analyses by implementing parsers, data structures, and algorithms for common tasks in genomics, structural biology, ontologies, phylogenetics, and more. Since 2012, we have released two major versions of the library (4 and 5) that include many new features to tackle challenges with increasingly complex macromolecular structure data. BioJava requires Java 8 or higher and is freely available under the LGPL 2.1 license. The project is hosted on GitHub at https://github.com/biojava/biojava. More information and documentation can be found online on the BioJava website (http://www.biojava.org) and tutorial (https://github.com/biojava/biojava-tutorial). All inquiries should be directed to the GitHub page or the BioJava mailing list (http://lists.open-bio.org/mailman/listinfo/biojava-l).

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<![CDATA[S100A4 inhibits cell proliferation by interfering with the S100A1-RAGE V domain]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c75ac75d5eed0c484d087e3

The Ca2+-dependent human S100A4 (Mts1) protein is part of the S100 family. Here, we studied the interactions of S100A4 with S100A1 using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. We used the chemical shift perturbed residues from HSQC to model S100A4 and S100A1 complex with HADDOCK software. We observed that S100A1 and the RAGE V domain have an analogous binding area in S100A4. We discovered that S100A4 acts as an antagonist among the RAGE V domain and S100A1, which inhibits tumorigenesis and cell proliferation. We used a WST-1 assay to examine the bioactivity of S100A1 and S100A4. This study could possibly be beneficial for evaluating new proteins for the treatment of diseases.

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<![CDATA[DeepDrug3D: Classification of ligand-binding pockets in proteins with a convolutional neural network]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c61e8ebd5eed0c48496f3ee

Comprehensive characterization of ligand-binding sites is invaluable to infer molecular functions of hypothetical proteins, trace evolutionary relationships between proteins, engineer enzymes to achieve a desired substrate specificity, and develop drugs with improved selectivity profiles. These research efforts pose significant challenges owing to the fact that similar pockets are commonly observed across different folds, leading to the high degree of promiscuity of ligand-protein interactions at the system-level. On that account, novel algorithms to accurately classify binding sites are needed. Deep learning is attracting a significant attention due to its successful applications in a wide range of disciplines. In this communication, we present DeepDrug3D, a new approach to characterize and classify binding pockets in proteins with deep learning. It employs a state-of-the-art convolutional neural network in which biomolecular structures are represented as voxels assigned interaction energy-based attributes. The current implementation of DeepDrug3D, trained to detect and classify nucleotide- and heme-binding sites, not only achieves a high accuracy of 95%, but also has the ability to generalize to unseen data as demonstrated for steroid-binding proteins and peptidase enzymes. Interestingly, the analysis of strongly discriminative regions of binding pockets reveals that this high classification accuracy arises from learning the patterns of specific molecular interactions, such as hydrogen bonds, aromatic and hydrophobic contacts. DeepDrug3D is available as an open-source program at https://github.com/pulimeng/DeepDrug3D with the accompanying TOUGH-C1 benchmarking dataset accessible from https://osf.io/enz69/.

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<![CDATA[On the influence of cannabinoids on cell morphology and motility of glioblastoma cells]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6c75a3d5eed0c4843cff4f

The mechanisms behind the anti-tumoral effects of cannabinoids by impacting the migratory activity of tumor cells are only partially understood. Previous studies demonstrated that cannabinoids altered the organization of the actin cytoskeleton in various cell types. As actin is one of the main contributors to cell motility and is postulated to be linked to tumor invasion, we tested the following hypothesizes: 1) Can cannabinoids alter cell motility in a cannabinoid receptor dependent manner? 2) Are these alterations associated with reorganizations in the actin cytoskeleton? 3) If so, what are the underlying molecular mechanisms? Three different glioblastoma cell lines were treated with specific cannabinoid receptor 1 and 2 agonists and antagonists. Afterwards, we measured changes in cell motility using live cell imaging and alterations of the actin structure in fixed cells. Additionally, the protein amount of phosphorylated p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), focal adhesion kinases (FAK) and phosphorylated FAK (pFAK) over time were measured. Cannabinoids induced changes in cell motility, morphology and actin organization in a receptor and cell line dependent manner. No significant changes were observed in the analyzed signaling molecules. Cannabinoids can principally induce changes in the actin cytoskeleton and motility of glioblastoma cell lines. Additionally, single cell motility of glioblastoma is independent of their morphology. Furthermore, the observed effects seem to be independent of p44/42 MAPK and pFAK pathways.

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<![CDATA[Biophysical and structural characterization of a zinc-responsive repressor of the MarR superfamily]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6c75e4d5eed0c4843d0401

The uptake of zinc, which is vital in trace amounts, is tightly controlled in bacteria. For this control, bacteria of the Streptococcaceae group use a Zn(II)-binding repressor named ZitR in lactococci and AdcR in streptococci, while other bacteria use a Zur protein of the Ferric uptake regulator (Fur) superfamily. ZitR and AdcR proteins, characterized by a winged helix-turn-helix DNA-binding domain, belong to the multiple antibiotic resistance (MarR) superfamily, where they form a specific group of metallo-regulators. Here, one such Zn(II)-responsive repressor, ZitR of Lactococcus lactis subspecies cremoris strain MG1363, is characterized. Size Exclusion Chromatography-coupled to Multi Angle Light Scattering, Circular Dichroism and Isothermal Titration Calorimetry show that purified ZitR is a stable dimer complexed to Zn(II), which is able to bind its two palindromic operator sites on DNA fragments. The crystal structure of ZitR holo-form (Zn(II)4-ZitR2), has been determined at 2.8 Å resolution. ZitR is the fourth member of the MarR metallo-regulator subgroup whose structure has been determined. The folding of ZitR/AdcR metallo-proteins is highly conserved between both subspecies (cremoris or lactis) in the Lactococcus lactis species and between species (Lactococcus lactis and Streptococcus pneumoniae or pyogenes) in the Streptococcaceae group. It is also similar to the folding of other MarR members, especially in the DNA-binding domain. Our study contributes to better understand the biochemical and structural properties of metallo-regulators in the MarR superfamily.

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<![CDATA[A combined computational strategy of sequence and structural analysis predicts the existence of a functional eicosanoid pathway in Drosophila melanogaster]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6c7583d5eed0c4843cfe40

This study reports on a putative eicosanoid biosynthesis pathway in Drosophila melanogaster and challenges the currently held view that mechanistic routes to synthesize eicosanoid or eicosanoid-like biolipids do not exist in insects, since to date, putative fly homologs of most mammalian enzymes have not been identified. Here we use systematic and comprehensive bioinformatics approaches to identify most of the mammalian eicosanoid synthesis enzymes. Sensitive sequence analysis techniques identified candidate Drosophila enzymes that share low global sequence identities with their human counterparts. Twenty Drosophila candidates were selected based upon (a) sequence identity with human enzymes of the cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase branches, (b) similar domain architecture and structural conservation of the catalytic domain, and (c) presence of potentially equivalent functional residues. Evaluation of full-length structural models for these 20 top-scoring Drosophila candidates revealed a surprising degree of conservation in their overall folds and potential analogs for functional residues in all 20 enzymes. Although we were unable to identify any suitable candidate for lipoxygenase enzymes, we report structural homology models of three fly cyclooxygenases. Our findings predict that the D. melanogaster genome likely codes for one or more pathways for eicosanoid or eicosanoid-like biolipid synthesis. Our study suggests that classical and/or novel eicosanoids mediators must regulate biological functions in insects–predictions that can be tested with the power of Drosophila genetics. Such experimental analysis of eicosanoid biology in a simple model organism will have high relevance to human development and health.

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<![CDATA[Weighted lambda superstrings applied to vaccine design]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6730d9d5eed0c484f38214

We generalize the notion of λ-superstrings, presented in a previous paper, to the notion of weighted λ-superstrings. This generalization entails an important improvement in the applications to vaccine designs, as it allows epitopes to be weighted by their immunogenicities. Motivated by these potential applications of constructing short weighted λ-superstrings to vaccine design, we approach this problem in two ways. First, we formalize the problem as a combinatorial optimization problem (in fact, as two polynomially equivalent problems) and develop an integer programming (IP) formulation for solving it optimally. Second, we describe a model that also takes into account good pairwise alignments of the obtained superstring with the input strings, and present a genetic algorithm that solves the problem approximately. We apply both algorithms to a set of 169 strings corresponding to the Nef protein taken from patiens infected with HIV-1. In the IP-based algorithm, we take the epitopes and the estimation of the immunogenicities from databases of experimental epitopes. In the genetic algorithm we take as candidate epitopes all 9-mers present in the 169 strings and estimate their immunogenicities using a public bioinformatics tool. Finally, we used several bioinformatic tools to evaluate the properties of the candidates generated by our method, which indicated that we can score high immunogenic λ-superstrings that at the same time present similar conformations to the Nef virus proteins.

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<![CDATA[Inhibition of the Staphylococcus aureus c-di-AMP cyclase DacA by direct interaction with the phosphoglucosamine mutase GlmM]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c50c481d5eed0c4845e8843

c-di-AMP is an important second messenger molecule that plays a pivotal role in regulating fundamental cellular processes, including osmotic and cell wall homeostasis in many Gram-positive organisms. In the opportunistic human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus, c-di-AMP is produced by the membrane-anchored DacA enzyme. Inactivation of this enzyme leads to a growth arrest under standard laboratory growth conditions and a re-sensitization of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains to ß-lactam antibiotics. The gene coding for DacA is part of the conserved three-gene dacA/ybbR/glmM operon that also encodes the proposed DacA regulator YbbR and the essential phosphoglucosamine mutase GlmM, which is required for the production of glucosamine-1-phosphate, an early intermediate of peptidoglycan synthesis. These three proteins are thought to form a complex in vivo and, in this manner, help to fine-tune the cellular c-di-AMP levels. To further characterize this important regulatory complex, we conducted a comprehensive structural and functional analysis of the S. aureus DacA and GlmM enzymes by determining the structures of the S. aureus GlmM enzyme and the catalytic domain of DacA. Both proteins were found to be dimers in solution as well as in the crystal structures. Further site-directed mutagenesis, structural and enzymatic studies showed that multiple DacA dimers need to interact for enzymatic activity. We also show that DacA and GlmM form a stable complex in vitro and that S. aureus GlmM, but not Escherichia coli or Pseudomonas aeruginosa GlmM, acts as a strong inhibitor of DacA function without the requirement of any additional cellular factor. Based on Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) data, a model of the complex revealed that GlmM likely inhibits DacA by masking the active site of the cyclase and preventing higher oligomer formation. Together these results provide an important mechanistic insight into how c-di-AMP production can be regulated in the cell.

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<![CDATA[Inherent versus induced protein flexibility: Comparisons within and between apo and holo structures]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5b52c9d5eed0c4842bd003

Understanding how ligand binding influences protein flexibility is important, especially in rational drug design. Protein flexibility upon ligand binding is analyzed herein using 305 proteins with 2369 crystal structures with ligands (holo) and 1679 without (apo). Each protein has at least two apo and two holo structures for analysis. The inherent variation in structures with and without ligands is first established as a baseline. This baseline is then compared to the change in conformation in going from the apo to holo states to probe induced flexibility. The inherent backbone flexibility across the apo structures is roughly the same as the variation across holo structures. The induced backbone flexibility across apo-holo pairs is larger than that of the apo or holo states, but the increase in RMSD is less than 0.5 Å. Analysis of χ1 angles revealed a distinctly different pattern with significant influences seen for ligand binding on side-chain conformations in the binding site. Within the apo and holo states themselves, the variation of the χ1 angles is the same. However, the data combining both apo and holo states show significant displacements. Upon ligand binding, χ1 angles are frequently pushed to new orientations outside the range seen in the apo states. Influences on binding-site variation could not be easily attributed to features such as ligand size or x-ray structure resolution. By combining these findings, we find that most binding site flexibility is compatible with the common practice in flexible docking, where backbones are kept rigid and side chains are allowed some degree of flexibility.

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<![CDATA[HuVarBase: A human variant database with comprehensive information at gene and protein levels]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5ca311d5eed0c48441f0af

Human variant databases could be better exploited if the variant data available in multiple resources is integrated in a single comprehensive resource along with sequence and structural features. Such integration would improve the analyses of variants for disease prediction, prevention or treatment. The HuVarBase (HUmanVARiantdataBASE) assimilates publicly available human variant data at protein level and gene level into a comprehensive resource. Protein level data such as amino acid sequence, secondary structure of the mutant residue, domain, function, subcellular location and post-translational modification are integrated with gene level data such as gene name, chromosome number & genome position, DNA mutation, mutation type origin and rs ID number. Disease class has been added for the disease causing variants. The database is publicly available at https://www.iitm.ac.in/bioinfo/huvarbase. A total of 774,863 variant records, integrated in the HuVarBase, can be searched with options to display, visualize and download the results.

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<![CDATA[R pyocin tail fiber structure reveals a receptor-binding domain with a lectin fold]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c633948d5eed0c484ae63f5

R pyocins are ɸCTX-like myophage tailocins of Pseudomonas sp. Adsorption of R pyocins to target strains occurs by the interaction of tail fiber proteins with core lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Here, we demonstrate that N-terminally truncated R pyocin tail fibers corresponding to a region of variation between R-subtypes are sufficient to bind target strains according to R-subtype. We also report the crystal structures of these tail fiber proteins and show that they form an elongated helical trimer composed of three domains arranged linearly from N- to C-terminus: a baseplate proximal head, medial shaft, and distal foot. The head and shaft domains contain novel structural motifs. The foot domain, however, is composed of a conserved jellyroll fold and shares high structural similarity to the tail fiber of myophage AP22, podophage tailspike C-terminal domains (LKA-1 and ɸ297), and several eukaryotic adhesins (discoidin I/II, agglutinin, and octocoral lectin). Many of these proteins bind polysaccharides by means of their distal loop network, a series of highly variable loops at one end of the conserved jellyroll fold backbone. Our structures reveal that the majority of R-subtype specific polymorphisms cluster in patches covering a cleft formed at the oligomeric interface of the head domain and in a large patch covering much of the foot domain, including the distal loop network. Based on the structural variation in distal loops within the foot region, we propose that the foot is the primary sugar-binding domain of R pyocins and R-subtype specific structural differences in the foot domain distal loop network are responsible for binding target strains in an R-subtype dependent manner.

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<![CDATA[Non-sequential protein structure alignment by conformational space annealing and local refinement]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5b52e5d5eed0c4842bd224

Protein structure alignment is an important tool for studying evolutionary biology and protein modeling. A tool which intensively searches for the globally optimal non-sequential alignments is rarely found. We propose ALIGN-CSA which shows improvement in scores, such as DALI-score, SP-score, SO-score and TM-score over the benchmark set including 286 cases. We performed benchmarking of existing popular alignment scoring functions, where the dependence of the search algorithm was effectively eliminated by using ALIGN-CSA. For the benchmarking, we set the minimum block size to 4 to prevent much fragmented alignments where the biological relevance of small alignment blocks is hard to interpret. With this condition, globally optimal alignments were searched by ALIGN-CSA using the four scoring functions listed above, and TM-score is found to be the most effective in generating alignments with longer match lengths and smaller RMSD values. However, DALI-score is the most effective in generating alignments similar to the manually curated reference alignments, which implies that DALI-score is more biologically relevant score. Due to the high demand on computational resources of ALIGN-CSA, we also propose a relatively fast local refinement method, which can control the minimum block size and whether to allow the reverse alignment. ALIGN-CSA can be used to obtain much improved alignment at the cost of relatively more extensive computation. For faster alignment, we propose a refinement protocol that improves the score of a given alignment obtained by various external tools. All programs are available from http://lee.kias.re.kr.

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<![CDATA[Crystal structure of a Thermus aquaticus diversity-generating retroelement variable protein]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c40f7b0d5eed0c484386634

Diversity-generating retroelements (DGRs) are widely distributed in bacteria, archaea, and microbial viruses, and bring about unparalleled levels of sequence variation in target proteins. While DGR variable proteins share low sequence identity, the structures of several such proteins have revealed the C-type lectin (CLec)-fold as a conserved scaffold for accommodating massive sequence variation. This conservation has led to the suggestion that the CLec-fold may be useful in molecular surface display applications. Thermostability is an attractive feature in such applications, and thus we studied the variable protein of a DGR encoded by a prophage of the thermophile Thermus aquaticus. We report here the 2.8 Å resolution crystal structure of the variable protein from the T. aquaticus DGR, called TaqVP, and confirm that it has a CLec-fold. Remarkably, its variable region is nearly identical in structure to those of several other CLec-fold DGR variable proteins despite low sequence identity among these. TaqVP was found to be thermostable, which appears to be a property shared by several CLec-fold DGR variable proteins. These results provide impetus for the pursuit of the DGR variable protein CLec-fold in molecular display applications.

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<![CDATA[CPn0572, the C. pneumoniae ortholog of TarP, reorganizes the actin cytoskeleton via a newly identified F-actin binding domain and recruitment of vinculin]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c40f797d5eed0c48438643a

Chlamydia pneumoniae is one of the two major species of the Chlamydiaceae family that have a profound effect on human health. C. pneumoniae is linked to a number of severe acute and chronic diseases of the upper and lower respiratory tract including pneumonia, asthma, bronchitis and infection by the pathogen might play a role in lung cancer. Following adhesion, Chlamydiae secrete effector proteins into the host cytoplasm that modulate the actin cytoskeleton facilitating internalization and infection. Members of the conserved TarP protein family comprise such effector proteins that polymerize actin, and in the case of the C. trachomatis TarP protein, has been shown to play a critical role in pathogenesis. In a previous study, we demonstrated that, upon bacterial invasion, the C. pneumoniae TarP family member CPn0572 is secreted into the host cytoplasm and recruits and associates with actin via an actin-binding domain conserved in TarP proteins. We have now extended our analysis of CPn0572 and found that the CPn0572 actin binding and modulating capability is more complex. With the help of the fission yeast system, a second actin modulating domain was identified independent of the actin binding domain. Microscopic analysis of HEp-2 cells expressing different CPn0572 deletion variants mapped this domain to the C-terminal part of the protein as CPn0572536-755 binds F-actin in vitro and colocalizes with aberrantly thickened actin cables in vivo. Finally, microscopic and bioinformatic analysis revealed the existence of a vinculin binding sequence in CPn0572. Our findings contribute to the understanding of the function of the TarP family and underscore the existence of several actin binding domains and a vinculin binding site for host actin modulation.

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