ResearchPad - psychiatry-psychology https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Secondary Emotional Reactions to the COVID-19 Outbreak Should Be Identified and Treated in Korea]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_10904 <![CDATA[Assault-related Factors and Trauma-related Cognitions Associated with Post-traumatic Stress Symptoms in High-distress and Low-distress Korean Female Victims of Sexual Assault]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_8433

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<![CDATA[Serious Games as Potential Therapies: A Validation Study of a Neurofeedback Game]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Na3118918-d27a-411e-9af7-346787a9e795

Serious (biofeedback) games offer promising ways to supplement or replace more expensive face-to-face interventions in health care. However, studies on the validity and effectiveness of EEG-based serious games remain scarce. In the current study, we investigated whether the conditions of the neurofeedback game “Daydream” indeed trained the brain activity as mentioned in the game manual. EEG activity was assessed in 14 healthy male volunteers while playing the 2 conditions of the game. The participants completed a training of 5 sessions. EEG frequency analyses were performed to verify the claims of the manual. We found significant differences in α- to β-ratio between the 2 conditions although only in the amplitude data, not in the power data. Within the conditions, mean α-amplitude only differed significantly from the β-amplitude in the concentration condition. Our analyses showed that neither α nor β brain activity differed significantly between game levels (higher level requiring increased brain activity) in either of the two conditions. In conclusion, we found only marginal evidence for the proposed claims stated in the manual of the game. Our research emphasizes that it is crucial to validate the claims that serious games make, especially before implementing them in the clinic or as therapeutic devices.

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<![CDATA[Exploring the Differences between Adolescents' and Parents' Ratings on Adolescents' Smartphone Addiction]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c2a7980d5eed0c48422e9fc

Background

Smartphone addiction has recently been highlighted as a major health issue among adolescents. In this study, we assessed the degree of agreement between adolescents' and parents' ratings of adolescents' smartphone addiction. Additionally, we evaluated the psychosocial factors associated with adolescents' and parents' ratings of adolescents' smartphone addiction.

Methods

In total, 158 adolescents aged 12–19 years and their parents participated in this study. The adolescents completed the Smartphone Addiction Scale (SAS) and the Isolated Peer Relationship Inventory (IPRI). Their parents also completed the SAS (about their adolescents), SAS-Short Version (SAS-SV; about themselves), Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7), and Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). We used the paired t-test, McNemar test, and Pearson's correlation analyses.

Results

Percentage of risk users was higher in parents' ratings of adolescents' smartphone addiction than ratings of adolescents themselves. There was disagreement between the SAS and SAS-parent report total scores and subscale scores on positive anticipation, withdrawal, and cyberspace-oriented relationship. SAS scores were positively associated with average minutes of weekday/holiday smartphone use and scores on the IPRI and father's GAD-7 and PHQ-9 scores. Additionally, SAS-parent report scores showed positive associations with average minutes of weekday/holiday smartphone use and each parent's SAS-SV, GAD-7, and PHQ-9 scores.

Conclusion

The results suggest that clinicians need to consider both adolescents' and parents' reports when assessing adolescents' smartphone addiction, and be aware of the possibility of under- or overestimation. Our results cannot only be a reference in assessing adolescents' smartphone addiction, but also provide inspiration for future studies.

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<![CDATA[A Brief Screening Tool for PTSD: Validation of the Korean Version of the Primary Care PTSD Screen for DSM-5 (K-PC-PTSD-5)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c2a798dd5eed0c48422ed84

The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate psychometrically the Korean version of the Primary Care Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Screen for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-fifth edition (K-PC-PTSD-5). In total, 252 participants were interviewed with the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-fifth edition-research version (SCID-5-RV). The K-PC-PTSD-5 showed good internal consistency (α = 0.872), test-retest reliability (r = 0.89), and concurrent validity (r = 0.81). A score of 3 was identified as the threshold for clinically significant posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Overall, the results indicate that the K-PC-PTSD-5 is a useful, timesaving instrument for screening PTSD symptoms.

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<![CDATA[Post-Traumatic Cognition Mediates the Relationship between a History of Sexual Abuse and the Post-Traumatic Stress Symptoms in Sexual Assault Victims]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b43bf48463d7e2c00672eb5

More than half of all sexual assault victims report experiencing sexual victimization more than once. The aim of this paper was to determine the role post-traumatic cognition plays in the relationship between a history of sexual abuse and post-traumatic stress symptoms in sexual assault victims. The relationship between a history of sexual assault and the severity of post-traumatic stress symptoms was investigated retrospectively using data from a sexual assault crisis center in Korea. Data on psychological symptoms were collected in person at the initial assessment and by telephone 1 month later using the Post-traumatic Cognitions Inventory and the Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms Scale: Self-report Version. Of 105 women included in the analysis, 10 (9.5%) reported prior sexual abuse and were classified as sexually revictimized. Revictimized women had more post-traumatic negative cognition at initial assessment (t = −2.98; P = 0.004) and more post-traumatic symptoms at 1 month follow-up (t = −2.39; P = 0.019) than singly victimized women. At 1 month follow-up, the severity of post-traumatic stress symptoms had increased in revictimized women but had decreased slightly in singly victimized women. Negative post-traumatic cognition fully mediated the association between a history of sexual abuse and the severity of post-traumatic stress symptoms. Early detection of sexually revictimized women and tailored service and treatment intervention is needed to better serve this group of victims. Interventions targeted at preventing revictimization or post crime victimization may also help victims recover from the trauma and prevent future abuse.

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<![CDATA[Development of the Suicide Risk Scale for Medical Inpatients]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5bf2aad2d5eed0c4840d3be9

Background

Inpatient suicide is one of the major issues related with hospital patient safety. Although there are many studies addressing suicide in the psychiatric unit, little is known about suicide in a medical setting. This study included the development and validation of a screening tool for the assessment of suicide risk, specialized for medical inpatients.

Methods

The preliminary questionnaire was based on review of previous suicide ideation scales, mood scales, and clinical experiences of psychiatrists and clinical psychologists in Korea. Initially, the questionnaire consisted of 12 questions. One hundred adult medical inpatients were asked to perform the questionnaire. Explorative factor analysis was used to examine construct validity. Concurrent validity was evaluated by comparison with the Korean versions of the Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation (BSI), the Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS), and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS).

Results

Five questions were removed from the preliminary questionnaire by explorative factor analysis and seven questions remained to comprise the Suicide Risk Scale for Medical inpatients (SRSM). Explorative factor analysis showed that the SRSM is composed of a single factor. SRSM was highly reliable in terms of internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha 0.91). Concurrent validity with the BSI, BHS, and HADS was statistically significant. The proposed cut-off score of the SRSM was five.

Conclusion

In conclusion, the SRSM is a valid and reliable measure for screening suicide risks in medical inpatients.

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<![CDATA[Factors Associated with Emotional Distress in Children and Adolescents during Early Treatment for Cancer]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b3e5c62463d7e44f6232381

Purpose

Children and adolescents diagnosed with cancer experience emotional distress, such as sadness, worrying, and irritability. However, there is little information about the psychological well-being of parents at the time of their child's diagnosis. We sought to identify factors that were associated with emotional distress in cancer patients as a basis for developing innovative psychological interventions.

Materials and Methods

A retrospective chart review was performed on patients newly diagnosed with cancer at a single center in Korea from 2014 to 2016. Eighty-five patients and their mothers completed psychological inventories. To determine factors associated with emotional distress in patients, we assessed the psychological inventory results using multiple linear regression after performing correlation analysis.

Results

The maternal Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) score was positively correlated with total problem scores and externalizing scores in patients aged less than 7 years. In patients aged 7–12 years, there was no significant association between the patient's emotional distress and other variables. In contrast, the maternal BDI-II score was the strongest factor associated with patient depression in adolescents.

Conclusion

We suggest that the most important factor affecting emotional distress in children and adolescents with cancer is maternal depression, especially in patients aged 1–6 years and aged 13–17 years. Understanding the factors associated with emotional distress of cancer patients allows us to develop early psychiatric interventions for patients and their parents at the initial psychological crisis.

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