ResearchPad - radiation-oncology https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Two-Session Radiosurgery for Large Primary Tumors Affecting the Brain]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14331 Introduction

Surgery is an option for patients with large, symptomatic primary tumors affecting the brain. However, surgery might not be suitable for all tumors, especially those located in sensitive areas such as the pineal region and the hypothalamus. Single-session stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) might not provide an adequate dose for long-term local control due to the initial tumor volume and the involvement of radiation sensitive organs at risk (OARs). Two-session radiosurgery has been described as a feasible strategy for dose escalation in large secondary brain tumors. This report describes a series of patients treated upfront with two-session radiosurgery for primary tumors affecting the brain.

Materials and methods

From May 2017 to January 2020, eight patients with primary tumors affecting the brain were treated with two-session radiosurgery due to either an initial large tumor volume or tumor localization and the involvement of OARs. The response was assessed by imaging and clinical evaluations.

Results

A total of eight patients were treated, nine tumors were treated with two-session radiosurgery, four patients had tumors in the pineal region (50%), and the rest were in the hypothalamic region (25%) or elsewhere. The mean tumor volume for the first SRS session was 15 mL (range 5.2 to 51.6 mL), the mean prescription dose was 13 Gy, and the timespan between both sessions was 30 days (range, 30 to 42 days). During the second session, tumor volume was reduced to 73.6% (range, -20% to 98.7%) of the original dimension, mean tumor volume was 5 mL (range, 0.1 to 17.8 ml), mean prescription dose for the second session was 16.2 Gy estimated by time, dose, and fractionation and by bioequivalent dose under alpha-beta values often to be equivalent to a single dose of 15.8 Gy. Doses to the OARs for the optic pathway were equivalent to a single maximum dose of 9.75 Gy (range, 7.12 to 10.92), and to the brainstem, the equivalent was a maximum dose of 12.3 Gy (range, 5.6 to 15.07).

At last follow-up, at a mean of 336.5 days (range, 65 to 962 days), seven patients were alive, five tumors had a partial response (PR), and three had stable disease in accordance to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) criteria. One patient died 435 days after treatment, the Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS) was 90 at the first session, 90 at the second session, and was maintained at last follow-up. No adverse radiation effects were reported.

Conclusions

Two-stage SRS proved to be a safe method to escalate dose in proportionately large volume primary brain tumors whose histology is expected to have a quick biological response to radiation. Longer follow-up is needed to determine the long-term effectiveness by tumor subtypes of two-stage SRS in the same manner as it has been proven in single session SRS series in smaller tumor volumes. 

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<![CDATA[Cryosurgery Versus Primary Androgen Deprivation Therapy for Locally Recurrent Prostate Cancer After Primary Radiotherapy: A Propensity-Matched Survival Analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_11574 Background

Optimal management of isolated local recurrence of prostate cancer after primary radiotherapy remains to be defined. Up-front androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is widely used but may adversely affect the quality of life and is essentially a palliative treatment. Local salvage carries a different side-effect profile and is potentially curative, but it has not been compared to ADT.

Materials and methods

We conducted a propensity-matched analysis of cohorts of men treated with either whole gland cryotherapy (CRYO) or primary ADT following the diagnosis of locally recurrent prostate cancer. Our specific objectives were to compare overall survival (OS) and prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM) between CRYO vs. ADT.

Results

After a one-to-one matching, 169 patients from each cohort were included in comparisons. Median follow-up time was 6.7 years (ADT) vs. 18 years (CRYO). The 10-year PCSM was 18.5% (ADT) vs. 16.2% (CRYO), which was not statistically different [hazard ratioo (HR): 0.69, 95% CI: 0.36-1.34, p=0.27]. The median OS was 12.3 years (CRYO) versus 10.2 years (ADT) (HR: 0.63, 95% CI: 0.42-0.95, p=0.03).

Conclusions

While PCSM was similar between the two strategies, CRYO was associated with a longer OS compared to primary ADT. Given the retrospective nature of the trial, these results should be considered hypothesis-generating, and phase III trials comparing these two options are required to further explore these findings.

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<![CDATA[Single-Institution Experience with Selective Internal Radiation Therapy (SIRT) for the Treatment of Primary and Secondary Hepatic Tumors]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_9466 Purpose: We aim to provide results of the real-world experience of a single center in Lebanon on the use of radioembolization to treat liver-only or liver-dominant tumors. 

Methods: This retrospective review included patients who were evaluated for radioembolization between January 2015 and June 2017 and who had a lung shunt fraction of 20% or less. Tumor responses were determined using the response evaluation criteria in solid tumors (RECIST).

Results: Of the 23 Arab patients with a median age of 64 years (range, 36-87 years), eight had hepatocellular carcinoma, four had cholangiocarcinoma, and 11 had liver-only or liver-dominant metastases from other primary cancers. Most (n=17) had multifocal lesions, and 13 had a history of branched (n=8) or main (n=5) portal vein thrombosis. When appropriate, the gastroduodenal artery and middle hepatic artery were embolized for consolidation of radiotherapy; 18 patients required arterial coil occlusion, two had their cystic artery occluded, and one developed cholecystitis, which was successfully treated with antibiotics and supportive care. Another patient developed a post-radioembolization complication-a peptic ulcer unrelated to arterial reflux of microspheres because both the gastroduodenal and right gastric arteries were occluded. The median time to progression was seven months (range, 3-36 months), and median overall survival from radioembolization was 12 months (range, 3-40 months). Tumor responses included five complete responses, 13 partial responses, one stable disease, and four cases of progressive disease. 

Conclusion: Performing radioembolization in a non-referral, private center in Lebanon resulted in good patient outcomes with few complications.

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<![CDATA[LabBM Score and Extracranial Score As New Tools for Predicting Survival in Patients with Brain Metastases Treated with Focal Radiotherapy]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_9450 Background

Two recently validated, untraditional prognostic scores include serum albumin and lactate dehydrogenase, among other parameters. The latter are hemoglobin, platelet counts, and C-reactive protein (three-tiered LabBM score), whereas the four-tiered extracranial score includes more than one extracranial site of metastatic involvement. Until now, head-to-head comparisons of these two scores in patients treated with focal radiotherapy for newly diagnosed brain metastases are not available.

Methods

This was a retrospective single-institution analysis of 51 patients, most of whom were managed with first-line stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). Survival was stratified by the LabBM score and extracranial score.

Results

Both scores predicted survival, but the analyses were hampered by small subgroups. In particular, very few patients belonged to the unfavorable groups. Survival shorter than two months, which was recorded in 14%, was not well predicted by the LabBM score and extracranial score.

Conclusions

Very few patients treated with focal radiotherapy (largely SRS) had unfavorable prognostic features according to the two untraditional scores, which do not include the number of brain metastases and performance status. Additional research is needed to improve the tools that predict short survival because overtreatment during the terminal phase of metastatic disease continues to represent a relevant issue.

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<![CDATA[Dosimetric Limitations in Treating Breast Cancer with Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation Using Strut Adjusted Volume Implant (SAVI)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nfbcfedd9-2f97-4fed-b16f-b36b4a42bd0b We present one case of accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) using strut adjusted volume implant (SAVI) where there were limitations in delivering the dose as per the standard guidelines. The device was placed close to both the chest wall and the skin with little tissue surrounding the tip. Two plans were made in an attempt to achieve the standard therapeutic doses without over-treating the chest wall or the skin. Similar cases reported in the literature were reviewed. The dosimetry of the two plans was compared to the cases discussed in the literature.

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<![CDATA[Small Cell Carcinoma of the Prostate: A Case Report and Review of the Literature]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N658eb756-734a-4e4c-ac9a-ae7754cf31bf

Small cell carcinoma of the prostate (SCCP) is a rare malignancy that is considered a lethal entity of prostate cancer. Once it is diagnosed, patients characteristically experience an aggressive clinical course with poor overall survival rates, which unfortunately still holds even with modern treatments. In this report, we discuss the case of a 63-year-old African American male who initially presented to the hospital with an elevated prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level of 9.41 ng/mL and was found to have locally extensive SCCP. After one cycle of chemotherapy, the patient's symptoms worsened, and his disease continued to progress with an increased metastatic burden. In a matter of just a few months, the patient’s disease progressed from a locally advanced entity to a diffusely metastatic one, showcasing the true aggressive nature of this disease. Through an extensive literature review, this case report also sheds further light on SCCP's histological characteristics, its apparent differences from adenocarcinoma of the prostate, and its aggressive nature even through treatment.

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<![CDATA[Tumor Location and Treatment Modality are Associated with Overall Survival in Adult Medulloblastoma]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nd8f9498b-81c7-4114-a5c4-a4d03f24ce88

Introduction

Medulloblastoma (MB) is an aggressive brain tumor most commonly found in children. Although prognostic factors are well studied in children, factors affecting survival in adults with medulloblastoma are unclear.

Methods

We queried the 1973-2015 United States Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) registry to identify all adult cases of medulloblastoma, and performed multivariate survival analyses to assess the relationships amongst various clinical variables, including age, sex, race, tumor location, treatment modalities, and overall survival.

Results

A total of 857 patients, 20 years of age and older, with MB were identified in the SEER registry. Adult cases presented most frequently in the cerebellum (91.6%) compared to other less common regions (brain stem 3.2%, brain 2.2%, ventricle 1.8%). The overall median survival for adult MB is 60 months (SD = 94.3) and survival time is related to tumor location and course of treatment (P < 0.001). Multivariate Cox proportional hazard models showed that lesions found outside the cerebellum corresponded to worse median survival times (37 months) than those in the cerebellum (63 months) (hazard ratio 1.69, 95% CI 1.321-2.158, P = 0.001). Patients who were assigned chemotherapy had shorter survival (54 months) than those who were not (67 months) (HR 1.4515, 95% CI 1.26-1.671, P < 0.001), but receiving radiation therapy was associated with better overall survival (66 months) relative to not receiving radiation (25 months) (HR 0.581, 95% CI 0.48-0.70, P < 0.001).

Conclusions

Tumor location appears to be a significant prognostic factor for survival in adult MB. Recommended treatment regimes, likely reflective of the underlying aggressiveness of the tumor, also seem to impact survival.

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<![CDATA[Triple Head and Neck Carcinoma: Case Report and Literature Review]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N0aeae69f-d117-46dd-b556-8bf697d2d539

Synchronous cancers are multiple cancers that develop within six months of the initial diagnosis while metachronous cancers are those that develop more than six months after the initial diagnosis. A combination of three cancers is seen with several patients, which leads to a bad prognosis, and that of synchronous cancers is worse than that of metachronous cancers. Herein, we describe the case of a 62-year-old woman with multiple metachronous head and neck cancers.

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<![CDATA[Treatment for Recurrent Differentiated Thyroid Cancer: A Canadian Population Based Experience]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N15678ebf-6297-4a51-a41e-1a807c5b8844

Introduction: Management of recurrent differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) may include surgery, radioactive iodine (RAI), and external beam radiotherapy (EBRT). Systemic therapy may also be offered for RAI-refractory DTC. The study objective was to review patterns of practice in British Columbia (BC) for treatment of recurrent DTC, assess rates of RAI-refractory disease, and evaluate outcomes.

Methods: BC Cancer provides cancer care to a population of 4.6 million. A retrospective review of all patients with DTC stage I-IVB disease referred to BC Cancer from 2009 to 2013 was conducted. Patient and DTC characteristics, locoregional and distant recurrence, surgical management, RAI, EBRT, and systemic therapy details were retrospectively collected. Relapse-free survival (RFS), overall survival (OS), and disease-specific survival (DSS) were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method.

Results/Discussion: Some 1062 DTC patients were identified. Median follow-up was 4.1 years. Baseline characteristics: female 74%, median age 50, papillary/follicular/Hurthle cell 92%/6%/2%. Stage at presentation: I 60%, II 8%, III 22%, IVA/IVB 10%. Locoregional and/or distant recurrence occurred in 136 patients (13%). Locoregional recurrence (n=118) was treated with surgery +/- RAI or EBRT 48%, RAI +/- EBRT 40%, EBRT alone 1%, 11% were observed without treatment. Some 27 patients had a second cancer recurrence. Some 37 patients (3%) developed distant metastatic disease and common sites of distant metastases were: lung 76%, bone 30%, and liver 8%. Some 27 cases (2%) were deemed RAI-refractory. Some six patients (0.6%) received systemic therapy with a vascular endothelial growth factor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (VEGF TKI). Five-year RFS was calculated to be 82%, OS 95%, and DSS 98% for the study population.

Conclusions: In our population-based study cohort, 87% of patients were rendered disease-free by primary disease management. Multi-modality treatment of locoregional recurrence facilitated disease-free status in the majority of patients (67%). RAI-refractory disease developed in 2% of patients and despite a significant number of metastatic recurrences, only a small number of patients received systemic therapy.

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<![CDATA[Radiation Therapy as a Modality to Create Abscopal Effects: Current and Future Practices]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N5503d70a-9fd6-4a01-8bfd-8b915ba1012a

In our empathetic understanding of abscopal effect (AbE), research has shown that the immune system is stimulated by radiation, which results in the formation of an AbE. The AbE is referred to as a response from the irradiated volume. Despite the existence of key gaps in our understanding, there is an urgent need to explore what the underlying effect is. The aim of this article is to argue neurosurgeons and the healthcare practitioner's knowledge of the AbE. Our goal is to identify more gaps in our understanding of the AbE and seal other gaps as well. This study will review medical journals and bring together the most updated information related to AbEs.

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<![CDATA[Gamma Knife Surgery for Residual or Recurrent Craniopharyngioma After Surgical Resection: A Multi-institutional Retrospective Study in Japan]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nb5de723c-c31d-4079-aa13-b1fc2c88d584

Objective

The optimal treatment for a craniopharyngioma has been controversial. Complete resection is ideal, but it has been difficult to obtain total resection in many cases because of intimate proximity to critical structures such as the optic pathway, hypothalamus, and pituitary gland. A growing number of studies have demonstrated the utility of radiosurgery in controlling residual or recurrent craniopharyngioma. However, most of them are small series. The aim of this multi-institutional study was to clarify the efficacy and safety of Gamma Knife (Elekta, Stockholm, Sweden) surgery for patients with a craniopharyngioma.

Methods

This was a multi-institutional retrospective study by 16 medical centers of the Japan Leksell Gamma Knife Society. Data on patients with craniopharyngiomas treated with Gamma Knife Surgery (GKS) between 1991 and 2013 were obtained from individual institutional review board-approved databases at each center. A total of 242 patients with craniopharyngioma were included in this study. The mean age of the patients was 41 (range, 3 to 86) years. The median follow-up time was 61.4 months (range, 3 to 180 months). The mean radiosurgery target volume was 3.1 ml (range, 0.03-22.3 ml), and the mean marginal dose was 11.4 Gy (range, 8-20.4 Gy).

Results

Two-hundred twenty patients were alive at the time of the last follow-up visit. The three-, five-, and 10-year overall survival rates after GKS were 95.4%, 92.5%, and 82.0%, respectively. The three-, five-, and 10-year progression-free survival rates after GKS were 73.1%, 62.2%, and 42.6% respectively. The rate of radiation-induced complications was 6.2%.

Conclusion

GKS is effective for controlling the tumor growth of craniopharyngiomas with an acceptable complication rate.

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<![CDATA[Evaluation of the dosimetric impact of manufacturing variations for the INTRABEAM x‐ray source]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nbaea2992-f9ad-4189-9980-fc477cf7f7ec

Abstract

Introduction

INTRABEAM x‐ray sources (XRSs) have distinct output characteristics due to subtle variations between the ideal and manufactured products. The objective of this study is to intercompare 15 XRSs and to dosimetrically quantify the impact of manufacturing variations on the delivered dose.

Methods and Materials

The normality of the XRS datasets was evaluated with the Shapiro–Wilk test, the accuracy of the calibrated depth–dose curves (DDCs) was validated with ionization chamber measurements, and the shape of each DDC was evaluated using depth–dose ratios (DDRs). For 20 Gy prescribed to the spherical applicator surface, the dose was computed at 5‐mm and 10‐mm depths from the spherical applicator surface for all XRSs.

Results

At 5‐, 10‐, 20‐, and 30‐mm depths from the source, the coefficient of variation (CV) of the XRS output for 40 kVp was 4.4%, 2.8%, 2.0%, and 3.1% and for 50 kVp was 4.2%, 3.8%, 3.8%, and 3.4%, respectively. At a 20‐mm depth from the source, the 40‐kVp energy had a mean output in Gy/Minute = 0.36, standard deviation (SD) = 0.0072, minimum output = 0.34, and maximum output = 0.37 and a 50‐kVp energy had a mean output = 0.56, SD = 0.021, minimum output = 0.52, and maximum output = 0.60. We noted the maximum DRR values of 2.8% and 2.5% for 40 kVp and 50 kVp, respectively. For all XRSs, the maximum dosimetric effect of these variations within a 10‐mm depth of the applicator surface is ≤ 2.5%. The CV increased as depth increased and as applicator size decreased.

Conclusion

The American Association of Physicist in Medicine Task Group‐167 requires that the impurities in radionuclides used for brachytherapy produce ≤ 5.0% dosimetric variations. Because of differences in an XRS output and DDC, we have demonstrated the dosimetric variations within a 10‐mm depth of the applicator surface to be ≤ 2.5%.

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<![CDATA[A phantom based evaluation of the dose prediction and effects in treatment plans, when calculating on a direct density CT reconstruction]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N87b6df23-1b4c-42cd-9fd7-5e65042ea6c9

Abstract

In radiation therapy, a Computed Tomography (CT) image is needed for an accurate dose calculation. To allow such a calculation, the CT image values have to be converted into relative electron densities. Thus, standard procedure is to calibrate the CT numbers to relative electron density (RED) by using a phantom with known composition inserts. This calibration curve is energy and CT dependent, therefore most radiotherapy CT acquisitions are obtained with 120 kVp, as each tube voltage needs an additional calibration curve. The commercially available DirectDensityTM (DD) reconstruction algorithm presents a reconstruction implementation without any dependence on the tube voltage. In comparison, it allows a calibration curve that is directly proportional to the RED, reducing the need of more than one calibration curve. This could potentially optimize CT acquisitions and reducing the dose given to the patient. Three different phantoms were used to evaluate the DirectDensityTM algorithm in simple and anthropomorphic geometries, as well as setups with metal implants. Scans with the DD algorithm were performed for 80, 100, 120, and 140 kVp. As reference a scan with the standard 120 kVp scan was used. Radiotherapy photon plans were optimized and calculated on the reference image and then transferred to the DD images, where they were recalculated. The dose distributions obtained this way were compared to the reference dose. Differences were found mainly in pure air and high density materials such as bones. The difference of the mean dose was below 0.7%, in most cases below 0.4%. No indication was found that the algorithm is corrupted by metal inserts, enabling the application for all clinical cases. This algorithm offers more variability in CT parameters for radiation therapy and thus a more personalized image acquisition with a high image quality and a lower dose exposure at a robust clinical workflow.

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<![CDATA[Incorporating biological modeling into patient‐specific plan verification]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N2ad61a93-8453-44a5-96ef-6edb772fe984

Abstract

Purpose

Dose–volume histogram (DVH) measurements have been integrated into commercially available quality assurance systems to provide a metric for evaluating accuracy of delivery in addition to gamma analysis. We hypothesize that tumor control probability and normal tissue complication probability calculations can provide additional insight beyond conventional dose delivery verification methods.

Methods

A commercial quality assurance system was used to generate DVHs of treatment plan using the planning CT images and patient‐specific QA measurements on a phantom. Biological modeling was performed on the DVHs produced by both the treatment planning system and the quality assurance system.

Results

The complication‐free tumor control probability, P +, has been calculated for previously treated intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) patients with diseases in the following sites: brain (−3.9% ± 5.8%), head‐neck (+4.8% ± 8.5%), lung (+7.8% ± 1.3%), pelvis (+7.1% ± 12.1%), and prostate (+0.5% ± 3.6%).

Conclusion

Dose measurements on a phantom can be used for pretreatment estimation of tumor control and normal tissue complication probabilities. Results in this study show how biological modeling can be used to provide additional insight about accuracy of delivery during pretreatment verification.

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<![CDATA[Independent review of 4DCT scans used for SABR treatment planning]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Na586a5c0-c586-4a7b-b083-53a98861dbac

Abstract

Four‐dimensional computerized tomography (4DCT) is required for stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy (SABR) of mobile targets to account for tumor motion during treatment planning and delivery. In this study, we report on the impact of an image review quality assurance process performed prior to treatment planning by medical physicists for 4DCT scans used for SABR treatment. Reviews were performed of 211 4DCT scans (193 patients) over a 3‐yr period (October 2014 to October 2017). Treatment sites included lung (n = 168), kidney/adrenal/adrenal gland (n = 12), rib (n = 4), mediastinum (n = 10), liver (n = 2), T‐spine (n = 1), and other abdominal sites (n = 14). It was found that in 23% (n = 49) of cases patient management was altered due to the review process. The most frequent intervention involved patient‐specific contouring advice (n = 35 cases, 17%) including adjustment of internal target volume (ITV) margins. In 13 cases (6%) a rescan was requested due to extensive motion artifact rendering the scan inadequate for SABR treatment planning. 4DCT review by medical physicists was found to be an effective method to improve plan quality for SABR.

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<![CDATA[A novel, yet simple MLC‐based 3D‐crossfire technique for spatially fractionated GRID therapy treatment of deep‐seated bulky tumors]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N7ffea9e1-b612-4844-8c10-71b3bf155a7c

Abstract

Purpose

Treating deep‐seated bulky tumors with traditional single‐field Cerrobend GRID‐blocks has many limitations such as suboptimal target coverage and excessive skin toxicity. Heavy traditional GRID‐blocks are a concern for patient safety at various gantry‐angles and dosimetric detail is not always available without a GRID template in user’s treatment planning system. Herein, we propose a simple, yet clinically useful multileaf collimator (MLC)‐based three‐dimensional (3D)‐crossfire technique to provide sufficient target coverage, reduce skin dose, and potentially escalate tumor dose to deep‐seated bulky tumors.

Materials/methods

Thirteen patients (multiple sites) who underwent conventional single‐field cerrobend GRID‐block therapy (maximum, 15 Gy in 1 fraction) were re‐planned using an MLC‐based 3D‐crossfire method. Gross tumor volume (GTV) was used to generate a lattice pattern of 10 mm diameter and 20 mm center‐to‐center mimicking conventional GRID‐block using an in‐house MATLAB program. For the same prescription, MLC‐based 3D‐crossfire grid plans were generated using 6‐gantry positions (clockwise) at 60° spacing (210°, 270°, 330°, 30°, 90°, 150°, therefore, each gantry angle associated with a complement angle at 180° apart) with differentially‐weighted 6 or 18 MV beams in Eclipse. For each gantry, standard Millenium120 (Varian) 5 mm MLC leaves were fit to the grid‐pattern with 90° collimator rotation, so that the tunneling dose distribution was achieved. Acuros‐based dose was calculated for heterogeneity corrections. Dosimetric parameters evaluated include: mean GTV dose, GTV dose heterogeneities (peak‐to‐valley dose ratio, PVDR), skin dose and dose to other adjacent critical structures. Additionally, planning time and delivery efficiency was recorded. With 3D‐MLC, dose escalation up to 23 Gy was simulated for all patient's plans.

Results

All 3D‐MLC crossfire GRID plans exhibited excellent target coverage with mean GTV dose of 13.4 ± 0.5 Gy (range: 12.43–14.24 Gy) and mean PVDR of 2.0 ± 0.3 (range: 1.7–2.4). Maximal and dose to 5 cc of skin were 9.7 ± 2.7 Gy (range: 5.4–14.0 Gy) and 6.3 ± 1.8 Gy (range: 4.1–11.1 Gy), on average respectively. Three‐dimensional‐MLC treatment planning time was about an hour or less. Compared to traditional GRID‐block, average beam on time was 20% less, while providing similar overall treatment time. With 3D‐MLC plans, tumor dose can be escalated up to 23 Gy while respecting skin dose tolerances.

Conclusion

The simple MLC‐based 3D‐crossfire GRID‐therapy technique resulted in enhanced target coverage for de‐bulking deep‐seated bulky tumors, reduced skin toxicity and spare adjacent critical structures. This simple MLC‐based approach can be easily adopted by any radiotherapy center. It provides detailed dosimetry and a safe and effective treatment by eliminating the heavy physical GRID‐block and could potentially provide same day treatment. Prospective clinical trial with higher tumor‐dose to bulky deep‐seated tumors is anticipated.

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<![CDATA[The impact of the field width on VMAT plan quality and the assessment of half field method]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N5f231bb1-2094-401b-a9bb-2d51b5ad0751

Abstract

Purpose

The goal of this work is to investigate the field width dependence of the volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) plan quality and to propose a half field method to irradiate large volumes effectively with VMAT.

Materials and methods

We compared four different VMAT methods; namely three full field (3ff), four full field (4ff), three half field (3hf), four half field (4hf). To evaluate the impact of the field width on VMAT plan quality, 12 different size PTVs were created in the virtual phantom and treatment plans generated for each PTV were compared. The effectiveness of our half field method was tested using computed tomography (CT) data of 10 nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients.

Results

In the virtual phantom study, organs at risk (OAR) mean dose, the maximum point dose, and Homogeneity Index (HI) were found to be field width dependent. Conformation Number (CN) was not significantly affected. In the clinical study, 4hf plans obtained statistically significant dose reduction at brainstem (P < 0.001), right parotid (P = 0.034), oral cavity (P < 0.001), larynx (P = 0.003), cochlea (P = 0.017), lips (P = 0.024), and Body‐PTV (P = 0.04) compared to 4ff plans.

Conclusion

Our results indicate that VMAT plan quality is dependent on the field width. Half field VMAT method, with the help of reduced field width, shows a clear advantage for the irradiation of large size targets compared to traditionally used full field VMAT plans.

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<![CDATA[Dosimetric study of three‐dimensional static and dynamic SBRT radiotherapy for hepatocellular carcinoma based on 4DCT image deformable registration]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N730be624-e914-45ef-8fd3-3ccc83f8e866

Abstract

The purpose of this work was to determine the actual dose received by normal tissues during four‐dimensional radiation therapy (4DRT) composed of ten phases of four‐dimensional computer tomography (4DCT) images. The analysis was performed by tracking the hepatocellular carcinoma SBRT. Data were acquired from the tracking of each phase with the beam aperture for 28 hepatocellular carcinoma patients, and the data were used to generate a cumulative plan, which was compared to a three‐dimensional (3D) plan formed from a merged target volume based on 4DCT images in a radiation treatment planning system (TPS). The change in normal tissue dose was evaluated in the plan using the parameters V5, V10, V15, V20, V25, V30, V35, and V40 (volumes receiving 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, and 40 Gy, respectively) in the dose‐volume histogram for the liver; the mean dose was analyzed for the following tissues: liver, left kidney, and right kidney. The maximum dose was analyzed for the following tissues: bowel, duodenum, esophagus, stomach, and heart. There was a significant difference in the dose between the 4D planning target volume (PTV) (average 115.71 cm3) and ITV (169.86 cm3). The planning objective was for 95% of the volume of the PTV to be covered by the prescription dose, but the mean dose for the liver, left kidney and right kidney had an average decrease of 23.13%, 49.51%, and 54.38%, respectively. The maximum dose for the bowel, duodenum, esophagus, stomach, and heart had an average decrease of 16.77%, 28.07%, 24.28%, 4.89%, and 4.45%, respectively. Compared to 3D RT, the radiation volume for the liver V5, V10, V15, V20, V25, V30, V35, and V40 using the 4D plans had a significant decrease (﹤ 0.05). The 4D method creates plans that permit sparing of the normal tissues more than the commonly used ITV method, which delivers the same dosimetric effects to the target.

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<![CDATA[Evaluation of a commercial DIR platform for contour propagation in prostate cancer patients treated with IMRT/VMAT]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nb964c146-a056-49f2-82f6-51daf53e2a33

Abstract

Purpose

To assess the performance and limitations of contour propagation with three commercial deformable image registration (DIR) algorithms using fractional scans of CT‐on‐rails (CTOR) and Cone Beam CT (CBCT) in image guided prostate therapy patients treated with IMRT/VMAT.

Methods

Twenty prostate cancer patients treated with IMRT/VMAT were selected for analysis. A total of 453 fractions across those patients were analyzed. Image data were imported into MIM (MIM Software, Inc., Cleveland, OH) and three DIR algorithms (DIR Profile, normalized intensity‐based (NIB) and shadowed NIB DIR algorithms) were applied to deformably register each fraction with the planning CT. Manually drawn contours of bladder and rectum were utilized for comparison against the DIR propagated contours in each fraction. Four metrics were utilized in the evaluation of contour similarity, the Hausdorff Distance (HD), Mean Distance to Agreement (MDA), Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC), and Jaccard indices. A subfactor analysis was performed per modality (CTOR vs. CBCT) and time (fraction). Point estimates and 95% confidence intervals were assessed via a Linear Mixed Effect model for the contour similarity metrics.

Results

No statistically significant differences were observed between the DIR Profile and NIB algorithms. However, statistically significant differences were observed between the shadowed NIB and NIB algorithms for some of the DIR evaluation metrics. The Hausdorff Distance calculation showed the NIB propagated contours vs. shadowed NIB propagated contours against the manual contours were 14.82 mm vs. 8.34 mm for bladder and 15.87 mm vs. 11 mm for rectum, respectively. Similarly, the Mean Distance to Agreement calculation comparing the NIB propagated contours vs. shadowed NIB propagated contours against the manual contours were 2.43 mm vs. 0.98 mm for bladder and 2.57 mm vs. 1.00 mm for rectum, respectively. The Dice Similarity Coefficients comparing the NIB propagated contours and shadowed NIB propagated contours against the manual contours were 0.844 against 0.936 for bladder and 0.772 against 0.907 for rectum, respectively. The Jaccard indices comparing the NIB propagated contours and shadowed NIB propagated contours against the manual contours were 0.749 against 0.884 for bladder and 0.637 against 0.831 for rectum, respectively. The shadowed NIB DIR, which showed the closest agreement with the manual contours performed significantly better than the DIR Profile in all the comparisons. The OAR with the greatest agreement varied substantially across patients and image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) modality. Intra‐patient variability of contour metric evaluation was insignificant across all the DIR algorithms. Statistical significance at α = 0.05 was observed for manual vs. deformably propagated contours for bladder for all the metrics except Hausdorff Distance (P = 0.01 for MDA, P = 0.02 for DSC, P = 0.01 for Jaccard), whereas the corresponding values for rectum were: P = 0.03 for HD, P = 0.01 for MDA, P < 0.01 for DSC, P < 0.01 for Jaccard. The performance of the different metrics varied slightly across the fractions of each patient, which indicates that weekly contour propagation models provide a reasonable approximation of the daily contour propagation models.

Conclusion

The high variance of Hausdorff Distance across all automated methods for bladder indicates widely variable agreement across fractions for all patients. Lower variance across all modalities, methods, and metrics were observed for rectum. The shadowed NIB propagated contours were substantially more similar to the manual contours than the DIR Profile or NIB contours for both the CTOR and CBCT imaging modalities. The relationship of each algorithm to similarity with manual contours is consistent across all observed metrics and organs. Screening of image guidance for substantial differences in bladder and rectal filling compared with the planning CT reference could aid in identifying fractions for which automated DIR would prove insufficient.

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<![CDATA[Radiosurgery for Patients with More Than Ten Brain Metastases]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nfa995ca4-1619-4f5e-9d89-b487dd3d5608

Purpose

In this article, we report on Gamma Knife radiosurgery performed on patients with more than 10 brain metastases. Although the standard treatment for multiple brain metastases is currently believed to be whole-brain irradiation, many patients are averse to it due to the potential for serious complications such as cognitive impairment.

Cases and Methods

Here, 70 cases of Gamma Knife radiosurgery for metastatic foci originating from various primary cancer are reviewed. Several different treatment protocols were selected: (1) single session, (2) two or three consecutive sessions, (3) fractionated irradiation for large tumor and stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for small ones, and (4) salvage treatment for recurrent tumors after whole-brain irradiation.

Results

Despite the long beam-on-time (BOT) necessary for Gamma Knife radiosurgery and unavoidable spillage irradiation to the entire brain, all the treatments were completed without any major difficulties.

Conclusion

SRS or radiotherapy might be a treatment choice for patients with more than 10 brain metastases. However, the very long treatment time and big spillage irradiation to the entire brain warrants that large metastatic foci should be removed before or after radiosurgery.

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