ResearchPad - questionnaires https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Comparability of modern contraceptive use estimates between a face-to-face survey and a cellphone survey among women in Burkina Faso]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13849 The proliferation of cell phone ownership in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) presents the opportunity to collect public health indicators at a lower cost compared to face-to-face (FTF) surveys. This analysis assesses the equivalence of modern contraceptive prevalence estimates between a nationally representative FTF survey and a cell phone survey using random digit dialing (RDD) among women of reproductive age in Burkina Faso.MethodsWe analyzed data from two surveys conducted in Burkina Faso between December 2017 and May 2018. The FTF survey conducted by Performance Monitoring and Accountability (PMA2020) comprised a nationally representative sample of 3,556 women of reproductive age (15–49 years). The RDD survey was conducted using computer-assisted telephone interviewing and included 2,379 women of reproductive age.ResultsCompared to FTF respondents, women in the RDD sample were younger, were more likely to have a secondary degree and to speak French. RDD respondents were more likely to report using modern contraceptive use (40%) compared to FTF respondents (26%) and the difference remained unchanged after applying post-stratification weights to the RDD sample (39%). This difference surpassed the equivalence margin of 4%. The RDD sample also produced higher estimates of contraceptive use than the subsample of women who owned a phone in the FTF sample (32%). After adjusting for women’s sociodemographic factors, the odds of contraceptive use were 1.9 times higher (95% CI: 1.6–2.2) in the RDD survey compared to the FTF survey and 1.6 times higher (95% CI: 1.3–1.8) compared to FTF phone owners.ConclusionsModern contraceptive prevalence in Burkina Faso is over-estimated when using a cell phone RDD survey, even after adjusting for a number of sociodemographic factors. Further research should explore causes of differential estimates of modern contraceptive use by survey modes. ]]> <![CDATA[The early experiences of Physician Associate students in the UK: A regional cross-sectional study investigating factors associated with engagement]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13815 The number of physician associates (PAs) training and working in the UK has increased over the last few years following the proliferation of postgraduate courses. Understanding early experiences and what impacts on engagement is important if we are to appropriately support this relatively new professional group.MethodsThis paper reports on a cross-sectional analysis of the first year of data from a prospective 10-year longitudinal cohort study. First year PA students (n = 89) were enrolled from five universities in one UK region where the training programmes were less than 2 years old. Data collected were: demographic information, wellbeing, burnout and engagement, expectations, placement experience, performance and caring responsibilities. Pearson’s correlations were used to examine relationships between variables and to select variables for a hierarchical regression analysis to understand which factors were associated with engagement. Descriptive statistics were calculated for questions relating to experience.ResultsThe experiences of PA students during their first 3–6 months were mixed. For example, 78.7% of students felt that there were staff on placement they could go to for support, however, 44.8% reported that staff did not know about the role and 61.3% reported that staff did not know what clinical work they should undertake. Regression analysis found that their level of engagement was associated with their perceived career satisfaction, overall well-being, and caring responsibilities.ConclusionsThe support systems required for PAs may need to be examined as results showed that the PA student demographic is different to that of medical students and caring responsibilities are highly associated with engagement. A lack of understanding around the PA role in clinical settings may also need to be addressed in order to better support and develop this workforce. ]]> <![CDATA[The effect of monetary incentive on survey response for vulnerable children and youths: A randomized controlled trial]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13807 In surveys non-responders may introduce bias and lower the validity of the studies. Ways to increase response rates are therefore important. The purpose of the study was to investigate if an unconditional monetary incentive can increase the response rate for vulnerable children and youths in a postal questionnaire survey.MethodsThe study was designed as a randomized controlled trial. The study population consisted of 262 children and youth who participated in an established intervention study aimed at creating networks for different groups of vulnerable children and youths. The mean age of the participants was 16.7 years (range 11–28) and 67.9% were female. The questionnaire was adapted to three different age groups and covered different aspects of the participants’ life situation, including the dimensions from the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). In the follow-up survey, participants were randomly allocated to two groups that either received a €15 voucher for a supermarket together with the questionnaire or only received the questionnaire. We used Poisson regression to estimate the differences in response rate (Rate Ratio RR) between the intervention group and the control group.ResultsThe response rate was 75.5% in the intervention group and 42.9% in the control group. The response rate in the intervention group was significantly higher than in the control group when adjusting for age and gender (Rate Ratio, RR 1.73; 95% CI 1.38–2.17). We did not find any significant differences in scales scores between the two groups for the five scales of the SDQ. In stratified analyses, we found the effect of the incentive to be higher for males (RR 2.81; 95% CI 1.61–4.91) than for females (1.43; 95% CI 1.12–1.84).ConclusionsMonetary incentives can increase the response rate for vulnerable children and youths in surveys.Trial registrationThe trial was retrospectively registered at ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01741675. ]]> <![CDATA[A descriptive cross sectional study comparing barriers and determinants of physical activity of Sri Lankan middle aged and older adults]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7830 Benefits of physical activities are numerous. Barriers for physical exercise may differ among middle aged and older adults. Therefore, identifying and comparing the barriers for participating in regular physical exercises among middle aged and older adults will be useful in designing age specific physical exercise programmes.MethodsThis descriptive cross sectional study was carried out among 206 Sri Lankan adults in the age range of 40–84 years in the Colombo North region of Sri Lanka using culturally validated questionnaires to determine and compare the barriers and factors associated with regular physical activity participation. Majority were males (56%) and 54% were < 60 years. People in the age range of 40–59 years were considered as middle age and ≥ 60 years as older adults. Bivariate analysis and multivariate analysis was carried out to determine the significant factors that are associated with regular physical activity participation.ResultsLack of free time (52%), feeling too lazy (26%) and bad weather (29%) were the main barriers for the participants. In < 60 years, high level of income (p = 0.008) and in ≥ 60 years, being a male (p = 0.016), having a high level of education (P = 0.002) and a high BMI (p = 0.002) had a significant negative association with the level of physical activities.ConclusionsContrary to findings from surveys in several developed countries, this study showed that having a high level of education and being a male were strongly related with lack of physical activity participation. ]]> <![CDATA[Development and validation of a questionnaire to assess healthcare personnel competence in cardiac arrest and resuscitation in pregnancy]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7826 Cardiac arrest is rare in pregnancy, and up-to date competence can be difficult to assess and maintain. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a questionnaire to assess healthcare personnel experiences, self-assessed competence and perception of role and resposibility related to cardiac arrest and cardio-pulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in pregnancyMethodsThe study had a cross-sectional design, developing and validating a questionnaire: the Competence in cardiac arrest and CPR in pregnancy (ComCA-P). Development and validation of the ComCA-P was conducted in three stages: 1) Literature review and expert group panel inputs, 2) a pilot study and 3) a cross-sectional questionnaire study. In stage one, the ComCA-P was developed over several iterations between the researchers, including inputs from an expert group panel consisting of highly competent professionals (n = 11). In stage two, the questionnaire was piloted in a group of healthcare personnel with relevant competence (n = 16). The ComCA-P was then used in a baseline study including healthcare personnel potentially involved in CPR in pregnancy (n = 527) in six hospital wards. Based on these data, internal consistency, intra-class correlations, and confirmatory factor analysis were utilized to validate the questionnaire.ResultsThe expert group and pilot study participants evaluated the appropriateness, relevance and accuracy to be high. Formulation of the items was considered appropriate, with no difficulties identified related to content- or face validity. Cronbach’s alpha was 0.8 on the thematic area self-assessment, and 0.73 on the theoretical knowledge area of the ComCA-P. On both the self-assessed competence items and the teoretical knowledge items, Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin was 0.8. Moreover, the Bertletts’ test of sphericity was greater than the critical value for chi-square, and significant (p < .0001).ConclusionsFindings indicate that the ComCA-P is a valid questionnaire that can be used to assess healthcare personnel competence in cardiac arrest and resuscitation in pregnancy. ]]> <![CDATA[The relationship of recreational runners’ motivation and resilience levels to the incidence of injury: A mediation model]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7663 Running participation has increased significantly in the last decade. Despite its association with different health-related aspects, athletes may experience adverse outcomes, including injuries. The aim of this study was twofold: to examine the relationship between runners’ resilience levels, motivation and incidence of injury, on the one hand; and to analyse the mediation that intrinsic and extrinsic motivation has on the association between the number of injuries and psychological resilience levels among amateur athletes. The sample consisted of a total of 1725 runners (age: 40.40 ± 9.39 years), 1261 of whom were male (age: 43.16 ± 9.38), and 465 of whom were female (age: 40.34 ± 9.14). Athletes completed the Behavioural Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire (BREQ-3), the Resilience scale (CD-RISC 10), and an Injury retrospective survey. Three mediation models were constructed, and the results showed a significant indirect association of athletes’ intrinsic motivation and resilience on the number of injuries (β = 0.022, CI = 0.007, 0.0) in mediation model 1, whereas extrinsic motivation was found to have no significant association on those variables (β = -0.062, CI = -0.137, 0.009) in mediation model 2. Model 3 showed significant differences with respect to resilience (p < 0.05) and intrinsic motivation (p < 0.05). Therefore, the mediation of intrinsic motivation on athletes’ resilience levels and incidence of injury was demonstrated, i.e., it was found that intrinsic motivation was associated with a higher incidence of injury, while no such correlation was found for extrinsic motivation. This study shows that the amateur long distance runners with a high level of intrinsic motivation tend to suffer from a greater number of injuries, and at the same time psychological resilience was associated with a lower number of injuries.

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<![CDATA[Lifestyle, sick leave and work ability among Norwegian employees with asthma—A population-based cross-sectional survey conducted in Telemark County, Norway]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ndae955f4-245c-442b-a4a6-579d96a7b9a3

Objective

To investigate whether physician-diagnosed asthma modifies the associations between multiple lifestyle factors, sick leave and work ability in a general working population.

Methods

A cross-sectional study was conducted in Telemark County, Norway, in 2013. A sample of 16 099 respondents completed a self-administered questionnaire. We obtained complete data on lifestyle, work ability and sick leave for 10 355 employed persons aged 18–50 years. We modelled sick leave and work ability using multiple logistic regression, and introduced interaction terms to investigate whether associations with lifestyle factors were modified by asthma status.

Results

Several lifestyle risk factors and a multiple lifestyle risk index were associated with sick leave and reduced work ability score among persons both with and without physician-diagnosed asthma. A stronger association between lifestyle and sick leave among persons with asthma was confirmed by including interaction terms in the analysis: moderate lifestyle risk score * asthma OR = 1.4 (95% CI 1.02–2.1); high lifestyle risk score * asthma OR = 1.6 (95% CI 1.1–2.3); very high lifestyle risk score * asthma OR = 1.6 (95% CI 0.97–2.7); obesity * asthma OR = 1.5 (95% CI 1.02–2.1); past smoking * asthma OR = 1.4 (95% CI 1.01–1.9); and current smoking * asthma OR = 1.4 (95% CI 1.03–2.0).

There was no significant difference in the association between lifestyle and work ability score among respondents with and without asthma.

Conclusions

In the present study, we found that physician-diagnosed asthma modified the association between lifestyle risk factors and sick leave. Asthma status did not significantly modify these associations with reduced work ability score. The results indicate that lifestyle changes could be of particular importance for employees with asthma.

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<![CDATA[Investigating discharge communication for chronic disease patients in three hospitals in India]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ndd2bad3f-d33e-46b6-9a86-cb25ea2acd38

Objectives

Poor discharge communication is associated with negative health outcomes in high-income countries. However, quality of discharge communication has received little attention in India and many other low and middle-income countries.

Primary objective

To investigate verbal and documented discharge communication for chronic non-communicable disease (NCD) patients.

Secondary objective

To explore the relationship between quality of discharge communication and health outcomes.

Methods

Design

Prospective study.

Setting

Three public hospitals in Himachal Pradesh and Kerala states, India.

Participants

546 chronic NCD (chronic respiratory disease, cardiovascular disease or diabetes) patients. Piloted questionnaires were completed at admission, discharge and five and eighteen-week follow-up covering health status, discharge communication practices and health-seeking behaviour. Logistic regression was used to explore the relationship between quality of discharge communication and health outcomes.

Outcome measures

Primary

Patient recall and experiences of verbal and documented discharge communication.

Secondary

Death, hospital readmission and self-reported deterioration of NCD/s.

Results

All patients received discharge notes, predominantly on sheets of paper with basic pre-printed headings (71%) or no structure (19%); 31% of notes contained all the following information required for facilitating continuity of care: diagnosis, medication information, lifestyle advice, and follow-up instructions. Patient reports indicated notable variations in verbal information provided during discharge consultations; 50% received ongoing treatment/management information and 23% received lifestyle advice. Within 18 weeks of follow-up, 25 (5%) patients had died, 69 (13%) had been readmitted and 62 (11%) reported that their chronic NCD/s had deteriorated. Significant associations were found between low-quality documented discharge communication and death (AOR = 3.00; 95% CI 1.27,7.06) and low-quality verbal discharge communication and self-reported deterioration of chronic NCD/s (AOR = 0.46; 95% CI 0.25,0.83) within 18-weeks of follow-up.

Conclusions

Sub-optimal discharge practices may be compromising continuity and safety of chronic NCD patient care. Structured protocols, documents and training are required to improve discharge communication, healthcare integration and NCD management.

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<![CDATA[Identification of separation-related problems in domestic cats: A questionnaire survey]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N096b59e8-8c6c-4ade-a9c3-2213a89d5014

Identifying and preventing the occurrence of separation-related problems (SRP) in companion animals are relevant to animal welfare and the quality of human-pet interactions. The SRP are defined as a set of behaviors and physiological signs displayed by the animal when separated from its attachment person. In cats, SRP has been insufficiently studied. Thus, the objective of this study was to develop a questionnaire for cat owners which identifies behaviors that may indicate SRP, as well as relates the occurrence of SRP to the management practices applied in the sampled cats. The associations of SRP with cats’ characteristics, as well as owner, environmental, and management traits were investigated. The questionnaire was developed based on the scientific literature about separation anxiety syndrome in dogs and a few papers in cats, and it was completed by 130 owners of 223 cats. Analysis of owners’ answers was done through categorization and acquisition of relative frequencies of each response category, followed by Fisher’s exact test, chi-square tests in contingency table and Multiple Correspondence Analysis. Among the sampled animals, 13.45% (30 / 223) met at least one of the behavioral criteria we used to define SRP. Destructive behavior was the most frequently reported behavior (66.67%, 20 / 30), followed by excessive vocalization (63.33%, 19 / 30), urination in inappropriate places (60.00%, 18 / 30), depression-apathy (53.33%, 16 / 30), aggressiveness (36.67%, 11 / 30) and agitation-anxiety (36.67%, 11 / 30) and, in lower frequency, defecation in inappropriate places (23.33%, 7 / 30). The occurrence of SRP was associated with the number of females living in the residence (P = 0.01), with not having access to toys (P = 0.04), and no other animal residing in the house (P = 0.04). Separation-related problems in domestic cats are difficult to identify due to the limited amount of knowledge regarding the issue. The questionnaire developed in this study supported identification of the main behaviors likely related to SRP in cats and could be used as a starting point for future research.

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<![CDATA[Risk and protective factors for post-traumatic stress among New Zealand military personnel: A cross sectional study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N88434cd0-9137-4283-905a-485946610b9a

Background

Post-traumatic stress (PTS) is prevalent among military personnel. Knowledge of the risk and protective factors associated with PTS in this population may assist with identifying personnel who would benefit from increased or targeted support.

Aims

To examine factors associated with PTS among New Zealand military personnel.

Methods

For this cross-sectional study, currently serving and retired military personnel were invited to complete a questionnaire. The questionnaire included a measure of PTS (the Military Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist; PCL-M), where scores ≥30 indicate the experience of significant PTS symptoms and scores ≥45 indicate a presumptive clinical diagnosis of post-traumatic stress. Potential risk and protective factors associated with PTS were examined using logistic regression modelling.

Results

1817 military personnel completed the questionnaire. PCL-M scores were ≥30 for 549 (30%) participants and ≥45 for 179 (10%) participants. Factors associated with higher PCL-M scores were trauma exposure, older age, male sex, and Māori ethnicity. Factors associated with lower PCL-M scores were greater length of service, psychological flexibility, and better quality sleep.

Conclusions

PTS was found to be prevalent among New Zealand military personnel. The experience of trauma was strongly associated with PTS. However, factors such as psychological flexibility (the ability to adapt to changes in circumstances) and good sleep were protective, suggesting that these factors could be key targets for interventions designed to reduce PTS among military personnel in New Zealand.

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<![CDATA[Perceptions of the adult US population regarding the novel coronavirus outbreak]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N553f4024-2f4a-46cb-88f1-f6e3510ba4a4

The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak is spreading globally. Although COVID-19 has now been declared a pandemic and risk for infection in the United States (US) is currently high, at the time of survey administration the risk of infection in the US was low. It is important to understand the public perception of risk and trust in sources of information to better inform public health messaging. In this study, we surveyed the adult US population to understand their risk perceptions about the COVID-19 outbreak. We used an online platform to survey 718 adults in the US in early February 2020 using a questionnaire that we developed. Our sample was fairly similar to the general adult US population in terms of age, gender, race, ethnicity and education. We found that 69% of the respondents wanted the scientific/public health leadership (either the CDC Director or NIH Director) to lead the US response to COVID-19 outbreak as compared to 14% who wanted the political leadership (either the president or Congress) to lead the response. Risk perception was low (median score of 5 out of 10) with the respondents trusting health professionals and health officials for information on COVID-19. The majority of respondents were in favor of strict infection prevention policies to control the outbreak. Given our results, the public health/scientific leadership should be at the forefront of the COVID-19 response to promote trust.

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<![CDATA[Psychometric characteristics and factorial structures of the Defensive Pessimism Questionnaire—Spanish Version (DPQ-SV)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nb6dcc03f-c5ae-4fce-8b03-b30a02ab227b

The aim of this study was to validate the Spanish version of the Defensive Pessimism Questionnaire. A sample of undergraduate students (N = 539) was measured on defensive pessimism using the Defensive Pessimism Questionnaire (DPQ), optimism and pessimism using the Life Orientation Test (LOT), positive and negative affect using the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, and anxiety using the trait subscale of the State and Trait Anxiety Inventory. A Spanish version of the DPQ (DPQ-SV) is presented. Exploratory and Robust Confirmatory Factor Analysis had a bi-dimensional structure (Reflectivity and Negative Expectation). Omega coefficient showed a high internal consistency and the temporal stability was high in each dimension. Both DPQ-SV subscales (Negative Expectation and Reflectivity) showed adequate convergence with LOT-optimism and LOT-pessimism. Reflectivity showed adequate criterion validity with trait-anxiety and negative affect, but inadequate criterion validity with positive affect. Negative Expectation showed excellent criterion validity with trait-anxiety and negative affect and good criterion validity with positive affect. Finally, mediation analysis showed that Negative Expectation had a significant indirect mediating effect between trait-anxiety and negative affect. Reflectivity had a significant indirect mediating effect between trait-anxiety and negative and positive affect. Analysis of the psychometric properties of the DPQ-SV subscale scores showed that it is a two factor adequate measurement tool for its use in this type of samples.

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<![CDATA[Is bad news on TV tickers good news? The effects of voiceover and visual elements in video on viewers’ assessment]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N6a76f847-8cb5-45f6-9e66-865fc26387f0

In our experiment, we tested how exposure to a mock televised news segment, with a systematically manipulated emotional valence of voiceover, images and TV tickers (in the updating format) impacts viewers’ perception. Subjects (N = 603) watched specially prepared professional video material which portrayed the story of a candidate for local mayor. Following exposure to the video, subjects assessed the politician in terms of competence, sociability, and morality.

Results showed that positive images improved the assessment of the politician, whereas negative images lowered it. In addition, unexpectedly, positive tickers led to a negative assessment, and negative ones led to more beneficial assessments. However, in a situation of inconsistency between the voiceover and information provided on visual add-ons, additional elements are apparently ignored, especially when they are negative and the narrative is positive. We then discuss the implications of these findings.

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<![CDATA[Is there an accurate relationship between simple self-reported functional limitations and the assessment of physical capacity in early old age?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c8c194dd5eed0c484b4d398

Study design

Observational study.

Objective

To assess the relationship between individual self-reports and measurements of physical condition in early old age.

Background

The use of self-reported questions assessing physical limitations remains questionable in large epidemiological studies. We aimed to test whether there is an accurate relationship between objective measures of physical capabilities and answers given to questions asked of general early old age populations.

Methods

20,335 subjects (45 to 69 years old) performed two gait speed tests at usual and at rapid speeds, and a hand grip strength test. They also completed an interview which included questions about general and specific limitations on their ability to walk one kilometer, climb stairs, and carry 5 kg over a distance of 10 meters. The questions were coded by the patients on a 4-point scale according to the severity of the limitation. Analyses were performed using description of distributions and related tests were carried out.

Results

A fair association was found between individual self-reports and measurements of physical state: limitations on walking one kilometer and climbing stairs were more closely related to rapid than to usual gait speed and to carrying a 5 kg load. For general limitations, the strength of these associations was weaker than the other scores. The association between hand grip strength and the reported score for carrying a mass was better than that for gait speed tests.

Conclusion

Such simple self-assessment questions on physical performance might be useful tools for evaluating functional limitations across a large early old age population in epidemiological research.

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<![CDATA[Assessing mental health service user and carer involvement in physical health care planning: The development and validation of a new patient-reported experience measure]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6dc9a5d5eed0c484529f71

Background

People living with serious mental health conditions experience increased morbidity due to physical health issues driven by medication side-effects and lifestyle factors. Coordinated mental and physical healthcare delivered in accordance with a care plan could help to reduce morbidity and mortality in this population. Efforts to develop new models of care are hampered by a lack of validated instruments to accurately assess the extent to which mental health services users and carers are involved in care planning for physical health.

Objective

To develop a brief and accurate patient-reported experience measure (PREM) capable of assessing involvement in physical health care planning for mental health service users and their carers.

Methods

We employed psychometric and statistical techniques to refine a bank of candidate questionnaire items, derived from qualitative interviews, into a valid and reliable measure involvement in physical health care planning. We assessed the psychometric performance of the item bank using modern psychometric analyses. We assessed unidimensionality, scalability, fit to the partial credit Rasch model, category threshold ordering, local dependency, differential item functioning, and test-retest reliability. Once purified of poorly performing and erroneous items, we simulated computerized adaptive testing (CAT) with 15, 10 and 5 items using the calibrated item bank.

Results

Issues with category threshold ordering, local dependency and differential item functioning were evident for a number of items in the nascent item bank and were resolved by removing problematic items. The final 19 item PREM had excellent fit to the Rasch model fit (x2 = 192.94, df = 1515, P = .02, RMSEA = .03 (95% CI = .01-.04). The 19-item bank had excellent reliability (marginal r = 0.87). The correlation between questionnaire scores at baseline and 2-week follow-up was high (r = .70, P < .01) and 94.9% of assessment pairs were within the Bland Altman limits of agreement. Simulated CAT demonstrated that assessments could be made using as few as 10 items (mean SE = .43).

Discussion

We developed a flexible patient reported outcome measure to quantify service user and carer involvement in physical health care planning. We demonstrate the potential to substantially reduce assessment length whilst maintaining reliability by utilizing CAT.

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<![CDATA[Factors influencing performance of community-based health volunteers’ activities in the Kassena-Nankana Districts of Northern Ghana]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c76fe2ad5eed0c484e5b61f

Background

An increasing demand for health care services and getting health care closer to doorsteps of communities has made health managers to use trained community-based health volunteers to support in providing health services to people in rural communities. Community volunteerism in Ghana has been identified as an effective strategy in the implementation of Primary Health Care activities since 1970s. However, little is known about the performance of these volunteers engaged in health interventions activities at the community level. This study assessed the level of performance and factors that affect the performance of health volunteers’ activities in Northern Ghana.

Methods

This was a cross-sectional study using quantitative method of data collection. Two hundred structured interviews were conducted with health volunteers. Data collectors visited health volunteers at home and conducted the interviews after informed consent was obtained. STATA Version 11.2 was used to analyze the data. Descriptive statistics were used to assess the level of performance of the health volunteers. Multiple logistic regression models were then used to assess factors that influence the performance of health volunteers.

Results

About 45% of volunteers scored high on performance. In the multivariate analysis, educational status [OR = 4.64 95% CI (1.22–17.45)] and ethnicity [OR = 1.85 95% CI (1.00–3.41)] were the factors that influenced the performance of health volunteers. Other intermediary factors such as incentives and means of transport also affected the performance of health volunteers engaged in health intervention activities at the community level.

Conclusion

The results suggest that higher educational status of health volunteers is more likely to increase their performance. In addition, providing non-monetary incentives and logistics such as bicycles, raincoats, torch lights and wellington boots will enhance the performance of health volunteers and also motivate them to continue to provide health services to their own people at the community level.

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<![CDATA[Prenatal maternal docosahexaenoic acid intake and infant information processing at 4.5mo and 9mo: A longitudinal study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6dc9ffd5eed0c48452a684

Previous research suggesting an association between maternal prenatal docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) intake and infant cognition has yet to assess whether there is a critical trimester for the observed effects. We used a comprehensive Food Frequency Questionnaire to estimate DHA levels during both the second and third trimesters of pregnancy, in a sample of 125 pregnant women. Infants were assessed at 4.5 months and 9 months post-partum using specific tests of visual acuity, habituation, and visual attention. Based on maternal DHA levels during pregnancy, mothers were subdivided into high, medium, and low groups, and their infants compared for task performance using one-way ANOVAs with maternal DHA groups. On the 9 month visual acuity test, infants whose mothers were in the medium DHA group performed significantly better than those with mothers in the low or high DHA groups (p = 0.008). However, no significant finding was found for any of the other cognitive assessment measures. Despite a number of studies reporting a positive effect of higher DHA levels on cognitive development, this study fails to support those conclusions. We can, however, conclude that it appears to be DHA intake in the third trimester specifically, which is influencing the development of visual acuity towards the end of the first postnatal year.

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<![CDATA[Patterns of Internet and smartphone use by parents of children with chronic kidney disease]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6c7597d5eed0c4843cfede

Background

Smartphones have become a part of universal technology by combining mobile and handheld functions, enabling expanded access to health information sources available on the Internet.

The purpose of this study was to describe the pattern of smartphones and Internet use to search for health information by parents of children with chronic kidney disease (CKD).

Methods

In a cross-sectional study, a questionnaire was applied to 111 parents of patients in a Brazilian pediatric nephrology center. Descriptive assessments were performed on Internet use patterns, and associative analyses were made of the influence of the smartphone use pattern on the search for health information.

Results

Of the 111 participants, 91% (101/111) accessed the Internet, 88% (89/101) searched for health information, and 90% (80/89) searched for CKD information. Smartphones were the most commonly used devices to access the Internet. There was no significant difference between age groups, schooling levels, places of residence and smartphone use to search information about CKD. Physicians continue to be primary sources of information (87%, 88/101), but now they share space with the Internet, which surpassed traditional sources such as books and other health professionals. There seems to be some discomfort on the part of the parents in admitting their research habit to the physician, considering that 65% (52/80) said they did not discuss the fact that they had looked for information on the Internet with their doctor. Obtaining more information about the disease and gaining knowledge regarding its complications were the main reasons that led to performing a search on the Internet, whose results were considered useful by 93% (74/80).

Conclusion

Parents of children with CKD have been using the Internet largely through smartphones to research about CKD, irrespective of age, schooling and place of residence. Given its wide use, the Internet can be an important vehicle for health education and contribute to providing the support needed by parents and patients to cope with the disease.

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<![CDATA[Transition to middle school: Self-concept changes]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c76fde7d5eed0c484e5b037

Self-concept influences identity and the way that people behave, and it fluctuates over time. The main purpose of this study was to analyze fluctuations in the dimensions of self-concept as a function of gender, educational level, grade, age, physical activity, and weight. In total, 712 Spanish adolescents who were in the 5th and 8th grades (354 boys and 358 girls) and 10 to 14 years old (M = 11.9; SD = 1.3) participated in this study. The Self-Concept Questionnaire, Form 5 was used to analyze several dimensions of self-concept (academic, social, emotional, family, and physical), using the average scores in each dimension. The data showed strong differences in the dimensions of self-concept during the school transition. Middle-school students, compared to elementary-school students, showed significantly lower levels in almost all dimensions (academic, social, family, and physical). Furthermore, student age was a negative predictor of the social and academic dimensions, explaining 33% and 37% of the variance, respectively. Educational level and grade were smaller factors influencing the academic dimension (explaining 29% and 25% of the variance, respectively). The main findings revealed that the school transition and, specifically, increased age were associated with a lower self-concept. These results help us understand the need to strengthen psychological and educational self-concept at school.

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<![CDATA[Patients’ experiences with a behaviour change intervention to enhance physical activity in primary care: A mixed methods study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6c757cd5eed0c4843cfe09

Objective

To explore the experiences of patients at risk for cardiovascular disease in primary care with the Activate intervention in relation to their success in increasing their physical activity.

Methods

A convergent mixed methods study was conducted, parallel to a cluster-randomised controlled trial in primary care, using a questionnaire and semi-structured interviews. Questionnaires from 67 patients were analysed, and semi-structured interviews of 22 patients were thematically analysed. Experiences of patients who had objectively increased their physical activity (responders) were compared to those who had not (non-responders). Objective success was analysed in relation to self-perceived success.

Results

The questionnaire and interview data corresponded, and no substantial differences among responders and non-responders emerged. Participating in the intervention increased patients’ awareness of their physical activity and their physical activity level. Key components of the intervention were the subsequent support of nurses with whom patients’ have a trustful relationship and the use of self-monitoring tools. Patients highly valued jointly setting goals, planning actions, receiving feedback and review on their goal attainment and jointly solving problems. Nurses’ support, the use of self-monitoring tools, and involving others incentivised patients to increase their physical activity. Internal circumstances and external circumstances challenged patients’ engagement in increasing and maintaining their physical activity.

Conclusion

Patients experienced the Activate intervention as valuable to increase and maintain their physical activity, irrespective of their objective change in physical activity. The findings enable the understanding of the effectiveness of the intervention and implementation in primary care.

Trial registration

ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02725203.

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