ResearchPad - radiation https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[The Effect of High Dose Rate Interstitial Implant on Early and Locally Advanced Oral Cavity Cancers: Update and Long-Term Follow-Up Study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_16502 Introduction

Brachytherapy, with or without external beam radiation therapy (EBRT), can be an alternative to surgery for organ preservation in early and locally advanced oral cavity cancers. This study aims to evaluate the effect of high dose rate (HDR) interstitial brachytherapy on early and locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the oral cavity when used alone or as a boost to EBRT.

Methods

A total of 125 patients with histologically proven stage T1-3/N0-1 SCC of the oral cavity were included in the study. A total of 15 patients with stage I disease received an interstitial implant dose of 3,850 cGy at 350 cGy per fraction, two fractions a day. Another 53 patients had stage II, and 57 patients had stage III disease; these patients received EBRT of 50 Gy in 25 fractions along with an HDR brachytherapy boost of 21 Gy in seven fractions of 3 Gy per fraction twice daily. The stage III patients also received concurrent chemotherapy with injections of cisplatin (70 mg/m2) given every three weeks for three days in divided doses. All node-positive patients received a boost to the node of up to 64 Gy by external beam radiation. Disease response rates, five-year disease-free survival rates, and toxicities were analyzed.

Results

The median follow-up was 60 months. Among the patients, 103 (82.4%) had a complete response, while 22 (17.6%) had residual disease and were referred for surgical salvage. The five-year disease-free survival was 100% in stage I, 83% in stage II, and 77.2% in stage III; 4% of patients developed grade 3 acute skin toxicity and 23.2% developed acute grade 3 mucositis. Eleven patients died during the follow-up period. Two patients died due to myocardial infarction but had achieved a complete tumor response. One patient had pulmonary tuberculosis and died due to fulminant infection after three years of disease-free survival period. One patient developed a second primary in the brain stem that presented with quadriplegia and expired. Seven patients died due to the progression of the initial disease.

Conclusions

Proper brachytherapy technique and meticulous planning can minimize the toxicity while providing better tumor control and achieve high local control rates. Brachytherapy, with or without EBRT, can be a surrogate to surgery in early oral cavity cancers as it can achieve organ preservation while providing good functional outcomes.

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<![CDATA[The <i>G123</i> rice mutant, carrying a mutation in <i>SE13</i>, presents alterations in the expression patterns of photosynthetic and major flowering regulatory genes]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_15737 Day length is a determinant of flowering time in rice. Phytochromes participate in flowering regulation by measuring the number of daylight hours to which the plant is exposed. Here we describe G123, a rice mutant generated by irradiation, which displays insensitivity to the photoperiod and early flowering under both long day and short day conditions. To detect the mutation responsible for the early flowering phenotype exhibited by G123, we generated an F2 population, derived from crossing with the wild-type, and used a pipeline to detect genomic structural variation, initially developed for human genomes. We detected a deletion in the G123 genome that affects the PHOTOPERIOD SENSITIVITY13 (SE13) gene, which encodes a phytochromobilin synthase, an enzyme implicated in phytochrome chromophore biosynthesis. The transcriptomic analysis, performed by RNA-seq, in the G123 plants indicated an alteration in photosynthesis and other processes related to response to light. The expression patterns of the main flowering regulatory genes, such as Ghd7, Ghd8 and PRR37, were altered in the plants grown under both long day and short day conditions. These findings indicate that phytochromes are also involved in the regulation of these genes under short day conditions, and extend the role of phytochromes in flowering regulation in rice.

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<![CDATA[Factors associated with the job satisfaction of certified nurses and nurse specialists in cancer care in Japan: Analysis based on the Basic Plan to Promote Cancer Control Programs]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_15727 As the Japanese population ages, the number of cancer patients will likely increase. Therefore, qualified cancer health care providers should be recruited and retained. Nurse job satisfaction is influenced by numerous factors and may affect staff turnover and patient outcomes.ObjectivesTo evaluate the job satisfaction of certified nurses and nurse specialists in Japanese cancer care and elucidate factors associated with job satisfaction.MethodsParticipants in this cross-sectional study comprised 200 certified nurse specialists and 1,472 certified nurses working in Japanese cancer care. A chi-square test and logistic regression analysis were conducted to identify job satisfaction factors.ResultsJob satisfaction was present in 38.45% and 49.00% of certified nurses and nurse specialists, respectively. Certified nurses associated job satisfaction with cross-departmental activities (OR 2.24, p<0.001), positive evaluation from senior stuff (OR 4.58, p<0.001), appropriate staff allocation (OR 1.75, p<0.001), more than five years certified nurse experience (OR 1.91, p<0.001), and positive evaluation of the development of certified nurses (OR 2.13, p<0.01) and nurse specialists (OR 1.37, p<0.05). Low job satisfaction was associated with working on a ward (OR 0.51, p<0.001) and a capacity of more than 200 beds (OR 0.33, p = 0.00). Certified nurse specialists associated job satisfaction with palliative care team participation (OR 2.64, p<0.05), cross–sectional activities (OR 7.06, p<0.01), positive evaluation from senior stuff (OR 13.15, p<0.001), presence of certified nurses in radiation therapy (OR 2.91, p<0.05), positive certified nurse specialist development evaluation (OR 7.35, p<0.001), medical service fees (OR 3.78, p<0.01), and independent activities (OR 11.34, p<0.01).ConclusionsWe identified factors related to activities, facilities, and the cancer care team associated with job satisfaction of certified nurses and nurse specialists in Japanese cancer care. Suggestions are provided to enhance job satisfaction through Japan’s Basic Plan to Promote Cancer Control, which may help hospital administrators retain nursing staff. ]]> <![CDATA[Road lighting density and brightness linked with increased cycling rates after-dark]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14738 Cycling has a range of benefits as is recognised by national and international policies aiming to increase cycling rates. Darkness acts as a barrier to people cycling, with fewer people cycling after-dark when seasonal and time-of-day factors are accounted for. This paper explores whether road lighting can reduce the negative impact of darkness on cycling rates. Changes in cycling rates between daylight and after-dark were quantified for 48 locations in Birmingham, United Kingdom, by calculating an odds ratio. These odds ratios were compared against two measures of road lighting at each location: 1) Density of road lighting lanterns; 2) Relative brightness as estimated from night-time aerial images. Locations with no road lighting showed a significantly greater reduction in cycling after-dark compared with locations that had some lighting. A nonlinear relationship was found between relative brightness at a location at night and the reduction in cyclists after-dark. Small initial increases in brightness resulted in large reductions in the difference between cyclist numbers in daylight and after-dark, but this effect reached a plateau as brightness increased. These results suggest only a minimal amount of lighting can promote cycling after-dark, making it an attractive mode of transport year-round.

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<![CDATA[Survival of glioblastoma treated with a moderately escalated radiation dose—Results of a retrospective analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14700 Glioblastoma (GBM) has the highest fatality rate among primary malignant brain tumors and typically tends to recur locally just adjacent to the original tumor site following surgical resection and adjuvant radiotherapy. We conducted a study to evaluate the survival outcomes between a standard dose (≤ 60 Gy) and moderate radiation dose escalation (>60 Gy), and to identify prognostic factors for GBM. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of primary GBM patients diagnosed between 2005 and 2016 in two referral hospitals in Taiwan. They were identified from the cancer registry database and followed up from the date of diagnosis to October 2018. The progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were compared between the two dose groups, and independent factors for survival were analyzed through Cox proportional hazard model. We also affirmed the results using Cox regression with least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) approach. From our cancer registry database, 142 GBM patients were identified, and 84 of them fit the inclusion criteria. Of the 84 patients, 52 (62%) were males. The radiation dose ranged from 50.0 Gy to 66.6 Gy, but their treatment volumes were similar to the others. Fifteen (18%) patients received an escalated dose boost >60.0 Gy. The escalated group had a longer median PFS (15.4 vs. 7.9 months, p = 0.01 for log-rank test), and a longer median OS was also longer in the escalation group (33.8 vs. 12.5 months, p <0.001) than the reference group. Following a multivariate analysis, the escalated dose was identified as a significant predictor for good prognosis (PFS: hazard ratio [HR] = 0.48, 95% confidence interval [95%CI]: 0.23–0.98; OS: HR = 0.40, 95%CI: 0.21–0.78). Using the LASSO approach, we found age > 70 (HR = 1.55), diagnosis after 2010 (HR = 1.42), and a larger radiation volume (≥ 250ml; HR = 0.81) were predictors of PFS. The escalated dose (HR = 0.47) and a larger radiation volume (HR = 0.76) were identified as predictors for better OS. Following detailed statistical analysis, a moderate radiation dose escalation (> 60 Gy) was found as an independent factor affecting OS in GBM patients. In conclusion, a moderate radiation dose escalation (> 60 Gy) was an independent predictor for longer OS in GBM patients. However, prospective studies including more patients with more information, such as molecular markers and completeness of resection, are needed to confirm our findings.

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<![CDATA[Radioimmunotherapy of methicillin-resistant <i>Staphylococcus aureus</i> in planktonic state and biofilms]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14628 Implant associated infections such as periprosthetic joint infections are difficult to treat as the bacteria form a biofilm on the prosthetic material. This biofilm complicates surgical and antibiotic treatment. With rising antibiotic resistance, alternative treatment options are needed to treat these infections in the future. The aim of this article is to provide proof-of-principle data required for further development of radioimmunotherapy for non-invasive treatment of implant associated infections.MethodsPlanktonic cells and biofilms of Methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus are grown and treated with radioimmunotherapy. The monoclonal antibodies used, target wall teichoic acids that are cell and biofilm specific. Three different radionuclides in different doses were used. Viability and metabolic activity of the bacterial cells and biofilms were measured by CFU dilution and XTT reduction.ResultsAlpha-RIT with Bismuth-213 showed significant and dose dependent killing in both planktonic MRSA and biofilm. When planktonic bacteria were treated with 370 kBq of 213Bi-RIT 99% of the bacteria were killed. Complete killing of the bacteria in the biofilm was seen at 185 kBq. Beta-RIT with Lutetium-177 and Actinium-225 showed little to no significant killing.ConclusionOur results demonstrate the ability of specific antibodies loaded with an alpha-emitter Bismuth-213 to selectively kill staphylococcus aureus cells in vitro in both planktonic and biofilm state. RIT could therefore be a potentially alternative treatment modality against planktonic and biofilm-related microbial infections. ]]> <![CDATA[Production location of the gelling agent Phytagel has a significant impact on <i>Arabidopsis thaliana</i> seedling phenotypic analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14611 Recently, it was found that 1% Phytagel plates used to conduct Arabidopsis thaliana seedling phenotypic analysis no longer reproduced previously published results. This Phytagel, which is produced in China (Phytagel C), has replace American-made Phytagel (Phytagel), which is no longer commercially available. In this study, we present the impact of Phytagel produced in the United States vs. China on seedling phenotypic analysis. As a part of this study, an alternative gelling agent has been identified that is capable of reproducing previously published seedling morphometrics.ResultsPhytagel and Phytagel C were investigated based on their ability to reproduce the subtle phenotype of the sob3-4 esc-8 double mutant. Fluence-rate-response analysis of seedlings grown on 1% Phytagel C plates failed to replicate the sob3-4 esc-8 subtle phenotype seen on 1% Phytagel. Furthermore, root penetrance analysis showed a significant difference between sob3-4 esc-8 seedlings grown on 1% Phytagel and 1% Phytagel C. It was also found that 1% Phytagel C was significantly harder than 1% Phytagel. As a replacement for Phytagel C, Gellan was tested. 1% Gellan was able to reproduce the subtle phenotype of sob3-4 esc-8. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in root penetration of the wild type or sob3-4 esc-8 seedlings between 1% Phytagel and 1% Gellan. This may be due to the significant reduction in hardness in 1% Gellan plates compared to 1% Phytagel plates. Finally, we tested additional concentrations of Gellan and found that seedlings on 0.6% Gellan looked more uniform while also being able to reproduce previously published results.ConclusionsPhytagel has been the standard gelling agent for several studies involving the characterization of subtle seedling phenotypes. After production was moved to China, Phytagel C was no longer capable of reproducing these previously published results. An alternative gelling agent, Gellan, was able to reproduce previously published seedling phenotypes at both 1% and 0.6% concentrations. The information provided in this manuscript is beneficial to the scientific community as whole, specifically phenomics labs, as it details key problematic differences between gelling agents that should be performing identically (Phytagel and Phytagel C). ]]> <![CDATA[Seed germination of <i>Bidens subalternans</i> DC. exposed to different environmental factors]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14560 Bidens subalternans DC. is a weed found in several tropical countries such as Brazil. Large number of produced seeds and easy dispersion favor the colonization of agricultural fields by this species. To know the factors that affect the germination of B. subalternans can help to understand its ecology, permitting to develop control strategies. Laboratory experiments were carried out to evaluate how the temperature, photoperiod, burial depth, water deficit, and salt stress affect the seed germination of B. subalternans. The means of the treatments of each experiment were shown in scatter plots with the bars indicating the least significant difference (LSD, p≤0.05). The results showed a germination percentage above 77% for a wide alternating temperature (15/20 C to 30/35 C night/day). The highest germination and uniformity occurred at 25/30°C night/day. Only 11% of the seeds germinated at a temperature of 35/40°C night/day. The deeper burial of seeds reduced their germination. Only 17% of the seeds germinated in darkness conditions. However, in constant light and 12 hours of light/dark conditions the germination percentage was over 96%, confirming the light dependence of the B. subalternans during germination. In constant light and 12 hours of light/dark, the germination was over 96%. B. subalternans seeds showed sensitivity to water and salt stress, and their germination was inhibited under a water potential of -0.4 MPa and 100.09 mM, respectively. The sensitivity of B. subalternans seeds to high temperatures, water stress, and salt stress explains the high frequency of this weed in south-central Brazil. The light and sowing depth showed that burial of seeds by mechanical control is a strategy to reduce the high infestation of B. subalternans.

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<![CDATA[Two-Session Radiosurgery for Large Primary Tumors Affecting the Brain]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14331 Introduction

Surgery is an option for patients with large, symptomatic primary tumors affecting the brain. However, surgery might not be suitable for all tumors, especially those located in sensitive areas such as the pineal region and the hypothalamus. Single-session stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) might not provide an adequate dose for long-term local control due to the initial tumor volume and the involvement of radiation sensitive organs at risk (OARs). Two-session radiosurgery has been described as a feasible strategy for dose escalation in large secondary brain tumors. This report describes a series of patients treated upfront with two-session radiosurgery for primary tumors affecting the brain.

Materials and methods

From May 2017 to January 2020, eight patients with primary tumors affecting the brain were treated with two-session radiosurgery due to either an initial large tumor volume or tumor localization and the involvement of OARs. The response was assessed by imaging and clinical evaluations.

Results

A total of eight patients were treated, nine tumors were treated with two-session radiosurgery, four patients had tumors in the pineal region (50%), and the rest were in the hypothalamic region (25%) or elsewhere. The mean tumor volume for the first SRS session was 15 mL (range 5.2 to 51.6 mL), the mean prescription dose was 13 Gy, and the timespan between both sessions was 30 days (range, 30 to 42 days). During the second session, tumor volume was reduced to 73.6% (range, -20% to 98.7%) of the original dimension, mean tumor volume was 5 mL (range, 0.1 to 17.8 ml), mean prescription dose for the second session was 16.2 Gy estimated by time, dose, and fractionation and by bioequivalent dose under alpha-beta values often to be equivalent to a single dose of 15.8 Gy. Doses to the OARs for the optic pathway were equivalent to a single maximum dose of 9.75 Gy (range, 7.12 to 10.92), and to the brainstem, the equivalent was a maximum dose of 12.3 Gy (range, 5.6 to 15.07).

At last follow-up, at a mean of 336.5 days (range, 65 to 962 days), seven patients were alive, five tumors had a partial response (PR), and three had stable disease in accordance to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) criteria. One patient died 435 days after treatment, the Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS) was 90 at the first session, 90 at the second session, and was maintained at last follow-up. No adverse radiation effects were reported.

Conclusions

Two-stage SRS proved to be a safe method to escalate dose in proportionately large volume primary brain tumors whose histology is expected to have a quick biological response to radiation. Longer follow-up is needed to determine the long-term effectiveness by tumor subtypes of two-stage SRS in the same manner as it has been proven in single session SRS series in smaller tumor volumes. 

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<![CDATA[Cryosurgery Versus Primary Androgen Deprivation Therapy for Locally Recurrent Prostate Cancer After Primary Radiotherapy: A Propensity-Matched Survival Analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_11574 Background

Optimal management of isolated local recurrence of prostate cancer after primary radiotherapy remains to be defined. Up-front androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is widely used but may adversely affect the quality of life and is essentially a palliative treatment. Local salvage carries a different side-effect profile and is potentially curative, but it has not been compared to ADT.

Materials and methods

We conducted a propensity-matched analysis of cohorts of men treated with either whole gland cryotherapy (CRYO) or primary ADT following the diagnosis of locally recurrent prostate cancer. Our specific objectives were to compare overall survival (OS) and prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM) between CRYO vs. ADT.

Results

After a one-to-one matching, 169 patients from each cohort were included in comparisons. Median follow-up time was 6.7 years (ADT) vs. 18 years (CRYO). The 10-year PCSM was 18.5% (ADT) vs. 16.2% (CRYO), which was not statistically different [hazard ratioo (HR): 0.69, 95% CI: 0.36-1.34, p=0.27]. The median OS was 12.3 years (CRYO) versus 10.2 years (ADT) (HR: 0.63, 95% CI: 0.42-0.95, p=0.03).

Conclusions

While PCSM was similar between the two strategies, CRYO was associated with a longer OS compared to primary ADT. Given the retrospective nature of the trial, these results should be considered hypothesis-generating, and phase III trials comparing these two options are required to further explore these findings.

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<![CDATA[Single-Institution Experience with Selective Internal Radiation Therapy (SIRT) for the Treatment of Primary and Secondary Hepatic Tumors]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_9466 Purpose: We aim to provide results of the real-world experience of a single center in Lebanon on the use of radioembolization to treat liver-only or liver-dominant tumors. 

Methods: This retrospective review included patients who were evaluated for radioembolization between January 2015 and June 2017 and who had a lung shunt fraction of 20% or less. Tumor responses were determined using the response evaluation criteria in solid tumors (RECIST).

Results: Of the 23 Arab patients with a median age of 64 years (range, 36-87 years), eight had hepatocellular carcinoma, four had cholangiocarcinoma, and 11 had liver-only or liver-dominant metastases from other primary cancers. Most (n=17) had multifocal lesions, and 13 had a history of branched (n=8) or main (n=5) portal vein thrombosis. When appropriate, the gastroduodenal artery and middle hepatic artery were embolized for consolidation of radiotherapy; 18 patients required arterial coil occlusion, two had their cystic artery occluded, and one developed cholecystitis, which was successfully treated with antibiotics and supportive care. Another patient developed a post-radioembolization complication-a peptic ulcer unrelated to arterial reflux of microspheres because both the gastroduodenal and right gastric arteries were occluded. The median time to progression was seven months (range, 3-36 months), and median overall survival from radioembolization was 12 months (range, 3-40 months). Tumor responses included five complete responses, 13 partial responses, one stable disease, and four cases of progressive disease. 

Conclusion: Performing radioembolization in a non-referral, private center in Lebanon resulted in good patient outcomes with few complications.

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<![CDATA[LabBM Score and Extracranial Score As New Tools for Predicting Survival in Patients with Brain Metastases Treated with Focal Radiotherapy]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_9450 Background

Two recently validated, untraditional prognostic scores include serum albumin and lactate dehydrogenase, among other parameters. The latter are hemoglobin, platelet counts, and C-reactive protein (three-tiered LabBM score), whereas the four-tiered extracranial score includes more than one extracranial site of metastatic involvement. Until now, head-to-head comparisons of these two scores in patients treated with focal radiotherapy for newly diagnosed brain metastases are not available.

Methods

This was a retrospective single-institution analysis of 51 patients, most of whom were managed with first-line stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). Survival was stratified by the LabBM score and extracranial score.

Results

Both scores predicted survival, but the analyses were hampered by small subgroups. In particular, very few patients belonged to the unfavorable groups. Survival shorter than two months, which was recorded in 14%, was not well predicted by the LabBM score and extracranial score.

Conclusions

Very few patients treated with focal radiotherapy (largely SRS) had unfavorable prognostic features according to the two untraditional scores, which do not include the number of brain metastases and performance status. Additional research is needed to improve the tools that predict short survival because overtreatment during the terminal phase of metastatic disease continues to represent a relevant issue.

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<![CDATA[Thalamic, cortical, and amygdala involvement in the processing of a natural sound cue of danger]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7872 When others stop and silence ensues, animals respond as if threatened. This study highlights the brain areas involved in listening to the dangerous silence.

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<![CDATA[Image-quality metric system for color filter array evaluation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7704 A modern color filter array (CFA) output is rendered into the final output image using a demosaicing algorithm. During this process, the rendered image is affected by optical and carrier cross talk of the CFA pattern and demosaicing algorithm. Although many CFA patterns have been proposed thus far, an image-quality (IQ) evaluation system capable of comprehensively evaluating the IQ of each CFA pattern has yet to be developed, although IQ evaluation items using local characteristics or specific domain have been created. Hence, we present an IQ metric system to evaluate the IQ performance of CFA patterns. The proposed CFA evaluation system includes proposed metrics such as the moiré robustness using the experimentally determined moiré starting point (MSP) and achromatic reproduction (AR) error, as well as existing metrics such as color accuracy using CIELAB, a color reproduction error using spatial CIELAB, structural information using the structure similarity, the image contrast based on MTF50, structural and color distortion using the mean deviation similarity index (MDSI), and perceptual similarity using Haar wavelet-based perceptual similarity index (HaarPSI). Through our experiment, we confirmed that the proposed CFA evaluation system can assess the IQ for an existing CFA. Moreover, the proposed system can be used to design or evaluate new CFAs by automatically checking the individual performance for the metrics used.

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<![CDATA[Effective coupling of rapid freeze-quench to high-frequency electron paramagnetic resonance]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7690 We report an easy, efficient and reproducible way to prepare Rapid-Freeze-Quench samples in sub-millimeter capillaries and load these into the probe head of a 275 GHz Electron Paramagnetic Resonance spectrometer. Kinetic data obtained for the binding reaction of azide to myoglobin demonstrate the feasibility of the method for high-frequency EPR. Experiments on the same samples at 9.5 GHz show that only a single series of Rapid-Freeze-Quench samples is required for studies at multiple microwave frequencies.

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<![CDATA[Dosimetric Limitations in Treating Breast Cancer with Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation Using Strut Adjusted Volume Implant (SAVI)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nfbcfedd9-2f97-4fed-b16f-b36b4a42bd0b We present one case of accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) using strut adjusted volume implant (SAVI) where there were limitations in delivering the dose as per the standard guidelines. The device was placed close to both the chest wall and the skin with little tissue surrounding the tip. Two plans were made in an attempt to achieve the standard therapeutic doses without over-treating the chest wall or the skin. Similar cases reported in the literature were reviewed. The dosimetry of the two plans was compared to the cases discussed in the literature.

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<![CDATA[Small Cell Carcinoma of the Prostate: A Case Report and Review of the Literature]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N658eb756-734a-4e4c-ac9a-ae7754cf31bf

Small cell carcinoma of the prostate (SCCP) is a rare malignancy that is considered a lethal entity of prostate cancer. Once it is diagnosed, patients characteristically experience an aggressive clinical course with poor overall survival rates, which unfortunately still holds even with modern treatments. In this report, we discuss the case of a 63-year-old African American male who initially presented to the hospital with an elevated prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level of 9.41 ng/mL and was found to have locally extensive SCCP. After one cycle of chemotherapy, the patient's symptoms worsened, and his disease continued to progress with an increased metastatic burden. In a matter of just a few months, the patient’s disease progressed from a locally advanced entity to a diffusely metastatic one, showcasing the true aggressive nature of this disease. Through an extensive literature review, this case report also sheds further light on SCCP's histological characteristics, its apparent differences from adenocarcinoma of the prostate, and its aggressive nature even through treatment.

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<![CDATA[Tumor Location and Treatment Modality are Associated with Overall Survival in Adult Medulloblastoma]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nd8f9498b-81c7-4114-a5c4-a4d03f24ce88

Introduction

Medulloblastoma (MB) is an aggressive brain tumor most commonly found in children. Although prognostic factors are well studied in children, factors affecting survival in adults with medulloblastoma are unclear.

Methods

We queried the 1973-2015 United States Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) registry to identify all adult cases of medulloblastoma, and performed multivariate survival analyses to assess the relationships amongst various clinical variables, including age, sex, race, tumor location, treatment modalities, and overall survival.

Results

A total of 857 patients, 20 years of age and older, with MB were identified in the SEER registry. Adult cases presented most frequently in the cerebellum (91.6%) compared to other less common regions (brain stem 3.2%, brain 2.2%, ventricle 1.8%). The overall median survival for adult MB is 60 months (SD = 94.3) and survival time is related to tumor location and course of treatment (P < 0.001). Multivariate Cox proportional hazard models showed that lesions found outside the cerebellum corresponded to worse median survival times (37 months) than those in the cerebellum (63 months) (hazard ratio 1.69, 95% CI 1.321-2.158, P = 0.001). Patients who were assigned chemotherapy had shorter survival (54 months) than those who were not (67 months) (HR 1.4515, 95% CI 1.26-1.671, P < 0.001), but receiving radiation therapy was associated with better overall survival (66 months) relative to not receiving radiation (25 months) (HR 0.581, 95% CI 0.48-0.70, P < 0.001).

Conclusions

Tumor location appears to be a significant prognostic factor for survival in adult MB. Recommended treatment regimes, likely reflective of the underlying aggressiveness of the tumor, also seem to impact survival.

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<![CDATA[Triple Head and Neck Carcinoma: Case Report and Literature Review]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N0aeae69f-d117-46dd-b556-8bf697d2d539

Synchronous cancers are multiple cancers that develop within six months of the initial diagnosis while metachronous cancers are those that develop more than six months after the initial diagnosis. A combination of three cancers is seen with several patients, which leads to a bad prognosis, and that of synchronous cancers is worse than that of metachronous cancers. Herein, we describe the case of a 62-year-old woman with multiple metachronous head and neck cancers.

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<![CDATA[Effect of internal surface structure of the north wall on Chinese solar greenhouse thermal microclimate based on computational fluid dynamics]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nf5b70015-c0ce-4e08-9dc5-5525c2c91d69

Chinese solar greenhouses are unique facility agriculture buildings and widely used in northeastern China, providing a favorable requirement for crop growth. The north wall configurations play an essential role in heat storage and thermal insulation and directly affect the management of the internal environment. This research is devoted to further improve the thermal performance of the greenhouse and explore the potential of the north wall. A mathematical model was designed to investigate the concave-convex wall configurations based on computational fluid dynamics. Four passive heat-storage north walls were analyzed by using the same constituent materials, including a plane wall, a vertical wall, a horizontal wall and an alveolate wall. The numerical model was validated by experimental measurements. The temperature distributions of the north walls were examined and a comparative analysis of the heat storage-release capabilities was carried out. The results showed that the heat-storage capacity of the north wall is affected by the surface structure. Moreover, the critical factor influencing the air temperature is the sum of the heat load released by the wall and the energy increment of greenhouse air. The results suggested that the alveolate wall has preferable thermal accumulation capacity. The concave-convex wall configurations have a wider range of heat transfer performance along the thickness direction, while the plane wall has a superior thermal environment. This study provides a basic theoretical reference to rationally design the internal surface structures of the north wall.

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