ResearchPad - psychological-and-psychosocial-issues https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[The early experiences of Physician Associate students in the UK: A regional cross-sectional study investigating factors associated with engagement]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13815 The number of physician associates (PAs) training and working in the UK has increased over the last few years following the proliferation of postgraduate courses. Understanding early experiences and what impacts on engagement is important if we are to appropriately support this relatively new professional group.MethodsThis paper reports on a cross-sectional analysis of the first year of data from a prospective 10-year longitudinal cohort study. First year PA students (n = 89) were enrolled from five universities in one UK region where the training programmes were less than 2 years old. Data collected were: demographic information, wellbeing, burnout and engagement, expectations, placement experience, performance and caring responsibilities. Pearson’s correlations were used to examine relationships between variables and to select variables for a hierarchical regression analysis to understand which factors were associated with engagement. Descriptive statistics were calculated for questions relating to experience.ResultsThe experiences of PA students during their first 3–6 months were mixed. For example, 78.7% of students felt that there were staff on placement they could go to for support, however, 44.8% reported that staff did not know about the role and 61.3% reported that staff did not know what clinical work they should undertake. Regression analysis found that their level of engagement was associated with their perceived career satisfaction, overall well-being, and caring responsibilities.ConclusionsThe support systems required for PAs may need to be examined as results showed that the PA student demographic is different to that of medical students and caring responsibilities are highly associated with engagement. A lack of understanding around the PA role in clinical settings may also need to be addressed in order to better support and develop this workforce. ]]> <![CDATA[Interventions to improve self-management of adults living with HIV on Antiretroviral Therapy: A systematic review]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7726 Since its initial recognition, HIV has been responsible for around 35 million deaths globally. The introduction of Antiretroviral Therapy has helped to reduce mortality from HIV. However, the resulting increased longevity has influenced the experience of people living with HIV, which now manifests as a chronic condition requiring effective self-management. This review aimed to identify and evaluate the effectiveness of interventions to improve self-management of adults living with HIV on Antiretroviral therapy.MethodsThe review included published experimental studies addressing interventions to improve self-management of adults living with HIV on Antiretroviral Therapy. Studies were included if they addressed two or more outcomes of self-management, as defined by the Theory of Individual and Family Self-Management. The search covered four databases and was limited to papers published in the English language from 2001 to March 30, 2019. The reference lists of included studies were further searched for additional studies. Two independent reviewers using the Joanna Briggs Institute Meta-Analysis of Statistics Assessment and Review Instrument (JBI SUMARI) assessed the methodological quality of the reviewed papers. Data extraction was undertaken using the JBI SUMARI standardized data extraction tool. As the included papers were not homogeneous, it was not possible to conduct a meta-analysis. A narrative synthesis was undertaken to synthesize the findings of the included studies.ResultsThe search identified 337 articles from which 10 experimental and 2 quasi-experimental studies were included. The total participant sample in the included studies was 1661 adults living with HIV. The overall evidence quality of the findings was considered moderate. Many of the studies included in this review comprised multi-component interventions to improve self-management. Skills training, in conjunction with other forms of interventions, particularly phone counseling, was commonly employed and generally effective in improving self-management outcomes. Counseling with a symptom management manual was another employed and effective intervention, followed by technology-assisted self-management interventions. The most common outcomes measured were maintaining medication adherence and quality of life, followed by symptom management, self-efficacy, coping, and social support.ConclusionsInterventions to improve self-management varied across studies. However, promising outcomes achieved in the majority of studies through interventions comprising a combination of skills training, phone counseling, counseling with symptom management manuals, and technology-assisted interventions. ]]> <![CDATA[Life within a limited radius: Investigating activity space in women with a history of child abuse using global positioning system tracking]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7709 Early experiences of childhood sexual or physical abuse are often associated with functional impairments, reduced well-being and interpersonal problems in adulthood. Prior studies have addressed whether the traumatic experience itself or adult psychopathology is linked to these limitations. To approach this question, individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and healthy individuals with and without a history of child abuse were investigated. We used global positioning system (GPS) tracking to study temporal and spatial limitations in the participants’ real-life activity space over the course of one week. The sample consisted of 228 female participants: 150 women with PTSD and emotional instability with a history of child abuse, 35 mentally healthy women with a history of child abuse (healthy trauma controls, HTC) and 43 mentally healthy women without any traumatic experiences in their past (healthy controls, HC). Both traumatized groups—i.e. the PTSD and the HTC group—had smaller movement radii than the HC group on the weekends, but neither spent significantly less time away from home than HC. Some differences between PTSD and HC in movement radius seem to be related to correlates of PTSD psychopathology, like depression and physical health. Yet group differences between HTC and HC in movement radius remained even when contextual and individual health variables were included in the model, indicating specific effects of traumatic experiences on activity space. Experiences of child abuse could limit activity space later in life, regardless of whether PTSD develops.

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<![CDATA[Workplace burnout and health issues among Colombian correctional officers]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6c75e7d5eed0c4843d047c

Introduction

Correctional employees typically work under adverse conditions that may enhance the occurrence of different negative psychological states. Burnout constitutes a high-risk phenomenon that may affect people’s physical/mental health and welfare, especially in vulnerable occupational groups.

Objectives

The aim of this study was to characterize the burnout profile of correctional officers, and to associate their burnout profile with health issues and lifestyle factors.

Methods

The full sample was composed of 219 Colombian correctional officers with a mean age of 30.18 years. A questionnaire composed of three sections was employed: demographic data, burnout, and health information.

Results

A high proportion of participants reported burnout indicators, also significantly correlated to their health indicators and lifestyle factors. Cluster analyses were used in order to characterize the burnout/age (model A) and burnout/age/psychological disturbance (model B) profiles of correctional officers. Furthermore, significant differences were found when comparing frequencies of alcohol consumption and physical exercise (lifestyle indicators) and perceived social support of officers depending on their profile.

Conclusions

the discussion focused on the negative impact of burnout on health, and on the importance of strengthening occupational programs aimed at reducing the impact of hazardous working conditions that contribute to the development of burnout, and to the arise different mid and long-term health complains among correctional workers.

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<![CDATA[Searching for the causal effects of body mass index in over 300 000 participants in UK Biobank, using Mendelian randomization]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5df305d5eed0c484580b50

Mendelian randomization (MR) has been used to estimate the causal effect of body mass index (BMI) on particular traits thought to be affected by BMI. However, BMI may also be a modifiable, causal risk factor for outcomes where there is no prior reason to suggest that a causal effect exists. We performed a MR phenome-wide association study (MR-pheWAS) to search for the causal effects of BMI in UK Biobank (n = 334 968), using the PHESANT open-source phenome scan tool. A subset of identified associations were followed up with a formal two-stage instrumental variable analysis in UK Biobank, to estimate the causal effect of BMI on these phenotypes. Of the 22 922 tests performed, our MR-pheWAS identified 587 associations below a stringent P value threshold corresponding to a 5% estimated false discovery rate. These included many previously identified causal effects, for instance, an adverse effect of higher BMI on risk of diabetes and hypertension. We also identified several novel effects, including protective effects of higher BMI on a set of psychosocial traits, identified initially in our preliminary MR-pheWAS in circa 115,000 UK Biobank participants and replicated in a different subset of circa 223,000 UK Biobank participants. Our comprehensive MR-pheWAS identified potential causal effects of BMI on a large and diverse set of phenotypes. This included both previously identified causal effects, and novel effects such as a protective effect of higher BMI on feelings of nervousness.

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<![CDATA[Development of a psycho-social intervention for reducing psychological distress among parents of children with intellectual disabilities in Malawi]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6b2636d5eed0c4842895a3

Background

The burden of intellectual disabilities in low and middle income countries (LMIC) is high and is associated with parental psychological distress. There are few services for children and parents in most developing countries and few interventions have been created that target the psychological issues among parents of such children. This study aimed to develop a contextualized intervention to provide psychological support for parents of children with intellectual disabilities in an African setting.

Methods

Six steps were adopted from the Medical Research Council framework for designing complex interventions. This include: literature review of similar interventions and models, qualitative studies to gain insights of lived experiences of parents of such children, a consensus process with an expert panel of professionals working with children with disabilities and piloting and pre-testing the draft intervention for its acceptability and practicability in this settings.

Results

21 intervention modules were found from a systematic search of the literature which were listed for possible use in our intervention along with four themes from our qualitative studies. An expert panel formed consensus on the eight most pertinent and relevant modules for our setting. This formed the intervention; “Titukulane.” This intervention was piloted and found to have high acceptability and practicability when contextualized in the field.

Conclusion

The use of a systematic framework for designing a complex intervention for supporting the mental health of parents of children with disabilities enables good acceptability and practicability for future use in low resource settings.

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<![CDATA[Impact of lay health worker programmes on the health outcomes of mother-child pairs of HIV exposed children in Africa: A scoping review]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5ca2cfd5eed0c48441eb5e

Background

Increased demand for healthcare services in countries experiencing high HIV disease burden and often coupled with a shortage of health workers, has necessitated task shifting from professional health workers to Lay Health Workers (LHWs) in order to improve healthcare delivery. Maternal and Child Health (MCH) services particularly benefit from task-shifting to LHWs or similar cadres. However, evidence on the roles and usefulness of LHWs in MCH service delivery in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is not fully known.

Objectives

To examine evidence of the roles and impact of lay health worker programmes focusing on Women Living with HIV (WLH) and their HIV-exposed infants (HEIs).

Methods

A scoping review approach based on Arksey and O’Malley’s guiding principles was used to retrieve, review and analyse existing literature. We searched for articles published between January 2008 and July 2018 in seven (7) databases, including: MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, Joanna Briggs, The Cochrane Library, EBM reviews and Web of Science. The critical constructs used for the literature search were “lay health worker”, “community health worker”, “peer mentor”, “mentor mother,” “Maternal and Child health worker”, “HIV positive mothers”, “HIV exposed infants” and PMTCT.

Results

Thirty-three (33) full-text articles meeting the eligibility criteria were identified and included in the final analysis. Most (n = 13, 39.4%) of the included studies were conducted in South Africa and used a cluster RCT design (n = 13, 39.4%). The most commonly performed roles of LHWs in HIV specific MCH programmes included: community engagement and sensitisation, psychosocial support, linkage to care, encouraging women to bring their infants back for HIV testing and supporting default tracing. Community awareness on Mother to Child Transmission of HIV (MTCT), proper and consistent use of condoms, clinic attendance and timely HIV testing of HEIs, as well as retention in care for infected persons, have all improved because of LHW programmes.

Conclusion

LHWs play significant roles in the management of WLH and their HEIs, improving MCH outcomes in the process. LHW interventions are beneficial in increasing access to PMTCT services and reducing MTCT of HIV, though their impact on improving adherence to ART remains scanty. Further research is needed to evaluate ART adherence in LHW interventions targeted at WLH. LHW programmes can be enhanced by increasing supportive supervision and remuneration of LHWs.

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<![CDATA[Participation of children with disabilities in school: A realist systematic review of psychosocial and environmental factors]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c59ff09d5eed0c4841359b2

Background

In order to make informed decisions about how best to support children and young people with disabilities, effective strategies that facilitate active and meaningful participation in school are required. Clinical factors, diagnosis or impairments somewhat helpful in determining what should be provided in interventions. However, clinical factors alone will not offer a clear view of how to support participation. It is helpful then to look at wider psychosocial and environmental factors. The aim of this review was to synthesise evidence of psychosocial and environmental factors associated with school participation of 4–12 year old children with disabilities to inform the development of participation-fostering interventions.

Methods

A systematic search and synthesis using realist methods was conducted of published research. Papers had to include consideration of psychosocial and/or environment factors for school participation of children with disabilities. The review was completed in accordance with the Realist and Meta-narrative Evidence Syntheses: Evolving Standards (RAMESES) and Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines. Papers were identified via Boolean search of the electronic databases MEDLINE, CINAHL, PhycINFO and ERIC (January 2006-October 2018). Appraisal focussed on contributions in terms of whether the articles are appropriate for the review (relevance) and research quality (rigour). Data were analyzed using content and thematic analysis methods using a realist framework. A narrative synthesis of results was reported.

Results and implications

We identified 1828 papers in the initial search. Seventy two papers were included in the final synthesis. Synthesis of findings led to three overarching mechanisms representing psychosocial factors for children (1) identity (2) competence and (3) experience of mind and body. Environmental aspects (context) compromised five interrelated areas: (1) structures and organization, (2) peers, (3) adults, (4) space and (5) objects. Our synthesis provides insights on how professionals may organize efforts to improve children’s participation. Consideration of these findings will help to proactively deal with suboptimal participation outcomes. Development of theoretically determined assessments and interventions for management of school participation are now required.

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<![CDATA[Socio-demographic, clinical, and psychosocial factors associated with primary caregivers’ decisions regarding HIV disclosure to their child aged between 6 and 12 years living with HIV in Malawi]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c478c77d5eed0c484bd27fa

The World Health Organisation (WHO) recommends that children living with HIV should be informed about their HIV status within the ages of 6 to 12 years using age-appropriate resources. The aim of this study was to assess the socio-demographic, clinical and psychosocial factors associated with primary caregivers’ decisions to disclose HIV to children living with HIV aged 6 to 12 years in Malawi. A cross-sectional study of 429 primary caregivers of children living with HIV were systematically recruited from all regions of the country. Information on HIV disclosure, family and child socio-demographic characteristics, child clinical characteristics, and child and family psychosocial characteristics was collected using validated instruments. Logistic regression was used to analyse data. The prevalence of non-disclosure of HIV status to children was 64 per cent. Concerns about the child’s inability to cope with the news (29%), a lack of knowledge on how to disclose HIV status (19%), and fear of stigma and discrimination (17%) were the main reasons for non-disclosure. On multivariate analysis, the odds of non-disclosure were higher among primary caregivers who were farmers (aOR 3.0; 95% CI: 1.1–8.4), in younger children (6–8 years) (aOR 4.1; 95% CI: 2.3–7.4), in children who were in WHO HIV clinical stage one (aOR 3.8; 95% CI: 1.4–10.2), and in children who were not asking why they were taking ARVs (aOR 2.9; 95% CI: 1.8–4.8). On the other hand, nondisclosure of HIV status was less likely in underweight children (aOR 0.6; 95% CI: 0.3–0.9). Many children living with HIV in Malawi are unaware of their HIV status. Non-disclosure is associated with a number of clinical and demographic characteristics. The findings highlight the need to provide guidance and support to primary caregivers to help them to effectively disclose HIV status to their children.

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<![CDATA[Trajectories of patients with severe mental illness in two-year contact with Flexible Assertive Community Treatment teams using Routine Outcome Monitoring data: An observational study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c3fa5d8d5eed0c484ca9435

Objective

Using outcome data collected routinely over a continuous two-year treatment period, we wished to distinguish homogeneous subgroups of patients with a severe mental illness whose psychosocial problems followed a similar pattern over time. By identifying the effectiveness of health services for different patient groups, this approach allowed us to identify patients at risk of deterioration and those recovering from their symptoms.

Methods

In total we included 2,660 patients who were in two-year continuous contact with a Flexible Assertive Community Treatment team (FACT). We collected outcome data on psychosocial functioning, needs for care and quality of life. We performed a latent class growth analysis (LCGA).

Results

The LCGA identified six homogenous patient subgroups using trajectories of HoNOS scores. On the basis of the patterns of patients’ psychosocial problems over time, we labelled these as follows: 1) stable at a low problem-severity level (N = 709; 27%); 2) stable at a low medium problem-severity level (N = 1,208; 45%); 3) stable at a high medium problem-severity level (N = 528; 20%); 4) stable at a high problem-severity level (N = 116; 4%); 5) amelioration of problems (N = 42; 2%); and 6) deterioration of problems (N = 57; 2%). Patients with stable and a high severity of psychosocial problems had more practical and somatic unmet needs than those in other subgroups, and also had the fewest decrease in the number of unmet needs.

Discussion

After linking patient subgroups with clinical features such as the need for care, we found that, over two years, most patients remained relatively stable in terms of psychosocial functioning, but that their unmet needs decreased over time. However, in terms of needs for treatment during two years of contact with a FACT team, patients in the subgroup with a stable and high problem-severity level tended to derive little or no benefit.

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<![CDATA[Integrated treatment program for alcohol related problems in community hospitals, Songkhla province of Thailand: A social return on investment analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c3667d5d5eed0c4841a65e6

Objectives

To estimate the impacts and social value relative to the cost of the Integrated Management of Alcohol Intervention Program in the Health Care System (i-MAP) on direct beneficiaries, using a Social Return on Investment (SROI) analysis.

Method

A mixed-method approach was conducted among stakeholders and 113 drinkers (29 low-risk, 43 high-risk, and 41 dependent drinkers) who consecutively received i-MAP at four community hospitals in Songkhla province of Thailand. Resources for program implementation as well as drinking and a list of psychosocial outcomes, selected through stakeholder interviews, were measured among participants during and at the sixth month after participation, respectively. SROI (societal benefit-to-cost) ratio of i-MAP was estimated over a 5-year time horizon and shown in 2017 Thai baht, where US$1.00 = 33.1 baht. One-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses of key parameters were performed among treatment subgroups.

Results

Baseline estimates of the annual cost and 5-year social value of i-MAP were 25.5 and 51.0 million baht, respectively, yielding an estimated SROI ratio of 2.0, with a possible range of 1.3 to 2.4. Value created by the program was mostly attributed to broader gains to society (productivity gains and averted crime costs) and drinkers. Subgroup analyses suggested that the SROI ratio for high-risk drinkers was twice that for dependent drinkers (2.8 vs. 1.5). The probabilistic sensitivity analysis showed that more than 99% of the simulated treatments for both high-risk and dependent groups yielded benefits beyond the corresponding costs.

Conclusions

By considering societal perspective, the i-MAP program has demonstrated its social value is twice its investment cost and potential for the program to be implemented nationwide.

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<![CDATA[Relationship of trainee dentists’ self-reported empathy and communication behaviors with simulated patients’ assessment in medical interviews]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c254504d5eed0c48442bcfa

Objectives

We aimed to clarify the communication behaviors between trainee dentists and simulated patients (SPs), to examine how the level of trainee dentists’ self-reported empathy influences assessment by SPs in medical interviews.

Materials and methods

The study involved 100 trainee dentists at Okayama University Hospital and eight SPs. The trainee dentists conducted initial interviews with the SPs after completing the Japanese version of the Jefferson Scale of Empathy (JSE). All interviews were recorded and analyzed using the Roter Interaction Analysis System (RIAS). The SPs assessed the trainees’ communication immediately after each interview. The trainee dentists were classified into two groups (more positive and less positive) according to SP assessment scores.

Results

Compared with less-positive trainees, the more-positive trainees scored higher in the RIAS category of emotional expression and lower in the medical data gathering category. There was no difference in dental data gathering between the two groups. SP ratings for more-positive trainees were higher for use of positive talk and emotional expression and lower for giving medical information and dental information. Trainees with more positive ratings from SPs had significantly higher JSE total scores.

Conclusion

The results of this study suggest that responding to the emotions of patients is an important behavior in dentist-patient communication, according to SPs’ positive assessment in medical interviews. Further, SPs’ assessment of trainees’ communication was related to trainees’ self-reported empathy, which indicates that an empathic attitude among dentists is a significant determinant of patient satisfaction.

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<![CDATA[Implementing the package of CDC and WHO recommended linkage services: Methods, outcomes, and costs of the Bukoba Tanzania Combination Prevention Evaluation peer-delivered, linkage case management program, 2014-2017]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c1c0af7d5eed0c484426fff

Although several studies have evaluated one or more linkage services to improve early enrollment in HIV care in Tanzania, none have evaluated the package of linkage services recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the World Health Organization (WHO). We describe the uptake of each component of the CDC/WHO recommended package of linkage services, and early enrollment in HIV care and antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation among persons with HIV who participated in a peer-delivered, linkage case management (LCM) program implemented in Bukoba, Tanzania, October 2014 –May 2017. Of 4206 participants (88% newly HIV diagnosed), most received recommended services including counseling on the importance of early enrollment in care and ART (100%); escort by foot or car to an HIV care and treatment clinic (CTC) (83%); treatment navigation at a CTC (94%); telephone support and appointment reminders (77% among clients with cellphones); and counseling on HIV-status disclosure and partner/family testing (77%), and on barriers to care (69%). During three periods with different ART-eligibility thresholds [CD4<350 (Oct 2014 –Dec 2015, n = 2233), CD4≤500 (Jan 2016 –Sept 2016, n = 1221), and Test & Start (Oct 2016 –May 2017, n = 752)], 90%, 96%, and 97% of clients enrolled in HIV care, and 47%, 67%, and 86% of clients initiated ART, respectively, within three months of diagnosis. Of 463 LCM clients who participated in the last three months of the rollout of Test & Start, 91% initiated ART. Estimated per-client cost was $44 United States dollars (USD) for delivering LCM services in communities and facilities overall, and $18 USD for a facility-only model with task shifting. Well accepted by persons with HIV, peer-delivered LCM services recommended by CDC and WHO can achieve near universal early ART initiation in the Test & Start era at modest cost and should be considered for implementation in facilities and communities experiencing <90% early enrollment in ART care.

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<![CDATA[Employment predictors of exit from work among workers with disabilities: A survival analysis from the household income labour dynamics in Australia survey]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c141f12d5eed0c484d29857

Objectives

Across high-income countries, unemployment rates among workers with disabilities are disproportionately high. The aim of this study was to identify characteristics of employment associated with dropping out of work and assess whether these were different for workers with versus without disabilities.

Methods

Using a longitudinal panel study of working Australians (2001 to 2015), the current study estimated Kaplan–Meier curves and Cox proportional hazard regression models to identify predictors of leaving employment, including psychosocial job quality, employment arrangement, and occupational skill level. Effect modification by disability status of the relationship between employment-related factors and exit from the labour market were assessed by including interaction terms and assessing model fit with a likelihood ratio test. Models were adjusted for a range of socio-demographic and health related factors.

Results

Compared to those without disability, those with disability had a greater risk of leaving employment (HR 1.26, 95% CI 1.18 to 1.35, p<0.001). Other predictors of exit from work included low-skilled occupation (HR 1.18, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.29, p = 0.001), being in a job with low psychosocial job quality (HR 1.11, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.19, p = 0.007), and casual, labour hire or fixed-term contract employment (HR 1.58, 95% CI 1.48 to 1.69, p<0.001). There was no effect modification by disability status.

Conclusions

More research is needed to understand the experiences of workers with disabilities who stay in and leave employment.

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<![CDATA[Does walking protect against decline in cognitive functioning among breast cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy? Results from a small randomised controlled trial]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c0841b0d5eed0c484fca753

Background

Cancer related cognitive impairments have been subjectively reported and objectively detected in breast cancer patients treated with chemotherapy and are known to have a profound negative impact on productivity, psychosocial well-being and overall quality of life. Moderate levels of walking are known to be of benefit to the psychosocial well-being of those affected by breast cancer and for managing cognitive impairment in healthy adults, children, and the elderly. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of a home-based, self-managed, moderate intensity walking intervention on subjective and objective cognitive functioning in breast cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy.

Methods

A home-based, self-managed intervention that consisted of moderate levels of walking was compared to usual care among breast cancer patients treated with chemotherapy in a randomised controlled trial. Outcome measures included changes in subjective (CFQ) and objectively detected cognitive functioning (Stroop, SART and two subscales from the WAIS- Digit Span and Block Design). Fifty participants were randomised to either the intervention group (n = 25), who completed 12 weeks of moderate intensity walking, or to the control group (n = 25) mid-way through chemotherapy.

Results

Compared with the control group, the self-managed walking intervention had positive effects on perceived cognitive function but not on sustained attention, executive function, memory or visual spatial skills when assessed objectively using neuropsychological measures.

Conclusion

This home-based, self-managed intervention is beneficial for protecting against perceived cognitive decline in breast cancer patients treated with chemotherapy. There is a need for further research to objectively assess cognitive decline within this population with larger sample sizes of patients.

Trial registration

Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN50709297

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<![CDATA[Depressive and socially anxious symptoms, psychosocial maturity, and risk perception: Associations with risk-taking behaviour]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b8acded40307c144d0de059

Risk-taking behaviour and onset of mental illness peak in adolescence and young adulthood. This study evaluated the interconnectedness of the domains of risk-taking behaviour, mental health (symptoms of depression and social anxiety), psychosocial maturity, risk perception, age, and gender in a sample of 306 adolescents and young adults. Participants between the ages of 16 and 35 completed online self-report measures assessing risk-taking behaviour, depressive symptoms, socially anxious symptoms, psychosocial maturity and risk perception. Socially anxious symptoms, psychosocial maturity, and risk perception were directly associated with risk-taking behaviour. Correlations between depressive symptoms, socially anxious symptoms, and psychosocial maturity were found. Psychosocial maturity proved a better predictor of risk-taking behaviour than age in this cohort. The findings indicate that mental health impacts upon risk-taking behaviour and that consideration should be given to psychosocial maturity in attempts to reduce adolescent and young adult risk-taking behaviour.

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<![CDATA[Patients' perceptions of their experiences with nurse-patient communication in oncology settings: A focused ethnographic study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b498fb6463d7e0897c6e021

Background

The nursing shortage and its impact on patient care are well-documented global issues. Patients living with cancer as a chronic illness have many psychosocial problems and often lack adequate support as a result of ineffective nurse-patient communication. A review of the literature on factors influencing the delivery of psychosocial care to cancer patients indicates that the delivery of psychosocial care in routine cancer nursing within a biomedical healthcare system has not been widely explored.

Objective

To explore patients’ perceptions of their experiences with nurse-patient communication in an oncological clinical environment.

Method

A focused ethnographic study was undertaken in two oncology wards of a hospital in Hong Kong. Data were collected through observations of the ward environment, the activities and instances of nurse-patient communication, semi-structured interviews with patients, and a review of nursing documents.

Results

Two main themes were identified: 1. Nurses’ workload and the environment and 2. Nurse-patient partnership and role expectations. Within these two themes were related subthemes on: Sympathy for the busy nurses; Prioritizing calls to the nurses; Partnership through relationship; Nurses’ role in psychosocial care; and Reduction of psychosocial concerns through physical care.

Conclusions

Many cancer patients do not expect to receive psychosocial care in the form of emotional talks or counseling from busy nurses, but appreciate the attention paid by nurses to their physiological and physical needs. Nurse-patient partnerships in cancer care may reduce the potential workload of nurses. The psychosocial needs of cancer patients could be optimized by providing good physical care through effective communication within a time-constrained oncology setting.

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<![CDATA[Psycho-Socio-Economic Issues Challenging Multidrug Resistant Tuberculosis Patients: A Systematic Review]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da74ab0ee8fa60b95e6b

Background

Limited treatment options, long duration of treatment and associated toxicity adversely impact the physical and mental well-being of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) patients. Despite research advances in the microbiological and clinical aspects of MDR-TB, research on the psychosocial context of MDR-TB is limited and less understood.

Methodology

We searched the databases of PubMed, MEDLINE, Embase and Google Scholar to retrieve all published articles. The final manuscripts included in the review were those with a primary focus on psychosocial issues of MDR-TB patients. These were assessed and the information was thematically extracted on the study objective, methodology used, key findings, and their implications. Intervention studies were evaluated using components of the methodological and quality rating scale. Due to the limited number of studies and the multiple methodologies employed in the observational studies, we summarized these studies using a narrative approach, rather than conducting a formal meta-analysis. We used ‘thematic synthesis’ method for extracting qualitative evidences and systematically organised to broader descriptive themes.

Results

A total of 282 published articles were retrieved, of which 15 articles were chosen for full text review based on the inclusion criteria. Six were qualitative studies; one was a mixed methods study; and eight were quantitative studies. The included studies were divided into the following issues affecting MDR-TB patients: a) psychological issues b) social issues and economic issues c) psychosocial interventions. It was found that all studies have documented range of psychosocial and economic challenges experienced by MDR-TB patients. Depression, stigma, discrimination, side effects of the drugs causing psychological distress, and the financial constraints due to MDR-TB were some of the common issues reported in the studies. There were few intervention studies which addressed these psychosocial issues most of which were small pilot studies. There is dearth of large scale randomized psychosocial intervention studies that can be scaled up to strengthen management of MDR-TB patients which is crucial for the TB control programme.

Conclusion

This review has captured the psychosocial and economic issues challenging MDR patients. However there is urgent need for feasible, innovative psychosocial and economic intervention studies that help to equip MDR-TB patients cope with their illness, improve treatment adherence, treatment outcomes and the overall quality of life of MDR-TB patients.

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<![CDATA["I was in the darkness but the group brought me light": Development, relevance and feasibility of the Sondela HIV adjustment and coping intervention]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db5cab0ee8fa60be019e

Developing interventions that address psychosocial wellbeing of people living with HIV is critical to ensure strong linkages to and retention in HIV care. This paper describes the development of Sondela, an HIV adjustment and coping intervention for heterosexual men and women living with HIV, and its relevance and feasibility in the South African context. Sondela is a six three-hour, small group-based, participatory workshop series. We followed an iterative, multi-phased process of curriculum development that involved research, theoretical frameworks and piloting. A systematic review highlighted the absence of psychosocial interventions targeting heterosexual HIV positive populations living in high HIV prevalence and resource-poor settings. Formative studies demonstrated risk and social factors associated with adjustment and coping with HIV, emphasising the need for interventions that acknowledge gendered experiences. Our pilot of Sondela demonstrated high levels of relevance and feasibility. Men appreciated the workshop “space” to openly talk about their HIV positive status and what is means for their role as partners and fathers and friends. Women valued the skills and approaches because they were relevant to “real life” situations and not just about HIV. Sondela promises to be valuable in supporting health system initiatives and psychosocial support to strengthen linkages to and retention in HIV care, and this suggests a need for rigorous evaluation of Sondela to establish evidence for its effectiveness in a general population.

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<![CDATA[Objectively Assessed Exercise Behavior in Chinese Patients with Early-Stage Cancer: A Predictor of Perceived Benefits, Communication with Doctors, Medical Coping Modes, Depression and Quality of Life]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da17ab0ee8fa60b7bd1d

This study sought to identify factors associated with objectively assessed exercise behavior in Chinese patients with early-stage cancer. Three hundred and fifty one cancer patients were recruited from the Affiliated Jiangyin Hospital of Southeast University Medical College and the Nantong Tumor Hospital. One-way ANOVA, Pearson Chi-square tests and regression analysis were employed to identify the correlations between physical exercise and the measured factors. The results showed that occupation type (χ2 = 14.065; p = 0.029), monthly individual monthly income level (χ2 = 24.795; p = 0.003), BMI (χ2 = 15.709; p = 0.015) and diagnosis (χ2 = 42.442; p < 0.000) were significantly correlated with the subjects self-reported exercise with different frequency per week. Differences in the frequency of exercise were associated with different degrees of reported Benefit Finding (BF) (F = 24.651; p < 0.000), communication with doctors (F = 15.285; p < 0.000), medical coping modes (F = 45.912; p < 0.000), social support (F = 2.938; p = 0.030), depression (F = 6.017; p < 0.000), and quality of life (F = 12.288; p < 0.000). Multiple regression analysis showed that 1.6%-6.4% of the variance in five variables, excluding social support and optimism could be explained by exercise. Our results indicated that benefit finding, medical coping modes, communication with doctors, social support, depression and quality of life were significantly correlated with exercise. The variance in several psychosocial factors (benefit finding, medical coping modes, the communication with doctors, depression and quality of life) could be explained by exercise. Psychosocial factors should be addressed and examined over time when evaluating the effect of physical exercise that is prescribed as a clinically relevant treatment.

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