ResearchPad - psychiatry-and-psychology https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Comparing race, gender, age, and career categories in recognizing and grouping tasks]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_8409 The purpose of our research was to compare how participants weighed age, gender, race, and career categories in recognizing and grouping tasks. In Study 1, we used a category recognition task to compare participants’ speeds in recognizing information from different categories. The results showed that participants recognized the gender information most quickly, followed by career, race, and age information. In Study 2, a categorization task was used to compare participants’ category preferences. The results showed that the career category had the greatest weight, and the gender category had the lowest weight. Two targets who had different career identities were more possible considered as belonging to different groups than two targets with different gender, race or age identities. Our results have implications in understanding the weight of different categories, with gender and career category are the most important category that affects perception and evaluation.

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<![CDATA[Trypophobia as an urbanized emotion: comparative research in ethnic minority regions of China]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ned3196f1-d1eb-4f90-8503-8f8d77797a1d

Trypophobia is a strong emotion of disgust evoked by clusters of holes or round objects (e.g., lotus seed pod). It has become increasingly popular and been studied since 2010s, mainly in the West and Japan. Considering this, trypophobia might be a modern emotion, and hence urbanization possibly plays key roles in trypophobia. To address this issue, we compared the degree of trypophobia between urban and less urban people in China. In an experiment, we asked participants about their degree of discomfort from trypophobic images. The results showed that trypophobia occurred in both groups, although the effect size was larger in urban than less urban people. Moreover, post-experimental interviews and post-hoc analyses revealed that older people in less urban area did not experience as much trypophobia. Our findings suggest that trypophobia links to urbanization and age-related properties.

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<![CDATA[School self-efficacy is affected by gender and motor skills: findings from an Italian study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ndea71b36-f312-4814-b64f-69bbddd6048c

Background

Perceived school self-efficacy (SE) is an important variable in students’ activities as it affects their motivation and learning. Further, self-efficacy might represent a good predictor of performance, persistence and perseverance. Motor skills and other physical health determinants are extensively debated and linked to cognitive function in children of developmental age. However, inconclusive evidence supports a definitive relationship between perceived school SE and motor skills among schoolchildren. We conducted a cross-sectional study on 6–11-year-old schoolchildren to evaluate the extent by which perceived school SE and physical health determinants were related.

Methods

A SE questionnaire and motor performance battery tests were administered to primary school pupils recruited from 154 sampled schools of northwest Italy. Perceived SE at school was assessed via 12 items from the Caprara’s questionnaire. Motor performance scores were obtained from motor skill tests: 4 × 10 m shuttle run test, SRT; standing broad jump, SBJ; six-minute walking test, 6MWT.

Results

A total of 3,962 children (M = 2,019; F = 1943) were studied and 68% were normal weight. Overall, a 58% of the sample perceived a high SE, while, as to gender differences, a greater percentage of females perceived high levels of school SE with respect to any other level (χ2 = 38.93, p < 0.0001). Results from multinomial logistic regression analysis revealed that: (i) females perceived higher SE compared to males; (ii) children who performed better in SRT and 6MWT showed higher levels of perceived school SE; (iii) no significant effect was registered for the body weight. Alternative strategies are encouraged to enhance SE through physical education: structured interventions might enhance both complex motor skills and high-order cognitive skills, like SE, in young children.

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<![CDATA[Associations of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity with psychological problems and suicidality in Chinese high school students: a cross-sectional study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N6e54f1e3-ce09-44a7-8206-9d888ec3d88d

Background

The body of literature regarding the associations between physical activity and psychological problems lacks consensus. Moreover, the role of gender has been scarcely investigated. The present study sought to fill the gap in the data by examining the associations, if any, between moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), psychological problems, and self-harm behaviors based on different biological genders (male–female).

Methods

A self-administered questionnaire was used to measure MVPA and multiple psychological problems, including depression and anxiety; general emotion, behavior, and social problems; Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD); Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD); conduct problems; and self-harm behaviors. Participants were a nationally representative sample of Chinese high school students (N = 13, 349). A multiple logistic regression analysis of MVPA, stratified by gender, was conducted on the risk of psychological problems and self-harm behaviors in the total sample.

Results

For boys, a high frequency of MVPA was associated with a lower risk of depression (OR = 0.68, 95% CI [0.57–0.81]) and anxiety (OR = 0.71, 95% CI [0.53–0.96]) compared to the reference group. The moderate frequency of MVPA was associated with a lower risk of ADHD (OR = 0.73, 95% CI [0.56–0.94]) compared to the reference group. For girls, both MVPA groups were associated with a lower risk of depression (moderate MVPA: OR = 0.81, 95% CI [0.70–0.94]; high MVPA: OR = 0.67, 95% CI [0.54–0.83]) compared to the reference group. High MVPA was associated with a lower risk of ADHD (OR = 0.58, 95% CI [0.37–0.89]) compared to the reference group. Only moderate frequency of MVPA was associated with a lower risk of ODD (OR = 0.79, 95% CI [0.64–0.97]).

Conclusion

MVPA was associated with a lower risk of depression, anxiety, ADHD, and ODD in a gender-specific and MVPA frequency-specific manner. This implies that for specific psychological issues, PA interventions that are modified based on gender and frequency of MVPA may be more effective than PA interventions without these considerations.

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<![CDATA[mHealth technology for ecological momentary assessment in physical activity research: a systematic review]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N126b99f3-8803-4ef0-9184-d55522adb53f

Objective

To systematically review the publications on ecological momentary assessment (EMA) relating to physical activity (PA) behavior in order to classify the methodologies, and to identify the main mHealth technology-based tools and procedures that have been applied during the first 10 years since the emergence of smartphones. As a result of this review, we want to ask if there is enough evidence to propose the use of the term “mEMA” (mobile-based EMA).

Design

A systematic review according to PRISMA Statement (PROSPERO registration: CRD42018088136).

Method

Four databases (PsycINFO, CINALH, Medline and Web of Science Core Collection) were searched electronically from 2008 to February 2018.

Results

A total of 76 studies from 297 potential articles on the use of EMA and PA were included in this review. It was found that 71% of studies specifically used “EMA” for assessing PA behaviors but the rest used other terminology that also adjusted to the inclusion criteria. Just over half (51.3%) of studies (39) used mHealth technology, mainly smartphones, for collecting EMA data. The majority (79.5%) of these studies (31 out of 39) were published during the last 4 years. On the other hand, 58.8% of studies that only used paper-and-pencil were published during the first 3 years of the 10-year period analyzed. An accelerometer was the main built-in sensor used for collecting PA behavior by means of mHealth (69%). Most of the studies were carried out on young-adult samples, with only three studies in older adults. Women were included in 60% of studies, and healthy people in 82%. The studies lasted between 1 and 7 days in 57.9%, and between three and seven assessments per day were carried out in 37%. The most popular topics evaluated together with PA were psychological state and social and environmental context.

Conclusions

We have classified the EMA methodologies used for assessing PA behaviors. A total of 71% of studies used the term “EMA” and 51.3% used mHealth technology. Accelerometers have been the main built-in sensor used for collecting PA. The change of trend in the use of tools for EMA in PA coincides with the technological advances of the last decade due to the emergence of smartphones and mHealth technology. There is enough evidence to use the term mEMA when mHealth technology is being used for monitoring real-time lifestyle behaviors in natural situations. We define mEMA as the use of mobile computing and communication technologies for the EMA of health and lifestyle behaviors. It is clear that the use of mHealth is increasing, but there is still a lot to be gained from taking advantage of all the capabilities of this technology in order to apply EMA to PA behavior. Thus, mEMA methodology can help in the monitoring of healthy lifestyles under both subjective and objective perspectives. The tendency for future research should be the automatic recognition of the PA of the user without interrupting their behavior. The ecological information could be completed with voice messages, image captures or brief text selections on the touch screen made in real time, all managed through smartphone apps. This methodology could be extended when EMA combined with mHealth are used to evaluate other lifestyle behaviors.

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<![CDATA[Gender difference in the association of coping styles and social support with psychological distress among patients with end-stage renal disease]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N6a494840-926b-4d14-8c01-9912dfc9b54a

Objectives

The study aimed to explore the association of coping styles and social support with psychological distress among patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) as well as gender differences in these associations.

Methods

A cross-sectional study of 769 ESRD patients was conducted at 25 hospitals in Qiqihar City, China. All information was collected using structured questionnaires that were self-administered by the patients. Patients’ psychological health status, coping styles and perceived social support were measured using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire, the Medical Coping Modes Questionnaire and the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support. Student’s t test, analysis of variance (ANOVA) and binary logistic regression analysis were used for data analysis.

Results

A total of 72.3% of participants reported psychological distress, and the prevalence of distress was higher in females (77.0%) than in males (68.8%). The usage of the acceptance-resignation coping style was positively related to psychological distress (B = 0.459, P < 0.001). Social support level was negatively associated with psychological distress (B = −0.049, P < 0.001). The use of the confrontation style was negatively related to psychological distress in females (OR = 0.87, 95% CI [0.78–0.96]) but not in males (OR = 0.98, 95% CI [0.91–1.06]) (P for interaction term = 0.007).

Conclusions

Greater use of the acceptance-resignation style and lower social support are related to a higher risk of psychological distress. Greater use of the confrontation style is related to a lower risk of psychological distress in females but not in males.

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<![CDATA[Relationship between relative deprivation and health of Hainan Island residents: mediating effect of negative health behaviors]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ne8108b31-44b0-436e-9060-aa2731940183

Despite extensive evidence of the direct impact of relative deprivation on health, the mediating role of tobacco, alcohol and betel nuts in this impact has been largely ignored. This study aimed to verify whether these negative health behaviors are mediating factors for relative deprivation and health according to the mediating effect concept. Data from the Hainan Island Residents Health Interview Survey in 2017 were used. Variables including age, marital status, educational level, chronic diseases and area of residence were controlled for in multivariate analysis with separate sex analyses. Mediating effects of smoking, alcohol drinking and betel nut chewing, and whether the effects were complete or partial, were analyzed by logistic regression analysis. Smoking, alcohol drinking and betel nut chewing had a significant mediating effect in men, but not in women; however, alcohol drinking and betel nut chewing had similar, significant complete mediation in both sexes. Dissatisfaction following relative deprivation due to uneven income distribution may be relieved through these negative health behaviors. Therefore, better medical resources should be provided to improve residents’ health and the impact of income inequality on health, particularly the growing gap between the rich and poor, should be addressed.

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<![CDATA[No relationship between researcher impact and replication effect: an analysis of five studies with 100 replications]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N9497adc2-63df-4d42-8afd-a78238abd3e3

What explanation is there when teams of researchers are unable to successfully replicate already established ‘canonical’ findings? One suggestion that has been put forward, but left largely untested, is that those researchers who fail to replicate prior studies are of low ‘expertise and diligence’ and lack the skill necessary to successfully replicate the conditions of the original experiment. Here we examine the replication success of 100 scientists of differing ‘expertise and diligence’ who attempted to replicate five different studies. Using a bibliometric tool (h-index) as our indicator of researcher ‘expertise and diligence’, we examine whether this was predictive of replication success. Although there was substantial variability in replication success and in the h-factor of the investigators, we find no relationship between these variables. The present results provide no evidence for the hypothesis that systematic replications fail because of low ‘expertise and diligence’ among replicators.

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<![CDATA[Heeding the psychological concerns of young cancer survivors: a single-arm feasibility trial of CBT and a cognitive behavioral conceptualization of distress]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Na38b9ac0-9c29-4e5e-898d-5b2ba32080d0

Background

A subgroup of adolescent and young adult (AYA) survivors of cancer during adolescence report high levels of psychological distress. To date, evidence-based psychological interventions tailored to the cancer-related concerns experienced by this population are lacking. The present study aimed to (1) examine the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of an individualized cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) intervention for AYA survivors of cancer during adolescence; and (2) identify and conceptualize cancer-related concerns as well as maintaining factors using cognitive-behavioral theory.

Methods

A single-arm trial, whereby AYA survivors of cancer during adolescence (aged 17–25 years) were provided individualized face-to-face CBT at a maximum of 15 sessions. Clinical outcomes were assessed at baseline, post-intervention, and three-month follow-up. Intervention uptake, retention, intervention delivery, and reliable change index scores were examined. An embedded qualitative study consisted of two unstructured interviews with each participant pre-intervention. Along with individual behavioral case formulations developed to guide the intervention, interview data was analyzed to identify and conceptualize cancer-related concerns and potential maintaining factors.

Results

Ten out of 213 potential participants invited into the study were included, resulting in an overall participation rate of 4.7%. Nine participants completed the intervention, with respectively seven and eight participants completing the post-intervention and three month follow-up assessment. The majority of reported cancer-related concerns and maintaining factors were conceptualized into four themes: social avoidance, fear of emotions and bodily symptoms, imbalance in activity, and worry and rumination.

Conclusions

Given significant recruitment difficulties, further research is required to examine barriers to help-seeking in the AYA cancer survivor population. However, the conceptualization of cancer-related concerns and maintaining factors experienced by the population may represent an important first step in the development of psychological support tailored toward AYA cancer survivors’ unique needs.

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<![CDATA[Association of sleep among 30 antidepressants: a population-wide adverse drug reaction study, 2004–2019]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N8bd7767c-3e71-443d-8443-59c6e65f8927

Background

Sleep is one of the most essential processes required to maintain a healthy human life, and patients experiencing psychiatric illness often experience an inability to sleep. The aim of this study is to test the hypothesis that antidepressant compounds with strong binding affinities for the serotonin 5-HT2C receptor, histamine H1 receptors, or norepinephrine transporter (NET) will be associated with the highest odds of somnolence.

Methods

Post-marketing cases of patient adverse drug reactions were obtained from the United States Food and Drug Administration Adverse Events Reporting System (FAERS) during the reporting window of January 2004 to September 2019. Disproportionality analyses of antidepressants reporting somnolence were calculated using the case/non-case method. The reporting odds-ratios (ROR) and corresponding 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were computed and all computations and graphing conducted in R.

Results

There were a total of 69,196 reported cases of somnolence out of a total of 7,366,864 cases reported from January 2004 to September 2019. Among the 30 antidepressants assessed, amoxapine (n = 16) reporting odds-ratio (ROR) = 7.1 (95% confidence interval [CI] [4.3–11.7]), atomoxetine (n = 1,079) ROR = 6.6 (95% CI [6.2–7.1]), a compound generally approved for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and maprotiline (n = 18) ROR = 6.3 (95% CI, 3.9–10.1) were the top three compounds ranked with the highest reporting odds of somnolence. In contrast, vortioxetine (n = 52) ROR = 1.3 (95% CI [1.0–1.8]), milnacipran (n = 58) ROR = 2.1 (95% CI [1.7–2.8]), and bupropion (n = 1,048) ROR = 2.2 (95% CI [2.1–2.4]) are least significantly associated with somnolence. Moreover, levomilnacipran (n = 1) ROR = 0.4 (95% CI [0.1–2.9]) was not associated with somnolence.

Conclusion

Among the thirty tested antidepressants, consistent with the original hypothesis, amoxepine has strongest 5-HT2C receptor binding affinity and has the highest reporting odds of somnolence. Atomoxetine, ranked second in reporting odds of somnolence overall, binds to the NET with with the strongest binding affinity among the thirty compounds. Mirtazapine, a tetracyclic antidepressant, was ranked 11th in reporting odds of somnolence and had the strongest H1 receptor binding affinity. This study provides an informative ranking of somnolence among thirty antidepressant compounds with an already wide array of clinical indications as well as provides insight into potential drug repurposing in psychopharmacology.

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<![CDATA[Temporal predictability does not impact attentional blink performance: effects of fixed vs. random inter-trial intervals]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N7fa77513-3f2b-47b3-8730-60a2dfed26b2

Background

Does the inclusion of a randomized inter-trial interval (ITI) impact performance on an Attentional Blink (AB) task? The AB phenomenon is often used as a test of transient attention (Dux & Marois, 2009); however, it is unclear whether incorporating aspects of sustained attention, by implementing a randomized ITI, would impact task performance. The current research sought to investigate this, by contrasting a standard version of the AB task with a random ITI version to determine whether performance changed, reflecting a change in difficulty, engagement, or motivation.

Method

Thirty university students (21 female; age range 18–57, Mage= 21.5, SD = 7.4) completed both versions of the task, in counterbalanced order.

Results

No significant difference in performance was found between the standard AB task and the AB task with the random ITI. Bayesian analyses suggested moderate evidence for the null.

Conclusion

Temporal unpredictability did not appear to impact task performance. This suggests that the standard AB task has cognitive properties with regards to task difficulty, engagement, and motivation, that are inherently similar to tasks that employ a randomized ITI to measure sustained attention (e.g., the Psychomotor Vigilance Task; PVT; Dinges & Powell, 1985). This finding provides important support for future research which may seek to obtain a more detailed understanding of attention through the comparison of performance on transient and sustained attention tasks.

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<![CDATA[Let’s talk about pain catastrophizing measures: an item content analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N0761d7d6-f628-497b-9302-933eb994db6c

Background

Concerns have been raised about whether self-report measures of pain catastrophizing reflect the construct as defined in the cognitive-behavioral literature. We investigated the content of these self-report measures; that is, whether items assess the construct ‘pain catastrophizing’ and not other theoretical constructs (i.e., related constructs or pain outcomes) using the discriminant content validity method.

Method

Items (n = 58) of six pain catastrophizing measures were complemented with items (n = 34) from questionnaires measuring pain-related worrying, vigilance, pain severity, distress, and disability. Via an online survey, 94 participants rated to what extent each item was relevant for assessing pain catastrophizing, defined as “to view or present pain or pain-related problems as considerably worse than they actually are” and other relevant constructs (pain-related worrying, vigilance, pain severity, distress, and disability).

Results

Data were analyzed using Bayesian hierarchical models. The results revealed that the items from pain-related worrying, vigilance, pain severity, distress, and disability questionnaires were distinctively related to their respective constructs. This was not observed for the items from the pain catastrophizing questionnaires. The content of the pain catastrophizing measures was equally well, or even better, captured by pain-related worrying or pain-related distress.

Conclusion

Based upon current findings, a recommendation may be to develop a novel pain catastrophizing questionnaire. However, we argue that pain catastrophizing cannot be assessed by self-report questionnaires. Pain catastrophizing requires contextual information, and expert judgment, which cannot be provided by self-report questionnaires. We argue for a person-centered approach, and propose to rename ‘pain catastrophizing’ measures in line with what is better measured: ‘pain-related worrying’.

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<![CDATA[Novel association between TGFA, TGFB1, IRF1, PTGS2 and IKBKB single-nucleotide polymorphisms and occurrence, severity and treatment response of major depressive disorder]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N1e180d60-19ad-4a0e-a4c8-dadd4682d8a9

Background

Activation of the immune system might affect the severity of depressive episodes as well as response to the antidepressant treatment. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the occurrence of variant alleles of analyzed SNPs are involved in prevalence and progression of depression. Moreover, selected genes and SNPs have not been investigated in context of the disease severity and treatment. Therefore, six polymorphisms were selected: g.41354391A>G-TGFB1 (rs1800469), g.132484229C>A-IRF (rs2070729), g.186643058A>G-PTGS2 (rs5275), g.186640617C>T-PTGS2 (rs4648308), g.70677994G>A-TGFA (rs2166975) and g.42140549G>T–IKBKB (rs5029748).

Methods

A total of 360 (180 patients and 180 controls) DNA samples were genotyped using TaqMan probes.

Results

We observed that A/G of the rs2166975 TGFA, A/C of rs2070729 IRF1 and G/T of rs5029748 IKBKB were associated with an increased risk of depression development while the T/T of rs5029748 IKBKB, T/T of rs4648308 PTGS2 and G/G of rs2166975 TGFA reduced this risk. We also stratified the study group according to gender and found that genotype A/G and allele G of the rs2166975 TGFA, G/T of rs5029748 IKBKB as well as C allele of rs4648308 PTGS2, homozygote A/A and allele A of rs5275 PTGS2 were associated with increased risk of depression development in men while homozygote G/G of rs5275 PTGS2 decreased this risk. Moreover, C/T of rs4648308 PTGS2 and A/G of rs5275 PTGS2 was positively correlated with the risk of the disease occurrence in women. Furthermore, a gene–gene analysis revealed a link between studied polymorphisms and depression. In addition, A/A of rs1800469 TGFB1 was associated with earlier age of onset of the disease while G/G of this SNP increased severity of the depressive episode. Interestingly, A/C of rs2070729 IRF1 and T/T of rs5029748 IKBKB may modulate the effectiveness of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors therapy. In conclusion, studied SNPs may modulate the risk of occurrence, age of onset, severity of the disease and response to the antidepressant treatment.

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<![CDATA[Effects of chronic prazosin, an alpha-1 adrenergic antagonist, on anxiety-like behavior and cortisol levels in a chronic unpredictable stress model in zebrafish (Danio rerio)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N90c7b43a-c7de-4e7c-a1c1-0ea2d49f49e7

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is often associated with significant neuroendocrine dysfunction and a variety of other symptoms. Today, there are limited efficacious treatment options for PTSD, none of which directly target the dysfunction observed with the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. The development of new pharmacological treatments is expensive and time consuming; thus, there is utility in repurposing compounds already approved for use in other conditions. One medication in particular that has shown promise for the alleviation of PTSD symptoms is prazosin, an alpha-1 adrenergic receptor antagonist used to treat hypertension. While there have been many studies indicating the efficacy of prazosin in the treatment of PTSD symptoms, no studies fully elucidate mechanisms elicited by this treatment, nor is it clear if prazosin normalizes neuroendocrine dysfunction associated with trauma exposure. The use of zebrafish (Danio rerio) has been growing in popularity, in part, due to the homology of the stress response system with mammals. In this study, the zebrafish model was utilized to determine behavioral and biological changes induced by chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) and how these effects could be modulated by chronic prazosin treatment. The results indicated that 7d of CUS increased anxiety-like behavior in the novel tank test and decreased basal levels of cortisol. Chronic (7d) prazosin treatment decreased anxiety-like behaviors overall but did not appear to affect CUS-induced changes in behavior and basal cortisol levels. This suggests that the clinical effectiveness of prazosin may not normalize dysregulated stress responses prevalent in many patients with PTSD, but that prazosin-induced relief from anxiety in stress-related conditions may involve an alternative mechanism other than by normalizing neuroendocrine dysfunction.

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<![CDATA[Teenage sleep and technology engagement across the week]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nf52634f2-741c-4728-9521-fe35e76433b5

Background

Throughout the developed world, adolescents are growing up with increased access to and engagement with a range of screen-based technologies, allowing them to encounter ideas and people on a global scale from the intimacy of their bedroom. The concerns about digital technologies negatively influencing sleep are therefore especially noteworthy, as sleep has been proven to greatly affect both cognitive and emotional well-being. The associations between digital engagement and adolescent sleep should therefore be carefully investigated in research adhering to the highest methodological standards. This understood, studies published to date have not often done so and have instead focused mainly on data derived from general retrospective self-report questionnaires. The value of this work has been called into question by recent research showing that retrospective questionnaires might fail to accurately measure these variables of interest. Novel and diverse approaches to measurement are therefore necessary for academic study to progress.

Methods

This study analyses data from 11,884 adolescents included in the UK Millennium Cohort Study to examine the association between digital engagement and adolescent sleep, comparing the relative effects of retrospective self-report vs. time-use diary measures of technology use. By doing so, it provides an empirical lens to understand the effects of digital engagement both throughout the day and before bedtime and adds nuance to a research area primarily relying on retrospective self-report.

Results

The study finds that there is a small negative association relating digital engagement to adolescent sleep both on weekdays and weekend days (median standardized association βweekday = −0.06 and βweekend = −0.03). There is a more negative association between digital engagement and total sleep time on weekdays compared to weekend days (median standardized βweekday = −0.08, median standardized βweekend = −0.02), while there is no such difference when examining adolescents’ bedtime. Surprisingly, and contrary to our expectations, digital technology use before bedtime is not substantively associated with the amount of sleep and the tardiness of bedtime in adolescents.

Conclusions

Results derived from the use of transparent Specification Curve Analysis methods show that the negative associations in evidence are mainly driven by retrospective technology use measures and measures of total time spent on digital devices during the day. The effects are overall very small: for example, an additional hour of digital screen time per day was only related to a 9 min decrease in total time spent sleeping on weekdays and a 3 min decrease on weekends. Using digital screens 30 min before bed led to a 1 min decrease in total time spent sleeping on weekdays and weekends. The study shows that more work should be done examining how to measure digital screen time before interventions are designed.

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<![CDATA[A cross-sectional study on interference control: age affects reactive control but not proactive control]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ne74afc62-df7f-43f1-8993-b7279387d181

Background

Working memory updating (WMU), a controlled process to continuously adapt to the changing task demand and environment, is crucial for cognitive executive function. Although previous studies have shown that the elderly were more susceptible to cognitive interference than the youngsters, the picture of age-related deterioration of WMU is incomplete due to lack of study on people at their middle ages. Thus, the present study investigated the impact of age on the WMU among adults by a cross-sectional design to verify whether inefficiency interference control accounts for the aging of WMU.

Methods

In total, 112 healthy adults were recruited for this study; 28 old adults (21 female) ranging from 60 to 78 years of age; 28 middle-age adults (25 female) ranging from 45 to 59 years of age; 28 adults (11 female) ranging from 26 to 44 years of age; and 28 young adults (26 female) ranging from 18 to 25 years of age. Each participant completed a 1-back task. The inverse efficiency score was calculated in various sequences of three trials in a row to quantify the performance of WMU for adults of various ages.

Results

Inverse efficiency score of both young groups (young adult and adult) were significantly shorter than the old group in both Repeat-Alternate (RA, including □□○ and ○○□) and Alternate-Alternate (AA, including ○□○ and □○□) sequential patterns and they were additionally better than the middle-age group in AA sequential pattern.

Conclusion

With the increase of difficulty in the task, the difference in reactive interference control between young and middle age was gradually revealed, while the difference between young and old remained to apparent. The degradation of WMU aging may begin from middle-age and presents selective impairment in that only reactive interference control, but not proactive interference control, shows pronounced age-related decline. The preliminary results can inform future studies to further explore the whole lifespan trajectories of cognitive functions.

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<![CDATA[Within-person coupling of estradiol, testosterone, and cortisol in women athletes]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N23c181c2-bfbe-43ce-8f6c-7e968ca85f5a

Purpose

In variety of settings cortisol and testosterone are positively “coupled.” That is, within-person fluctuations of cortisol and testosterone levels occur in parallel—increases and decreases in one hormone are associated with corresponding increases and decreases in the other. The present report explored hormone coupling in women athletes in two studies selected because they included measurements of salivary levels of cortisol, testosterone, and estradiol—a hormone that has been only infrequently studied in the context of competitive athletics.

Methods

Consenting members of Emory University’s varsity volleyball and soccer teams gave saliva samples on multiple occasions in the run-up to and over the course of two different intercollegiate contests.

Results

Volleyball and soccer players showed remarkably similar hormone-specific patterns of increase in relationship to the different stages of competition—before warm-up, after warm-up, and after competition. For both the volleyball and soccer team, Hierarchical Linear Model (HLM) analyses showed estradiol as being significantly coupled with testosterone which was also coupled with cortisol.

Conclusions

This is, apparently, the first report of significant within-person coupling between estradiol and testosterone in the context of competitive athletic stress. These two hormones may be coupled in a wide variety of circumstances not limited to ones involving sport competition, and results reported here should encourage exploration of the extent to which coordinated fluctuations in estradiol, testosterone, and cortisol levels are present in other, more neutral settings and the ways in which the coordination of these fluctuating hormone levels may benefit human performance.

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<![CDATA[Low self-concept in poor readers: prevalence, heterogeneity, and risk]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da13ab0ee8fa60b7a2fe

There is evidence that poor readers are at increased risk for various types of low self-concept—particularly academic self-concept. However, this evidence ignores the heterogeneous nature of poor readers, and hence the likelihood that not all poor readers have low self-concept. The aim of this study was to better understand which types of poor readers have low self-concept. We tested 77 children with poor reading for their age for four types of self-concept, four types of reading, three types of spoken language, and two types of attention. We found that poor readers with poor attention had low academic self-concept, while poor readers with poor spoken language had low general self-concept in addition to low academic self-concept. In contrast, poor readers with typical spoken language and attention did not have low self-concept of any type. We also discovered that academic self-concept was reliably associated with reading and receptive spoken vocabulary, and that general self-concept was reliably associated with spoken vocabulary. These outcomes suggest that poor readers with multiple impairments in reading, language, and attention are at higher risk for low academic and general self-concept, and hence need to be assessed for self-concept in clinical practice. Our results also highlight the need for further investigation into the heterogeneous nature of self-concept in poor readers.

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<![CDATA[The use and evaluation of self-regulation techniques can predict health goal attainment in adults: an explorative study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daefab0ee8fa60bc0a08

Background. Self-regulation tools are not always used optimally, and implementation intention plans often lack quality. Therefore, this study explored participants’ use and evaluation of self-regulation techniques and their impact on goal attainment.

Methods. Data were obtained from 452 adults in a proof of concept (POC) intervention of ‘MyPlan’, an eHealth intervention using self-regulation techniques to promote three healthy behaviours (physical activity (PA), fruit intake, or vegetable intake). Participants applied self-regulation techniques to a self-selected health behaviour, and evaluated the self-regulation techniques. The quality of implementation intentions was rated by the authors as a function of instrumentality (instrumental and non-instrumental) and specificity (non-specific and medium to highly specific). Logistic regression analyses were conducted to predict goal attainment.

Results. Goal attainment was significantly predicted by the motivational value of the personal advice (OR:1.86), by the specificity of the implementation intentions (OR:3.5), by the motivational value of the action plan (OR:1.86), and by making a new action plan at follow-up (OR:4.10). Interaction-effects with behaviour showed that the specificity score of the implementation intention plans (OR:4.59), the motivational value of the personal advice (OR:2.38), selecting hindering factors and solutions(OR:2.00) and making a new action plan at follow-up (OR:7.54) were predictive of goal attainment only for fruit or vegetable intake. Also, when participants in the fruit and vegetable group made more than three plans, they were more likely to attain their goal (OR:1.73), whereas the reverse was the case in the PA group (OR:0.34).

Discussion. The chance that adults reach fruit and vegetable goals can be increased by including motivating personal advice, self-formulated action plans, and instructions/strategies to make specific implementation intentions into eHealth interventions. To increase the chance that adults reach short-term PA goals, it is suggested to keep eHealth PA interventions simple and focus only on developing a few implementation intentions. However, more research is needed to identify behaviour change techniques that can increase health goal attainment at long-term.

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<![CDATA[Faces in commonly experienced configurations enter awareness faster due to their curvature relative to fixation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da4cab0ee8fa60b8d01c

The extent to which perceptually suppressed face stimuli are still processed has been extensively studied using the continuous flash suppression paradigm (CFS). Studies that rely on breaking CFS (b-CFS), in which the time it takes for an initially suppressed stimulus to become detectable is measured, have provided evidence for relatively complex processing of invisible face stimuli. In contrast, adaptation and neuroimaging studies have shown that perceptually suppressed faces are only processed for a limited set of features, such as its general shape. In this study, we asked whether perceptually suppressed face stimuli presented in their commonly experienced configuration would break suppression faster than when presented in an uncommonly experienced configuration. This study was motivated by a recent neuroimaging study showing that commonly experienced face configurations are more strongly represented in the fusiform face area. Our findings revealed that faces presented in commonly experienced configurations indeed broke suppression faster, yet this effect did not interact with face inversion suggesting that, in a b-CFS context, perceptually suppressed faces are potentially not processed by specialized (high-level) face processing mechanisms. Rather, our pattern of results is consistent with an interpretation based on the processing of more basic visual properties such as convexity.

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