ResearchPad - psychiatry https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[The effects of age and sex on cognitive impairment in schizophrenia: Findings from the Consortium on the Genetics of Schizophrenia (COGS) study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13860 Recently emerging evidence indicates accelerated age-related changes in the structure and function of the brain in schizophrenia, raising a question about its potential consequences on cognitive function. Using a large sample of schizophrenia patients and controls and a battery of tasks across multiple cognitive domains, we examined whether patients show accelerated age-related decline in cognition and whether an age-related effect differ between females and males. We utilized data of 1,415 schizophrenia patients and 1,062 healthy community collected by the second phase of the Consortium on the Genetics of Schizophrenia (COGS-2). A battery of cognitive tasks included the Letter-Number Span Task, two forms of the Continuous Performance Test, the California Verbal Learning Test, Second Edition, the Penn Emotion Identification Test and the Penn Facial Memory Test. The effect of age and gender on cognitive performance was examined with a general linear model. We observed age-related changes on most cognitive measures, which was similar between males and females. Compared to controls, patients showed greater deterioration in performance on attention/vigilance and greater slowness of processing social information with increasing age. However, controls showed greater age-related changes in working memory and verbal memory compared to patients. Age-related changes (η2p of 0.001 to .008) were much smaller than between-group differences (η2p of 0.005 to .037). This study found that patients showed continued decline of cognition on some domains but stable impairment or even less decline on other domains with increasing age. These findings indicate that age-related changes in cognition in schizophrenia are subtle and not uniform across multiple cognitive domains.

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<![CDATA[Likely questionnaire-diagnosed food allergy in 78, 890 adults from the northern Netherlands]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13854 It is challenging to define likely food allergy (FA) in large populations which limited the number of large studies regarding risk factors for FA.ObjectiveWe studied the prevalence and characteristics of self-reported FA (s-rFA) in the large, population-based Dutch Lifelines cohort and identified associated risk factors.MethodsLikely food allergic cases (LikelyFA) were classified based on questionnaire reported characteristics consistent with FA. Subjects with atypical characteristics were classified as Indeterminate. We investigated 13 potential risk factors for LikelyFA such as birth mode and living on a farm and addressed health-related quality of life (H-RQOL).ResultsOf the 78, 890 subjects, 12.1% had s-rFA of which 4.0% and 8.1% were classified as LikelyFA and Indeterminate, respectively. Younger age, female sex, asthma, eczema and nasal allergy increased the risk of LikelyFA (p-value range <1.00*10−250–1.29*10−7). Living in a small city/large village or suburb during childhood was associated with a higher risk of LikelyFA than living on a farm (p-value = 7.81*10−4 and p = 4.84*10−4, respectively). Subjects classified as Indeterminate more often reported depression and burn-out compared to those without FA (p-value = 1.46*10−4 and p = 8.39*10−13, respectively). No association was found with ethnicity, (duration of) breastfeeding, birth mode and reported eating disorder. Mental and physical component scores measuring H-RQOL were lower in both those classified as LikelyFA and Indeterminate compared to those without FA.ConclusionThe prevalence of s-rFA among adults is considerable and one-third reports characteristics consistent with LikelyFA. Living on a farm decreased the risk of LikelyFA. The association of poorer H-RQOL as well as depression and burn-out with questionable self-perceived FA is striking and a priority for future study. ]]> <![CDATA[The early experiences of Physician Associate students in the UK: A regional cross-sectional study investigating factors associated with engagement]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13815 The number of physician associates (PAs) training and working in the UK has increased over the last few years following the proliferation of postgraduate courses. Understanding early experiences and what impacts on engagement is important if we are to appropriately support this relatively new professional group.MethodsThis paper reports on a cross-sectional analysis of the first year of data from a prospective 10-year longitudinal cohort study. First year PA students (n = 89) were enrolled from five universities in one UK region where the training programmes were less than 2 years old. Data collected were: demographic information, wellbeing, burnout and engagement, expectations, placement experience, performance and caring responsibilities. Pearson’s correlations were used to examine relationships between variables and to select variables for a hierarchical regression analysis to understand which factors were associated with engagement. Descriptive statistics were calculated for questions relating to experience.ResultsThe experiences of PA students during their first 3–6 months were mixed. For example, 78.7% of students felt that there were staff on placement they could go to for support, however, 44.8% reported that staff did not know about the role and 61.3% reported that staff did not know what clinical work they should undertake. Regression analysis found that their level of engagement was associated with their perceived career satisfaction, overall well-being, and caring responsibilities.ConclusionsThe support systems required for PAs may need to be examined as results showed that the PA student demographic is different to that of medical students and caring responsibilities are highly associated with engagement. A lack of understanding around the PA role in clinical settings may also need to be addressed in order to better support and develop this workforce. ]]> <![CDATA[Psychological symptoms and quality of life after repeated exposure to earthquake: A cohort study in Italy]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13809 In 2005, a random sample of 200 people were assessed in Camerino, Italy, eight years after an earthquake. Psychological symptom levels were low and only one person had current Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). In 2016 a new earthquake occurred in Camerino. The study aims to assess the impact of the second exposure in the same cohort. A longitudinal study was conducted, 130 participants were re-interviewed between July and December 2017. Psychological symptoms were self-rated on the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) and the Global Severity Index (GSI) was analysed. Post-traumatic stress symptoms were self-rated on the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R). Subjective quality of life (SQOL) was assessed on the Manchester Short Assessment of Quality of Life (MANSA). Mean scores of GSI and IES-R were significantly higher than in 2005 (p<0.01 and p<0.001), whilst SQOL remained almost unchanged (p = 0.163). In 2017, 16.9% of the sample had reached the PTSD threshold whilst in 2005 only the 0.5% had reached it. Despite low symptom levels several years after an earthquake, people can show psychological distress after a new exposure, whilst average quality of life levels are not affected.

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<![CDATA[Operational method of reliability and content-validity analysis: Taking “trait-symptoms” screening of individuals at high-risk for OCD as an example]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13806 A well-designed self-reported scale is highly applicable to current clinical and research practices. However, the problems with the scale method, such as quantitative analysis of content validity and test-retest reliability analysis of state-like variables are yet to be resolved. The main purpose of this paper is to propose an operational method for solving these problems. Additionally, it aims to enhance understanding of the research paradigm for the scale method (excluding criterion-related validity). This paper used a study that involved screening of high-risk groups for OCD (Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder), conducted 5 rounds of tests, and developed scales, reliability, and validity analysis (using sample sizes of 496, 610, 600, 600 and 990). The operational method we propose is practical, feasible, and can be used to develop and validate a scale.

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<![CDATA[Psychometric Properties of the Chinese Version of Short-Form Community Attitudes Toward Mentally Illness Scale in Medical Students and Primary Healthcare Workers]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13101 To assess the psychometric properties of the short form Community Attitudes toward Mentally Illness (SF-CAMI) scale among medical students and primary healthcare workers in China.MethodsOriginal English version CAMI was translated following a standard procedure. and then short-form CAMI developed through the multistage procedure. The psychometric properties were tested among two separate samples which contained 1,092 primary healthcare workers and 1,228 medical students. Reliability was assessed by internal consistency reliability and test–retest reliability. Exploratory factor and confirmatory factor analyses were performed to determine the structure and to assess the validity of the scale.ResultsThe Chinese version of SF-CAMI consists of 20 items and with three subscales: Benevolence, Fear and Exclusion, and Support and Tolerance. The confirmatory factor analysis indicated good fitting models for medical students and primary healthcare workers. The Cronbach α of total scale for both samples was good (0.82 for medical students and 0.85 for primary healthcare workers), and acceptable test–retest reliability was found (intraclass correlation coefficient is 0.62 for medical students and 0.60 for primary healthcare workers).ConclusionThe Chinese version of SF-CAMI performed good reliability and validity among both primary healthcare workers and medical students, provide more feasible and available tools for assessing the effect of mental health service programs in China. ]]> <![CDATA[Two-Person Approaches to Studying Social Interaction in Psychiatry: Uses and Clinical Relevance]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13099 Social interaction is ubiquitous in human society. The two-person approach—a new, powerful tool to study information exchange and social behaviors—aims to characterize the behavioral dynamics and neural mechanisms of real-time social interactions. In this review, we discuss the benefits of two-person approaches compared to those for conventional, single-person approaches. We describe measures and paradigms that model social interaction in three dimensions (3-D), including eye-to-eye, body-to-body, and brain-to-brain relationships. We then discuss how these two-person measures and paradigms are used in psychiatric conditions (e.g., autism, mood disorders, schizophrenia, borderline personality disorder, and psychotherapy). Furthermore, the advantages of a two-person approach (e.g., dual brain stimulation, multi-person neurofeedback) in clinical interventions are described. Finally, we discuss the methodological and translational challenges surrounding the application of two-person approaches in psychiatry, as well as prospects for future two-/multi-person studies. We conclude that two-person approaches serve as useful additions to the range of behavioral and neuroscientific methods available to assess social interaction in psychiatric settings, for both diagnostic techniques and complementary interventions.

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<![CDATA[Corrigendum: Correlation Analysis Between Attentional Bias and Somatic Symptoms in Depressive Disorders]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13032 <![CDATA[Social Attention in Autism: Neural Sensitivity to Speech Over Background Noise Predicts Encoding of Social Information]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_12962 Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by lack of attention to social cues in the environment, including speech. Hypersensitivity to sensory stimuli, such as loud noises, is also extremely common in youth with ASD. While a link between sensory hypersensitivity and impaired social functioning has been hypothesized, very little is known about the neural mechanisms whereby exposure to distracting sensory stimuli may interfere with the ability to direct attention to socially-relevant information. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in youth with and without ASD (N=54, age range 8–18 years) to (1) examine brain responses during presentation of brief social interactions (i.e., two-people conversations) shrouded in ecologically-valid environmental noises, and (2) assess how brain activity during encoding might relate to later accuracy in identifying what was heard. During exposure to conversation-in-noise (vs. conversation or noise alone), both neurotypical youth and youth with ASD showed robust activation of canonical language networks. However, the extent to which youth with ASD activated temporal language regions, including voice-selective cortex (i.e., posterior superior temporal sulcus), predicted later discriminative accuracy in identifying what was heard. Further, relative to neurotypical youth, ASD youth showed significantly greater activity in left-hemisphere speech-processing cortex (i.e., angular gyrus) while listening to conversation-in-noise (vs. conversation or noise alone). Notably, in youth with ASD, increased activity in this region was associated with higher social motivation and better social cognition measures. This heightened activity in voice-selective/speech-processing regions may serve as a compensatory mechanism allowing youth with ASD to hone in on the conversations they heard in the context of non-social distracting stimuli. These findings further suggest that focusing on social and non-social stimuli simultaneously may be more challenging for youth with ASD requiring the recruitment of additional neural resources to encode socially-relevant information.

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<![CDATA[Assessment of a Prediction Model for Antidepressant Treatment Stability Using Supervised Topic Models]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_12569 In the absence of readily assessed and clinically validated predictors of treatment response, pharmacologic management of major depressive disorder often relies on trial and error.ObjectiveTo assess a model using electronic health records to identify predictors of treatment response in patients with major depressive disorder.Design, Setting, and ParticipantsThis retrospective cohort study included data from 81 630 adults with a coded diagnosis of major depressive disorder from 2 academic medical centers in Boston, Massachusetts, including outpatient primary and specialty care clinics from December 1, 1997, to December 31, 2017. Data were analyzed from January 1, 2018, to March 15, 2020.ExposuresTreatment with at least 1 of 11 standard antidepressants.Main Outcomes and MeasuresStable treatment response, intended as a proxy for treatment effectiveness, defined as continued prescription of an antidepressant for 90 days. Supervised topic models were used to extract 10 interpretable covariates from coded clinical data for stability prediction. With use of data from 1 hospital system (site A), generalized linear models and ensembles of decision trees were trained to predict stability outcomes from topic features that summarize patient history. Held-out patients from site A and individuals from a second hospital system (site B) were evaluated.ResultsAmong the 81 630 adults (56 340 women [69%]; mean [SD] age, 48.46 [14.75] years; range, 18.0-80.0 years), 55 303 reached a stable response to their treatment regimen during follow-up. For held-out patients from site A, the mean area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) for discrimination of the general stability outcome was 0.627 (95% CI, 0.615-0.639) for the supervised topic model with 10 covariates. In evaluation of site B, the AUC was 0.619 (95% CI, 0.610-0.627). Building models to predict stability specific to a particular drug did not improve prediction of general stability even when using a harder-to-interpret ensemble classifier and 9256 coded covariates (specific AUC, 0.647; 95% CI, 0.635-0.658; general AUC, 0.661; 95% CI, 0.648-0.672). Topics coherently captured clinical concepts associated with treatment response.Conclusions and RelevanceThe findings suggest that coded clinical data available in electronic health records may facilitate prediction of general treatment response but not response to specific medications. Although greater discrimination is likely required for clinical application, the results provide a transparent baseline for such studies. ]]> <![CDATA[An Atypical Presentation of Formic Acid Poisoning]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_11602 Although formic acid (FA) poisoning is rare, it is usually fatal. Many FA poisoning cases commonly involve rubber plantation workers in which these workers ingest FA accidentally or with suicidal intentions. This is a case presentation of FA poisoning by a 73-year-old man. Additionally, the patient’s old age likely contributed to his severe prognosis.

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<![CDATA[The emergence of social gaps in mental health: A longitudinal population study in Sweden, 1900-1959]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_11234 During the recent decades, social inequalities in mental health have increased and are now one of the most persistent features of contemporary society. There is limited knowledge about when this pattern emerged or whether it has been a historically fixed feature. The objective of this study was to assess whether socioeconomic and gender gaps in mental health changed during the period 1900–1959 in Sweden. We used historical micro data which report all necessary information on individuals' demographic characteristics, occupational attainment and mental disorders (N = 2,450) in a Swedish population of 193,893. Changes over time was tested using multilevel Cox proportional hazard models. We tested how gender-specific risks of mental disorder changed and how gender-specific socioeconomic status was related to risks of mental disorder later in life. We found a reversal in gender gaps in mental health during the study period. Women had a lower risk than men in 1900 and higher risks in 1959. For men, we found a negative gradient in SES risks in 1900 and a positive gradient in 1959. For women, we found no clear SES gradient in the risk of mental disorder. These findings suggest that the contemporary patterns in socioeconomic and gender gaps in mental disorder emerged during the 1940s and 1950s and have since then persisted.

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<![CDATA[Neural Correlates of Own- and Other-Face Perception in Body Dysmorphic Disorder]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_10932 Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is characterized by an excessive preoccupation with one or more perceived flaws in one’s own appearance. Previous studies provided evidence for deficits in configural and holistic processing in BDD. Preliminary evidence suggests abnormalities at an early stage of visual processing. The present study is the first examining early neurocognitive perception of the own face in BDD by using electroencephalography (EEG). We investigated the face inversion effect, in which inverted (upside-down) faces are disproportionately poorly processed compared to upright faces. This effect reflects a disruption of configural and holistic processing, and in consequence a preponderance of featural face processing.MethodsWe recorded face-sensitive event-related potentials (ERPs) in 16 BDD patients and 16 healthy controls, all unmedicated. Participants viewed upright and inverted (upside-down) images of their own face and an unfamiliar other face, each in two facial emotional expressions (neutral vs. smiling). We calculated the early ERP components P100, N170, P200, N250, and the late positive component (LPC), and compared amplitudes among both groups.ResultsIn the early P100, no face inversion effects were found in both groups. In the N170, both groups exhibited the common face inversion effects, with significantly larger N170 amplitudes for inverted than upright faces. In the P200, both groups exhibited larger inversion effects to other (relative to own) faces, with larger P200 amplitudes for other upright than inverted faces. In the N250, no significant group differences were found in face processing. In the LPC, both groups exhibited larger inversion effects to other (relative to own) faces, with larger LPC amplitudes for other inverted than upright faces. These overall patterns appeared to be comparable for both groups. Smaller inversion effects to own (relative to other) faces were observed in none of these components in BDD, relative to controls.ConclusionsThe findings suggest no evidence for abnormalities at all levels of early face processing in our observed sample of BDD patients. Further research should investigate the neural substrates underlying BDD symptomatology. ]]> <![CDATA[Secondary Emotional Reactions to the COVID-19 Outbreak Should Be Identified and Treated in Korea]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_10904 <![CDATA[Social Media Data Analytics on Telehealth During the COVID-19 Pandemic]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_10712 Introduction: Physical distancing during the coronavirus Covid-19 pandemic has brought telehealth to the forefront to keep up with patient care amidst an international crisis that is exhausting healthcare resources. Understanding and managing health-related concerns resulting from physical distancing measures are of utmost importance.

Objectives: To describe and analyze the volume, content, and geospatial distribution of tweets associated with telehealth during the Covid-19 pandemic.

Methods: We inquired Twitter public data to access tweets related to telehealth from March 30, 2020 to April 6, 2020. We analyzed tweets using natural language processing (NLP) and unsupervised learning methods. Clustering analysis was performed to classify tweets. Geographic tweet distribution was correlated with Covid-19 confirmed cases in the United States. All analyses were carried on the Google Cloud computing service “Google Colab” using Python libraries (Python Software Foundation).

Results: A total of 41,329 tweets containing the term “telehealth” were retrieved. The most common terms appearing alongside ‘telehealth’ were “covid”, “health”, “care”, “services”, “patients”, and “pandemic”. Mental health was the most common health-related topic that appeared in our search reflecting a high need for mental healthcare during the pandemic. Similarly, Medicare was the most common appearing health plan mirroring the accelerated access to telehealth and change in coverage policies. The geographic distribution of tweets related to telehealth and having a specific location within the United States (n=19,367) was significantly associated with the number of confirmed Covid-19 cases reported in each state (p<0.001).

Conclusion: Social media activity is an accurate reflection of disease burden during the Covid-19 pandemic. Widespread adoption of telehealth-favoring policies is necessary and mostly needed to address mental health problems that may arise in areas of high infection and death rates.

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<![CDATA[Therapeutic Drug Monitoring Characteristics in a Tertiary University Hospital in 2019]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_9457 Introduction

Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is defined as measuring drug concentration in a biological sample to optimize pharmacotherapy. This study aims to evaluate TDM requests in a tertiary university hospital retrospectively.

Materials and methods

TDM requests were evaluated retrospectively for lithium, valproic acid, carbamazepine, and digoxin in 2019. The age and gender of the patient, requesting department, and measurement results were evaluated. Lower levels than the reference values were considered as subtherapeutic, while levels higher than the reference were considered as toxic.

Results 

A total of 415 drug level measurement records were found. The pediatric age sample ratio was 13.7%, and the elderly age sample ratio was 11.8%. When all samples were evaluated according to the relevant laboratory cut-off values, 72.8% of samples were within the therapeutic level range, 21.9% of samples were subtherapeutic, and 5.3% were toxic. The pediatric age group had a higher ratio of toxic levels for the four drugs studied (54.5%).

Conclusions

Tests for lithium, valproic acid, carbamazepine, and digoxin would not be considered sufficient for TDM. Multidisciplinary teamwork might be appropriate for further implementation and interpretation of TDM.

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<![CDATA[Participant and informant memory-specific cognitive complaints predict future decline and incident dementia: Findings from the Sydney Memory and Ageing Study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7842 Subjective Cognitive Complaints (SCCs) may represent one of the earliest stages of preclinical dementia. The objective of the present study was to extend previous work by our group to examine the relationship between participant-reported and informant-reported memory and non-memory SCCs, cognitive decline and incident dementia, over a six-year period. Participants were 873 community dwelling older adults (Mage = 78.65, SD = 4.79) without dementia and 843 informants (close friends or family) from the Sydney Memory and Ageing Study. Comprehensive neuropsychological testing and diagnostic assessments were carried out at baseline and biennially for six years. Linear mixed models and Cox proportional hazard models were performed to determine the association of SCCs, rate of cognitive decline and risk of incident dementia, controlling demographics and covariates of mood and personality. Participant and informant memory-specific SCCs were associated with rate of global cognitive decline; for individual cognitive domains, participant memory SCCs predicted decline for language, while informant memory SCCs predicted decline for executive function and memory. Odds of incident dementia were associated with baseline participant memory SCCs and informant memory and non-memory SCCs in partially adjusted models. In fully adjusted models, only informant SCCs were associated with increased risk of incident dementia. Self-reported memory-specific cognitive complaints are associated with decline in global cognition over 6-years and may be predictive of incident dementia, particularly if the individual is depressed or anxious and has increased neuroticism or decreased openness. Further, if and where possible, informants should be sought and asked to report on their perceptions of the individual’s memory ability and any memory-specific changes that they have noticed as these increase the index of diagnostic suspicion.

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<![CDATA[Pooling individual participant data from randomized controlled trials: Exploring potential loss of information]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7838 Pooling individual participant data to enable pooled analyses is often complicated by diversity in variables across available datasets. Therefore, recoding original variables is often necessary to build a pooled dataset. We aimed to quantify how much information is lost in this process and to what extent this jeopardizes validity of analyses results.MethodsData were derived from a platform that was developed to pool data from three randomized controlled trials on the effect of treatment of cardiovascular risk factors on cognitive decline or dementia. We quantified loss of information using the R-squared of linear regression models with pooled variables as a function of their original variable(s). In case the R-squared was below 0.8, we additionally explored the potential impact of loss of information for future analyses. We did this second step by comparing whether the Beta coefficient of the predictor differed more than 10% when adding original or recoded variables as a confounder in a linear regression model. In a simulation we randomly sampled numbers, recoded those < = 1000 to 0 and those >1000 to 1 and varied the range of the continuous variable, the ratio of recoded zeroes to recoded ones, or both, and again extracted the R-squared from linear models to quantify information loss.ResultsThe R-squared was below 0.8 for 8 out of 91 recoded variables. In 4 cases this had a substantial impact on the regression models, particularly when a continuous variable was recoded into a discrete variable. Our simulation showed that the least information is lost when the ratio of recoded zeroes to ones is 1:1.ConclusionsLarge, pooled datasets provide great opportunities, justifying the efforts for data harmonization. Still, caution is warranted when using recoded variables which variance is explained limitedly by their original variables as this may jeopardize the validity of study results. ]]> <![CDATA[Risk of colorectal cancer in patients with alcoholism: A nationwide, population-based nested case-control study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7832 Colorectal cancer (CRC) is regarded as a multifactorial disease and shares many risk factors with alcoholism. However, the association between alcoholism and CRC remains controversial.ObjectivesIn this study, we aimed to evaluate the association between alcoholism and risk of CRC.MethodsWe performed a large-scale, population-based nested case-control study using the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2013, derived from Taiwan’s National Health Insurance Research Database, and collected data from 2000 to 2013. There were 49,095 diagnosed cases of CRC defined according to the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification. Each case was matched with three controls by sex, age, index date of CRC, and annual medical visits; a total of 147,285 controls were identified. Multiple risk factors of CRC in alcoholism cases were investigated using unconditional multiple logistic regression analysis.ResultsAmong 49,095 cases of CRC, alcoholism was associated with a significantly higher risk of CRC (adjusted odds ratio (OR), 1.631; 95% CI, 1.565–1.699) in multivariate logistic regression, after adjusting other CRC risk factors, and in stratified analysis with multivariate logistic regression. In addition, there was a time-dependent relationship between alcoholism duration and CRC risk in >1 year, > 2 years, >5 years, and > 11 years groups (adjusted ORs, 1.875, 2.050, 2.662 and 2.670; 95% CI, 1.788–1.967, 1.948–2.158, 2.498–2.835, and 2.511–2.989 respectively).ConclusionAn association between alcoholism and risk of CRC was found in this study. Furthermore, patients with longer alcoholism history showed higher likelihood of developing CRC, which indicates a time-dependent relationship between alcoholism exposure and CRC. Further research on colorectal tumorigenesis is needed. ]]> <![CDATA[Interventions to improve self-management of adults living with HIV on Antiretroviral Therapy: A systematic review]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7726 Since its initial recognition, HIV has been responsible for around 35 million deaths globally. The introduction of Antiretroviral Therapy has helped to reduce mortality from HIV. However, the resulting increased longevity has influenced the experience of people living with HIV, which now manifests as a chronic condition requiring effective self-management. This review aimed to identify and evaluate the effectiveness of interventions to improve self-management of adults living with HIV on Antiretroviral therapy.MethodsThe review included published experimental studies addressing interventions to improve self-management of adults living with HIV on Antiretroviral Therapy. Studies were included if they addressed two or more outcomes of self-management, as defined by the Theory of Individual and Family Self-Management. The search covered four databases and was limited to papers published in the English language from 2001 to March 30, 2019. The reference lists of included studies were further searched for additional studies. Two independent reviewers using the Joanna Briggs Institute Meta-Analysis of Statistics Assessment and Review Instrument (JBI SUMARI) assessed the methodological quality of the reviewed papers. Data extraction was undertaken using the JBI SUMARI standardized data extraction tool. As the included papers were not homogeneous, it was not possible to conduct a meta-analysis. A narrative synthesis was undertaken to synthesize the findings of the included studies.ResultsThe search identified 337 articles from which 10 experimental and 2 quasi-experimental studies were included. The total participant sample in the included studies was 1661 adults living with HIV. The overall evidence quality of the findings was considered moderate. Many of the studies included in this review comprised multi-component interventions to improve self-management. Skills training, in conjunction with other forms of interventions, particularly phone counseling, was commonly employed and generally effective in improving self-management outcomes. Counseling with a symptom management manual was another employed and effective intervention, followed by technology-assisted self-management interventions. The most common outcomes measured were maintaining medication adherence and quality of life, followed by symptom management, self-efficacy, coping, and social support.ConclusionsInterventions to improve self-management varied across studies. However, promising outcomes achieved in the majority of studies through interventions comprising a combination of skills training, phone counseling, counseling with symptom management manuals, and technology-assisted interventions. ]]>