ResearchPad - psychological-stress https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[The emergence of social gaps in mental health: A longitudinal population study in Sweden, 1900-1959]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_11234 During the recent decades, social inequalities in mental health have increased and are now one of the most persistent features of contemporary society. There is limited knowledge about when this pattern emerged or whether it has been a historically fixed feature. The objective of this study was to assess whether socioeconomic and gender gaps in mental health changed during the period 1900–1959 in Sweden. We used historical micro data which report all necessary information on individuals' demographic characteristics, occupational attainment and mental disorders (N = 2,450) in a Swedish population of 193,893. Changes over time was tested using multilevel Cox proportional hazard models. We tested how gender-specific risks of mental disorder changed and how gender-specific socioeconomic status was related to risks of mental disorder later in life. We found a reversal in gender gaps in mental health during the study period. Women had a lower risk than men in 1900 and higher risks in 1959. For men, we found a negative gradient in SES risks in 1900 and a positive gradient in 1959. For women, we found no clear SES gradient in the risk of mental disorder. These findings suggest that the contemporary patterns in socioeconomic and gender gaps in mental disorder emerged during the 1940s and 1950s and have since then persisted.

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<![CDATA[The relationship of recreational runners’ motivation and resilience levels to the incidence of injury: A mediation model]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7663 Running participation has increased significantly in the last decade. Despite its association with different health-related aspects, athletes may experience adverse outcomes, including injuries. The aim of this study was twofold: to examine the relationship between runners’ resilience levels, motivation and incidence of injury, on the one hand; and to analyse the mediation that intrinsic and extrinsic motivation has on the association between the number of injuries and psychological resilience levels among amateur athletes. The sample consisted of a total of 1725 runners (age: 40.40 ± 9.39 years), 1261 of whom were male (age: 43.16 ± 9.38), and 465 of whom were female (age: 40.34 ± 9.14). Athletes completed the Behavioural Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire (BREQ-3), the Resilience scale (CD-RISC 10), and an Injury retrospective survey. Three mediation models were constructed, and the results showed a significant indirect association of athletes’ intrinsic motivation and resilience on the number of injuries (β = 0.022, CI = 0.007, 0.0) in mediation model 1, whereas extrinsic motivation was found to have no significant association on those variables (β = -0.062, CI = -0.137, 0.009) in mediation model 2. Model 3 showed significant differences with respect to resilience (p < 0.05) and intrinsic motivation (p < 0.05). Therefore, the mediation of intrinsic motivation on athletes’ resilience levels and incidence of injury was demonstrated, i.e., it was found that intrinsic motivation was associated with a higher incidence of injury, while no such correlation was found for extrinsic motivation. This study shows that the amateur long distance runners with a high level of intrinsic motivation tend to suffer from a greater number of injuries, and at the same time psychological resilience was associated with a lower number of injuries.

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<![CDATA[Changes in human health parameters associated with an immersive exhibit experience at a zoological institution]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N69289aa2-a5fc-4464-abf6-42bfa80ae1ee

Zoological institutions often use immersive, naturalistic exhibits to create an inclusive atmosphere that is inviting for visitors while providing for the welfare of animals in their collections. In this study, we investigated physiological changes in salivary cortisol and blood pressure, as well as psychological changes among visitors before and after a walk through the River’s Edge, an immersive, naturalistic exhibit at the Saint Louis Zoo. Study participants had a significant reduction in salivary cortisol and blood pressure after walking through the exhibit. Psychological assessments of mood found that most visitors felt happier, more energized, and less tense after the visit. Additionally, participants who spent more time in River’s Edge, had visited River’s Edge prior to the study, and had seen more exhibits at the Zoo prior to entering River’s Edge experienced greater psychological and/or physiological benefits. We conclude that immersive, naturalistic exhibits in zoos can elicit positive changes in physiological and psychological measures of health and well-being and argue for a greater scientific focus on the role of zoos and other green spaces in human health.

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<![CDATA[Psychological factors and premenstrual syndrome: A Spanish case-control study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c89777bd5eed0c4847d2df4

Objective

To assess whether the psychological variables perceived stress, neuroticism and coping strategies, are associated with Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS) and Premenstrual Dysphoric Syndrome (PMDD).

Design

Case-control study with incident cases using the Spanish public healthcare system.

Setting

3 major public hospitals and one family counseling and planning center.

Population

Women consulting for troubles related to menstruation and for other motives such as screening for uterine cancer, contraception counselling or desire for pregnancy.

Methods

Logistic regression.

Main outcome measures

Odds of PMS and PMDD.

Results

285 PMS and 285 age-matched controls, as well as 88 PMDD cases and 176 controls participated in the study. Medium and high levels of perceived stress were associated with an increase in the odds of PMS (Odds Ratio (OR) = 2.49; 95%CI: 1.41–4.39 and OR = 4.90; 95%CI: 2.70–8.89, respectively). For PMDD the results were: OR = 2.61; 95%CI: 1.35–5.05 and OR = 5.79; 95%CI: 2.63–12.76, respectively.

Subjects with medium and high levels of neuroticism were also at higher odds of suffering from PMS (OR = 2.53; 95%CI: 1.06–6.06 and OR = 8.05; 95%CI: 3.07–2.12, respectively). For PMDD, the results were OR = 3.70; 95%CI: 1.27–10.77 and 5.73: 95%CI: 1.96–16.77, respectively.

High levels in the large majority of coping strategies were also associated with increased odds of PMS and PMDD.

Conclusions

Psychological factors including perceived stress, neuroticism and coping strategies are strongly related to PMS/PMDD. This association is unlikely to be due to confounding or misclassification bias. A reverse causation process cannot be ruled out although its likelihood is remote.

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<![CDATA[Association between hair cortisol concentration and dietary intake among normal weight preschool children predisposed to overweight and obesity]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c8c1946d5eed0c484b4d32e

Background

The association between chronically elevated cortisol, as measured by hair cortisol concentration (HCC), and dietary intake among children has generally not been explored. Moreover, it is unknown whether there is an association between parental HCC and dietary intake among their children.

Objective

To examine associations between HCC and dietary intake among children, and to explore the association between parental HCC and dietary intake among their children.

Methods

We conducted a cross-sectional study based on 296 children predisposed to overweight and obesity who participated in the Healthy Start study. Multiple Linear regression analyses were conducted to assess the association between HCC and total energy intake, macronutrients, fruit and vegetables, added sugar, sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB), and a diet quality index (DQI).

Results

Among the children, we found that higher HCC was associated with a lower consumption of dietary fat (β: -0.7 g/day [95% CI: -1.3, -0.0] per 100 pg/mg HCC). We found no statistically significant association between HCC and intake of total energy, protein, carbohydrate, fruit and vegetables, added sugar, SSB or DQI. We found no association between parental HCC and intake of total energy, added sugar, selected food groups or DQI among their children. However, stratified analyses showed that paternal HCC was associated with a borderline significant lower total energy intake and significantly lower protein intake, but only among daughters (adjusted β: -42 kcal/day [95% CI: -85, 0] and -2.6 g/day [95% CI: -4.4, -0.8] per 100 pg/mg HCC, respectively).

Conclusion

Among children, chronic stress as measured by HCC may be associated with a lower fat consumption, and paternal HCC may be associated with a lower intake of energy and protein among their daughters. However, the associations observed were weak, and any clinical relevance of these findings remains questionable.

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<![CDATA[Just how miserable is work? A meta-analysis comparing work and non-work affect]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c8823b0d5eed0c484638e4a

Although we spend much of our waking hours working, the emotional experience of work, versus non-work, remains unclear. While the large literature on work stress suggests that work generally is aversive, some seminal theory and findings portray working as salubrious and perhaps as an escape from home life. Here, we examine the subjective experience of work (versus non-work) by conducting a quantitative review of 59 primary studies that assessed affect on working days. Meta-analyses of within-day studies indicated that there was no difference in positive affect (PA) between work versus non-work domains. Negative affect (NA) was higher for work than non-work, although the magnitude of difference was small (i.e., .22 SD, an effect size comparable to that of the difference in NA between different leisure activities like watching TV versus playing board games). Moderator analyses revealed that PA was relatively higher at work and NA relatively lower when affect was measured using “real-time” measurement (e.g., Experience Sampling Methodology) versus measured using the Day Reconstruction Method (i.e., real-time reports reveal a more favorable view of work as compared to recall/DRM reports). Additional findings from moderator analyses included significant differences in main effect sizes as a function of the specific affect, and, for PA, as a function of the age of the sample and the time of day when the non-work measurements were taken. Results for the other possible moderators including job complexity and affect intensity were not statistically significant.

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<![CDATA[The mediating role of coping behavior on the age-technostress relationship: A longitudinal multilevel mediation model]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c8823acd5eed0c484638de4

This study seeks to explain the interplay between chronological age and technology-related strain through techno-stressors and coping strategy choices in organizational settings. Grounded in Lazarus´ stress theory, theories of cognitive aging, the life span theory of control and socioemotional selectivity theory, this study argues that even though older workers are more prone to techno-stressors, aging is connected to gaining coping skills, which in turn reduce technology-related strain over time. Understanding these processes enables modifying employees’ coping strategy choices and mitigating negative outcomes of technostress at the workplace. Longitudinal data from 1,216 employees over a time period of 8 months were used to perform multilevel mediation modeling. The findings reveal that age was negatively related to technology-related strain. The link between age and technology-related strain was explained through behavioral disengagement, which older workers used less than younger workers. Active coping and social coping did not act as mediators of this relationship across time points. These relationships were stable after controlling for dependency on technology.

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<![CDATA[A comparison study of anxiety in children undergoing brain MRI vs adults undergoing brain MRI vs children undergoing an electroencephalogram]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c9902cbd5eed0c484b985cc

Background

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain in children and adolescents is a well-established method in both clinical practice and in neuroscientific research. This practice is sometimes viewed critically, as MRI scans might expose minors (e.g. through scan-associated fears) to more than the legally permissible “minimal burden”. While there is evidence that a significant portion of adults undergoing brain MRI scans experience anxiety, data on anxiety in children and adolescents undergoing brain MRI scans is rare. This study therefore aimed to examine the prevalence and level of anxiety in children and adolescents who had MRI scans of the brain, and to compare the results to adults undergoing brain MRI scans, and to children and adolescents undergoing electroencephalography (EEG; which is usually regarded a “minimal burden”).

Method

Participants were 57 children and adolescents who had a brain MRI scan (MRI-C; mean age 12.9 years), 28 adults who had a brain MRI scan (MRI-A; mean age 43.7 years), and 66 children and adolescents undergoing EEG (EEG-C; mean age 12.9 years). Anxiety was assessed on the subjective (situational anxiety) and on the physiological level (arousal), before and after the respective examination.

Results

More than 98% of children and adolescents reported no or only minimal fear during the MRI scan. Both pre- and post-examination, the MRI-C and the MRI-A groups did not differ significantly with respect to situational anxiety (p = 0.262 and p = 0.374, respectively), and to physiological arousal (p = 0.050, p = 0.472). Between the MRI-C and the EEG-C group, there were also no significant differences in terms of situational anxiety (p = 0.525, p = 0.875), or physiological arousal (p = 0.535, p = 0.189). Prior MRI experience did not significantly influence subjective or physiological anxiety parameters.

Conclusions

In this study, children and adolescents undergoing a brain MRI scan did not experience significantly more anxiety than those undergoing an EEG, or adults undergoing MRI scanning. Therefore, a general exclusion of minors from MRI research studies does not appear reasonable.

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<![CDATA[The efficacy of stress reappraisal interventions on stress responsivity: A meta-analysis and systematic review of existing evidence]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c803c54d5eed0c484ad86da

Background

The beliefs we hold about stress play an important role in coping with stressors. Various theoretical frameworks of stress point to the efficacy of reframing stress-related information through brief reappraisal interventions in order to promote adaptive coping.

Purpose

The goal of the current meta-analysis and systematic review is to substantiate the efficacy of reappraisal interventions on stress responsivity compared to control conditions. Differences in experimental methodologies (e.g., type of stressor used, timing of reappraisal intervention, and content of intervention instructions) will be examined to further delineate their effects on intervention outcomes.

Methods

The literature searches were conducted on May 16, 2018 using PsycINFO, ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, and PILOTS databases with no date restriction. The search terms included stress, reframing, reappraisal, mindset and reconceptualising. A total of 14 articles with 36 independent samples were included in the meta-analysis, while 22 articles with 46 independent samples were included in the systematic review. Random-effects model was used to test the null hypothesis using two-tailed significance testing. Fisher’s Z value was reported for each corresponding test. Heterogeneity tests are reported via Cochran’s Q-statistics.

Results

Findings from both the meta-analysis and systematic review revealed that overall, reappraisal interventions are effective in attenuating subjective responsivity to stress. Standard differences in means across groups are 0.429 (SE = 0.185, 95% CI = 0.067 to 0.791; z = 2.320, p = .020). However, reappraisal intervention groups did not outperform control groups on measures of physiological stress, with standard differences of -0.084 (SE = 0.135, 95% CI = -0.349 to 0.180; z = -0.627, p = .531). Moderator analysis revealed heterogeneous effects suggesting large variability in findings.

Conclusions

On one hand, findings may suggest a promising avenue for the effective management of self-reported stress and optimization of stress responses. However, more research is needed to better elucidate the effects, if any, of reappraisal interventions on stress physiology. Implications for the use of reappraisal interventions on stress optimization are discussed in the context of theoretical frameworks and considerations for future studies.

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<![CDATA[‘We are the change’ - An innovative community-based response to address self-stigma: A pilot study focusing on people living with HIV in Zimbabwe]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6dca28d5eed0c48452a859

Introduction

Self-stigma–negative self-judgements resulting in shame, worthlessness and self-blame–may play a crucial role in emotional reactions and cause emotional distress among many people living with HIV and other chronic illnesses. Furthermore, self-stigma negatively impacts on self-agency, quality of life, adherence to treatment, and access to services. High levels of self-stigma have been reported across many countries, however few programmes or interventions exist to specifically tackle this phenomenon. This paper reports the findings of a pilot study carried out in Zimbabwe using a programme incorporating “Inquiry-Based Stress Reduction (IBSR): The Work of Byron Katie”–a guided form of self-inquiry which helps users to overcome negative thoughts and beliefs.

Objectives

The primary objective of this uncontrolled pilot study was to examine the potential role of the IBSR intervention in helping people living with HIV to overcome self-stigma and associated states.

Methods

23 people living with HIV (17 Female, 6 male, average age 41 years) were recruited from a local HIV support network, via open call for volunteers. All participants received the intervention, consisting of a 12-week facilitated programme using techniques derived from IBSR: The Work of Byron Katie. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected and analysed pre- and post-programme.

Results

After taking part in the intervention, participants reported significant improvements in factors including self-stigma (1-month follow-up vs baseline Z = 2.1, p = 0.039; 3-month follow-up vs baseline Z = 3.0, p = 0.003, n = 23, Wilcoxon Matched Pairs Signed Rank Test) and depression (1mo vs baseline Z = 3.7, p = <0.001; 3mo vs baseline Z = 3.3, p = 0.001). Qualitatively, participants reported improvements including lessened fears around disclosure of their HIV status, reduced feelings of life limitations due to HIV, and greater positive mentality. Improvements persisted at three-month follow-up.

Conclusion

With further development and larger comparative studies to confirm effects, the IBSR programme could become a novel tool to enable people living with HIV to support themselves in overcoming self-stigma.

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<![CDATA[Austerity measures and the transforming role of A&E professionals in a weakening welfare system]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6dca19d5eed0c48452a785

In 2010, the UK embarked on a self-imposed programme of contractionary measures signalling the beginning of a so-called “age of austerity” for the country. It was argued that budgetary cuts were the most appropriate means of eliminating deficits and decreasing national debt as percentage of General Domestic Product (GDP). Although the budget for the National Health Service (NHS) was not reduced, a below-the-average increase in funding, and cuts in other areas of public spending, particularly in social care and welfare spending, impacted significantly on the NHS. One of the areas where the impact of austerity was most dramatically felt was in Accidents and Emergency Departments (A&E). A number of economic and statistical reports and quantitative studies have explored and documented the effects of austerity in healthcare in the UK, but there is a paucity of research looking at the effects of austerity from the standpoint of the healthcare professionals. In this paper, we report findings from a qualitative study with healthcare professionals working in A&E departments in England. The study findings are presented thematically in three sections. The main theme that runs through all three sections is the perceptions of austerity as shaping the functioning of A&E departments, of healthcare professions and of professionals themselves. The first section discusses the rising demand for services and resources, and the changed demographic of A&E patients—altering the meaning of A&E from ‘Accidents and Emergencies’ to the Department for ‘Anything and Everything’. The second section in this study’s findings, explores how austerity policies are perceived to affect the character of healthcare in A&E. It discusses how an increased focus on the procedures, time-keeping and the operationalisation of healthcare is considered to detract from values such as empathy in interactions with patients. In the third section, the effects of austerity on the morale and motivations of healthcare professionals themselves are presented. Here, the concepts of moral distress and burnout are used in the analysis of the experiences and feelings of being devalued. From these accounts and insights, we analyse austerity as a catalyst or mechanism for a significant shift in the practice and function of the NHS–in particular, a shift in what is counted, measured and valued at departmental, professional and personal levels in A&E.

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<![CDATA[Is there an association between working conditions and health? An analysis of the Sixth European Working Conditions Survey data]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6c75c9d5eed0c4843d01a5

This paper analyses the association between working conditions and physical health using data from the Sixth European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS6) released in 2017. The econometric analysis uses two indicators to describe health status: self-assessed health (SAH), which is a subjective indicator of health; and an objective indicator of health (SICK), which is based on the occurrence of any illness or health problem that has lasted or is expected to last for more than 6 months. The theoretical hypotheses concerning the association between working conditions and SAH and the association between working conditions and SICK are tested using a standard ordered probit model and a standard probit model, respectively. The results show that encouraging working conditions, work environment, and job support are associated with both better self-assessed health and better objective health.

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<![CDATA[Workplace burnout and health issues among Colombian correctional officers]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6c75e7d5eed0c4843d047c

Introduction

Correctional employees typically work under adverse conditions that may enhance the occurrence of different negative psychological states. Burnout constitutes a high-risk phenomenon that may affect people’s physical/mental health and welfare, especially in vulnerable occupational groups.

Objectives

The aim of this study was to characterize the burnout profile of correctional officers, and to associate their burnout profile with health issues and lifestyle factors.

Methods

The full sample was composed of 219 Colombian correctional officers with a mean age of 30.18 years. A questionnaire composed of three sections was employed: demographic data, burnout, and health information.

Results

A high proportion of participants reported burnout indicators, also significantly correlated to their health indicators and lifestyle factors. Cluster analyses were used in order to characterize the burnout/age (model A) and burnout/age/psychological disturbance (model B) profiles of correctional officers. Furthermore, significant differences were found when comparing frequencies of alcohol consumption and physical exercise (lifestyle indicators) and perceived social support of officers depending on their profile.

Conclusions

the discussion focused on the negative impact of burnout on health, and on the importance of strengthening occupational programs aimed at reducing the impact of hazardous working conditions that contribute to the development of burnout, and to the arise different mid and long-term health complains among correctional workers.

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<![CDATA[A systematic study of microdosing psychedelics]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c648ccdd5eed0c484c8180c

The phenomenon of ‘microdosing’, that is, regular ingestion of very small quantities of psychedelic substances, has seen a rapid explosion of popularity in recent years. Individuals who microdose report minimal acute effects from these substances yet claim a range of long-term general health and wellbeing benefits. There have been no published empirical studies of microdosing and the current legal and bureaucratic climate makes direct empirical investigation of the effects of psychedelics difficult. In Study One we conducted a systematic, observational investigation of individuals who microdose. We tracked the experiences of 98 microdosing participants, who provided daily ratings of psychological functioning over a six week period. 63 of these additionally completed a battery of psychometric measures tapping mood, attention, wellbeing, mystical experiences, personality, creativity, and sense of agency, at baseline and at completion of the study. Analyses of daily ratings revealed a general increase in reported psychological functioning across all measures on dosing days but limited evidence of residual effects on following days. Analyses of pre and post study measures revealed reductions in reported levels of depression and stress; lower levels of distractibility; increased absorption; and increased neuroticism. To better understand these findings, in Study Two we investigated pre-existing beliefs and expectations about the effects of microdosing in a sample of 263 naïve and experienced microdosers, so as to gauge expectancy bias. All participants believed that microdosing would have large and wide-ranging benefits in contrast to the limited outcomes reported by actual microdosers. Notably, the effects believed most likely to change were unrelated to the observed pattern of reported outcomes. The current results suggest that dose controlled empirical research on the impacts of microdosing on mental health and attentional capabilities are needed.

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<![CDATA[Development of a psycho-social intervention for reducing psychological distress among parents of children with intellectual disabilities in Malawi]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6b2636d5eed0c4842895a3

Background

The burden of intellectual disabilities in low and middle income countries (LMIC) is high and is associated with parental psychological distress. There are few services for children and parents in most developing countries and few interventions have been created that target the psychological issues among parents of such children. This study aimed to develop a contextualized intervention to provide psychological support for parents of children with intellectual disabilities in an African setting.

Methods

Six steps were adopted from the Medical Research Council framework for designing complex interventions. This include: literature review of similar interventions and models, qualitative studies to gain insights of lived experiences of parents of such children, a consensus process with an expert panel of professionals working with children with disabilities and piloting and pre-testing the draft intervention for its acceptability and practicability in this settings.

Results

21 intervention modules were found from a systematic search of the literature which were listed for possible use in our intervention along with four themes from our qualitative studies. An expert panel formed consensus on the eight most pertinent and relevant modules for our setting. This formed the intervention; “Titukulane.” This intervention was piloted and found to have high acceptability and practicability when contextualized in the field.

Conclusion

The use of a systematic framework for designing a complex intervention for supporting the mental health of parents of children with disabilities enables good acceptability and practicability for future use in low resource settings.

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<![CDATA[Habituation of the electrodermal response – A biological correlate of resilience?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c57e673d5eed0c484ef3263

Current approaches to quantifying resilience make extensive use of self-reported data. Problematically, this type of scales is plagued by response distortions–both deliberate and unintentional, particularly in occupational populations. The aim of the current study was to develop an objective index of resilience. The study was conducted in 30 young healthy adults. Following completion of the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC) and Depression/Anxiety/Stress Scale (DASS), they were subjected to a series of 15 acoustic startle stimuli (95 dB, 50 ms) presented at random intervals, with respiration, skin conductance and ECG recorded. As expected, resilience (CD-RISC) significantly and negatively correlated with all three DASS subscales–Depression (r = -0.66, p<0.0001), Anxiety (r = -0.50, p<0.005) and Stress (r = -0.48, p<0.005). Acoustic stimuli consistently provoked transient skin conductance (SC) responses, with SC slopes indexing response habituation. This slope significantly and positively correlated with DASS-Depression (r = 0.59, p<0.005), DASS-Anxiety (r = 0.35, p<0.05) and DASS-Total (r = 0.50, p<0.005) scores, and negatively with resilience score (r = -0.47; p = 0.006), indicating that high-resilience individuals are characterized by steeper habituation slopes compared to low-resilience individuals. Our key finding of the connection between habituation of the skin conductance responses to repeated acoustic startle stimulus and resilience-related psychometric constructs suggests that response habituation paradigm has the potential to characterize important attributes of cognitive fitness and well-being–such as depression, anxiety and resilience. With steep negative slopes reflecting faster habituation, lower depression/anxiety and higher resilience, and slower or no habituation characterizing less resilient individuals, this protocol may offer a distortion-free method for objective assessment and monitoring of psychological resilience.

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<![CDATA[Perceived microaggressions in health care: A measurement study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c633977d5eed0c484ae6810

The current study examined the psychometric properties of the Microaggressions in Health Care Scale (MHCS), including factor structure, measurement invariance, and internal consistency reliability. We used a cross-sectional research design to study perceived racial microaggressions, discrimination, and mental health in 296 African American and Latino respondents. Participants completed measures that assess healthcare microaggressions and daily discrimination as well as the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21). Results revealed that the MHCS has promising psychometric properties. The confirmatory factory analysis (CFA) revealed that the MHCS is a unidimensional scale. Multi-group CFAs provided evidence of measurement invariance across racial / ethnic groups and gender. The internal consistency reliability of the scale was .88 for the overall sample. Microaggressions correlated with daily discrimination scores (r = .67), as well as mental health symptoms (r’s = .40 –.52). The MHCS is a brief, valid, and reliable measure that can be used to assess and monitor racial and cultural forces that shape patient-provider interactions. This study concludes with a discussion of the ongoing need for research on microaggressions in healthcare as well as implications for future research.

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<![CDATA[Humorous cognitive reappraisal: More benign humour and less "dark" humour is affiliated with more adaptive cognitive reappraisal strategies]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5ca29ad5eed0c48441e74c

The capacity to find humorous perspectives in aversive situations may outline a helpful strategy in the context of cognitive reappraisal. Yet, research suggested that some people produce more adaptive humour than others. At the same time, not all forms of cognitive reinterpretation seem to be unequivocally beneficial. The present study aimed to investigate specific cognitive reappraisal strategies that individuals employ in humorous reappraisal of adverse events. In a sample of 95 participants, the use of cognitive reappraisal sub-strategies was assessed in a behavioural test in which participants were required to generate a series of humorous reappraisals of self-relevant, threatening events. These reappraisal sub-strategies (three positive reinterpretation strategies, three de-emphasising strategies) were then related to the habitual use of different kinds of humour as well as the broader DSM-5 personality trait domains and well-being in terms of depressive experiences, assessed by self-report questionnaires. While no robust relationships were found for reappraisal strategies based on de-emphasising, sub-strategies within the positive reinterpretation category showed specific and contrasting associations with the examined traits. Findings indicated that the ability to produce humour is only linked to a favourable pattern of reappraisal strategies when manifested in benign forms of humour. Specific relations also emerged for the broader personality traits. The study suggests that some characteristics that advance the use of benign humour also benefit adaptive emotion regulation. The opposite seems to be true for malicious, or "dark" humour. The introduced behavioural approach to the analysis of humorous cognitive reappraisal may prove useful also in future related research.

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<![CDATA[Chronic stress influences attentional and judgement bias and the activity of the HPA axis in sheep]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5b5295d5eed0c4842bcc05

Introduction

Environmental challenges are part of everyday life for most domestic animals. However, very little is known about how animals cope emotionally and physiologically with cumulative challenges. This experiment aimed to determine the impact of long-term exposure to environmental challenges on the affective state and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis responses to a subsequent additional acute shearing challenge.

Methods

Sheep were exposed to either a long-term environmental challenge (rest disruption and individual housing) in order to induce chronic stress (chronic stress group) or control conditions (group housing in a field with low stress handling and daily feed rewards, control group). Judgement and attention bias were assessed as measures of the emotional state following several days of the challenge or control treatment (pre-shearing tests). In addition, the responsiveness of the HPA-axis was evaluated using a combined Corticotropin Releasing Hormone and Arginine Vasopressin (CRH/AVP) challenge. Finally, all animals were exposed to an acute shearing challenge, then judgement bias (post-shearing test), HPA-axis and internal body temperature responses were determined.

Results

In the pre-shearing judgement bias test, the chronic stress group slightly increased optimism compared to the control treatment. In the attention bias test, the chronic stress group showed reduced vigilance behaviour towards a predator threat and a quicker approach to the food compared to the control treatment. The chronic stress group also had lower plasma ACTH concentrations in response to the CRH/AVP challenge compared to the control group, no differences in cortisol concentrations were found. In the post-shearing judgement bias test, differences in optimism were no longer evident between the chronic stress and control groups. Plasma ACTH concentrations and body temperatures showed a greater increase in response to shearing in the chronic stress group compared to the control group.

Conclusion

Our results suggest that long-term exposure to challenges biased cognitive measures of the affective state towards an increased expectation of a reward and reduced attention towards a threat. The exaggerated ACTH responses in the chronic stress group may be indicative of HPA-axis dysregulation. Despite a period of challenge exposure in the chronic stress group, judgement bias responses to the shearing challenge were similar in the chronic stress and control groups; the reasons for this need further investigation. The altered affective state together with signs of HPA-axis dysregulation may indicate an increased risk of compromised welfare in animals exposed to long-term environmental challenges.

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<![CDATA[Development and psychometric testing of the Chinese version of the Resilience Scale for Southeast Asian immigrant women who divorced in Taiwan]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c61e8d2d5eed0c48496f1e5

Background

Only a few studies exist on the resilience of divorced women. Furthermore, relevant instruments for assessing the resilience of divorced immigrant Southeast Asian women are rare. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to develop and examine a new Resilience Scale-Chinese version (RS-C) that is specific to divorced immigrant Southeast Asian women in Taiwan.

Methods

The study was conducted in two phases. In phase 1, 20 items were used to evaluate face and content validities. In phase 2, a cross-sectional study was conducted. In total, 118 immigrant women participated in this study and were recruited from three nongovernmental organizations providing services for immigrants in Taipei City and Miaoli and Chiayi Counties. Psychometric properties of the instrument (i.e., internal consistency, test–retest reliability, item-to-total correlation, construct validity, and convergent validity) were examined. Significance was set at p < 0.05 for all statistical tests.

Results

The final 16-item RS-C resulted in a three-factor model. The three factors, namely personal competence, family identity, and social connections, were an acceptable fit for the data and explained 54.60% of the variance. Cronbach’s α of the RS-C was 0.85, and those of its subscales ranged from 0.77 to 0.82. The correlation value of the test–retest reliability was 0.87. The RS-C was significantly associated with the General Self-Efficacy scale and the Chinese Health Questionnaire-12.

Conclusion

The RS-C is a brief and specific self-report tool for evaluating the resilience of divorced immigrant Southeast Asian women and demonstrated adequate reliability and validity in this study. This RS-C instrument has potential applications in both clinical practice and research with strength-based resiliency interventions. However, additional research on the RS-C is required to further establish its reliability and validity.

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