ResearchPad - radiology https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Ultrasound prediction of Zika virus-associated congenital injury using the profile of fetal growth]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13878 Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-transmitted flavivirus, recently linked to microcephaly and central nervous system anomalies following infection in pregnancy. Striking findings of disproportionate growth with a smaller than expected head relative to body length have been observed more commonly among fetuses with exposure to ZIKV in utero compared to pregnancies without ZIKV infection regardless of other signs of congenital infection including microcephaly. This study’s objective was to determine the diagnostic accuracy of femur-sparing profile of intrauterine growth restriction for the identification of ZIKV-associated congenital injuries on postnatal testing. A retrospective cohort study of pregnant women with possible or confirmed ZIKV infection between January 1, 2016 and December 31, 2017 were included. Subjects were excluded if no prenatal ultrasound was available. A femur-sparing profile of growth restriction determined using INTERGROWTH-21st sonographic standard for head circumference to femur length (HC: FL). Congenital injuries were determined postnatally by imaging, comprehensive eye exam and standard newborn hearing screen. A total of 111 pregnant women diagnosed with ZIKV infection underwent fetal ultrasound and 95 neonates had complete postnatal evaluation. Prenatal microcephaly was detected in 5% of fetuses (6/111). Postnatal testing detected ZIKV-associated congenital injuries in 25% of neonates (24/95). A HC: FL Z-score ≤ -1.3 had a 52% specificity (95% CI 41–63%), 82% negative predictive value (NPV, 95% CI 73–88%) for the detection of ZIKV-associated congenital injuries in the neonatal period. A more stringent threshold with a Z-score ≤ -2 was associated with a 90% specificity (95% CI 81–95%), 81% NPV (95% CI 77–85%). Excluding cases of fetal microcephaly, HC: FL (Z-score ≤ -2) demonstrated a similar specificity (89%, 95% CI 81–95%) with superior NPV (87%, 95% CI 84–90%). The sonographic recognition of a normally proportioned fetus may be useful prenatally to exclude a wider spectrum of ZIKV-associated congenital injuries detected postnatally.

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<![CDATA[Retrospectively ECG-gated helical vs. non-ECG-synchronized high-pitch CTA of the aortic root for TAVI planning]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13825 Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) plays a key role in patient assessment prior to transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). However, to date no consensus has been established on what is the optimal pre-procedural imaging protocol. Variability in pre-TAVI acquisition protocols may lead to discrepancies in aortic annulus measurements and may potentially influence prosthesis size selection.PurposeThe current study evaluates the magnitude of differences in aortic annulus measurements using max-systolic, end-diastolic, and non-ECG-synchronized imaging, as well as the impact of method on prosthesis size selection.Material and methodsFifty consecutive TAVI-candidates, who underwent retrospectively-ECG-gated CT angiography (CTA) of the aortic root, directly followed by non-ECG-synchronized high-pitch CT of the entire aorta, were retrospectively included. Aortic root dimensions were assessed at each 10% increment of the R-R interval (0–100%) and on the non-ECG-synchronized scan. Dimensional changes within the cardiac cycle were evaluated using a 1-way repeated ANOVA. Agreement in measurements between max-systole, end-diastole and non-ECG-synchronized scans was assessed with Bland-Altman analysis.ResultsMaximal dimensions of the aortic root structures and minimum annulus-coronary ostia distances were measured during systole. Max-systolic measurements were significantly and substantially larger than end-diastolic (p<0.001) and non-ECG-synchronized measurements (p<0.001). Due to these discrepancies, the three methods resulted in the same prosthesis size selection in only 48–62% of patients.ConclusionsThe systematic differences between max-systolic, end-diastolic and non-ECG-synchronized measurements for relevant aortic annular dimensions are both statistically significant and clinically relevant. Imaging strategy impacts prosthesis size selection in nearly half the TAVI-candidates. End-diastolic and non-ECG-synchronized imaging does not provide optimal information for prosthesis size selection. Systolic image acquisition is necessary for assessment of maximal annular dimensions and minimum annulus-coronary ostia distances. ]]> <![CDATA[Functional magnetic resonance imaging of the trail-making test in older adults]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13819 The trail-making test (TMT) is a popular neuropsychological test, which is used extensively to measure cognitive impairment associated with neurodegenerative disorders in older adults. Behavioural performance on the TMT has been investigated in older populations, but there is limited research on task-related brain activity in older adults. The current study administered a naturalistic version of the TMT to a healthy older-aged population in an MRI environment using a novel, MRI-compatible tablet. Functional MRI was conducted during task completion, allowing characterization of the brain activity associated with the TMT. Performance on the TMT was evaluated using number of errors and seconds per completion of each link. Results are reported for 36 cognitively healthy older adults between the ages of 52 and 85. Task-related activation was observed in extensive regions of the bilateral frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital lobes as well as key motor areas. Increased age was associated with reduced brain activity and worse task performance. Specifically, older age was correlated with decreased task-related activity in the bilateral occipital, temporal and parietal lobes. These results suggest that healthy older aging significantly affects brain function during the TMT, which consequently may result in performance decrements. The current study reveals the brain activation patterns underlying TMT performance in a healthy older aging population, which functions as an important, clinically-relevant control to compare to pathological aging in future investigations.

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<![CDATA[Metastatic Neuroendocrine Carcinoma Presenting with Bilateral Axillary Lymphadenopathy]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_11597 Metastatic, high-grade neuroendocrine carcinomas are frequently associated with small cell lung cancer (SCLC), classically spreading to the liver, bone, lung, and brain. Though SCLCs most commonly present as large masses interfering with the airway, this malignancy may appear initially as a benign mass at a distant site. This case profiles a 64-year-old woman who presented with bilateral breast masses that were identified as metastases of poorly differentiated, high-grade neuroendocrine SCLC through mammogram, ultrasound, CT, and core biopsy. Accurately identifying etiology of a breast malignancy is critical to therapeutic planning, as disparate treatment guidelines and disease courses exist for primary breast cancer and SCLC.

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<![CDATA[Clinico-radiological Outcomes of Using Modified Stoppa Approach for Treating Acetabular Fractures: An Institutional Review]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_10538 Introduction

Acetabular fractures are complex intra-articular fractures. The extra-pelvic ilioinguinal (IL) has been the workhorse for the anterior approach and remains the gold standard. The major difference between the IL and the Stoppa approaches is that Stoppa allows for the avoidance of the middle window of the IL approach. Hence, the modified Stoppa approach (MSA) can be adopted by a comparatively less experienced surgeon with minimal complications. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the radiological and functional outcomes of patients operated on using the MSA.

Materials and methods

Patients operated on by the MSA for acetabular fractures with a minimum of one year of clinical and radiographic follow-ups were reviewed. CT scans and radiographs were evaluated for the fracture pattern, time to surgery, operative time, blood loss, quality of reduction (Matta criterion), FO [Harris hip score (HHS) and Nach Merle d'Aubigné and Postel score (NMAPS)] and complications (perioperative and follow-up). Twenty-three of 26 patients with 45 acetabular fractures operated between January 2016 and November 2018 were included. Descriptive statistics were used for demographic data, and Pearson’s chi-squared statistic was calculated for the association between radiological and functional outcomes.

Results 

Among the 23 patients, the mean age was 38.5 years (range: 15-65) with a male-to-female ratio of 18:5. The average time to surgery was 11.5 days (range: 2-32), operating time was 155 minutes (range: 90-243), and average blood loss was 650 ml (range: 500-1,250). A supplemental lateral window was used in 20 patients (87%), and three underwent the combined anterior and posterior [Kocher Langenbacks (KL)] approach. All cases were unilateral. The transverse fracture was the most common pattern (eight patients) followed by the associated both-column fracture in six and T-type, isolated anterior column fracture, and anterior column and posterior hemi-transverse fractures seen in three patients each. Iliac blade (high anterior column) fracture was seen in 14 cases and one patient had associated sacral type II fracture. Road traffic accidents accounted for 61% of the injuries and injury severity score (ISS) of >15 (polytrauma) was seen in more than 50% of the cases (associated with other organ injuries). The radiological outcome was anatomical in 52% of the cases, imperfect in 39%, and poor in 9%. The functional outcomes were good to excellent in 74% (HHS) and 79% (NMAPS) of the cases. The association and correlation between them were nonsignificant (p-value: >0.5). Two patients developed a superficial infection and three had iatrogenic obturator nerve palsy. One patient had a direct inguinal hernia, one had grade 3 bedsores, and two patients developed grade 2 arthritic changes during the follow-up. No case of vessel injury was encountered.

Conclusion

Adoption of the MSA for the treatment of acetabular fractures leads to a good-to-excellent anatomical reduction in most cases while providing direct visualization of the quadrilateral plate and posterior column. The learning curve is smaller for less-experienced surgeons in terms of complications and results. We recommend this technique as a viable alternative to the IL approach for anterior acetabular fixation.

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<![CDATA[A Delayed Splenic Tragedy Beyond the Scope of a Colonoscope: A Rare Find]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_10508 Colonoscopy is considered a low-risk procedure worldwide. Complications include hemorrhage, bowel perforation, and splenic rupture on rare occasions. The incidence of splenic rupture estimates between 0.00005 and 0.017%. Due to its nonspecific presentation, many cases may be misdiagnosed. We present a 76-year-old female on apixaban for atrial fibrillation who presented to us with sudden-onset, left-sided atraumatic chest pain radiating to the left shoulder, 10/10 in intensity, associated with nausea. The patient underwent an uncomplicated colonoscopy 16 days earlier with the excision of a 1.3 cm polyp. On presentation, her blood pressure was 96/58 mmHg, hemoglobin of 7.2, an international normalized ratio (INR) of 1.6. An abdominal computed tomography scan showed findings suspicious for splenic rupture. In the emergency department, two packed red blood cells (PRBCs) were transfused, and the patient was shifted to the operating room for emergent exploratory laparotomy where a splenectomy was performed for splenic rupture. The patient was discharged six days later without any postoperative complications. We speculate the use of apixaban and our patient's unusual site of pain following splenic rupture to be somehow correlated.

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<![CDATA[Single-Institution Experience with Selective Internal Radiation Therapy (SIRT) for the Treatment of Primary and Secondary Hepatic Tumors]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_9466 Purpose: We aim to provide results of the real-world experience of a single center in Lebanon on the use of radioembolization to treat liver-only or liver-dominant tumors. 

Methods: This retrospective review included patients who were evaluated for radioembolization between January 2015 and June 2017 and who had a lung shunt fraction of 20% or less. Tumor responses were determined using the response evaluation criteria in solid tumors (RECIST).

Results: Of the 23 Arab patients with a median age of 64 years (range, 36-87 years), eight had hepatocellular carcinoma, four had cholangiocarcinoma, and 11 had liver-only or liver-dominant metastases from other primary cancers. Most (n=17) had multifocal lesions, and 13 had a history of branched (n=8) or main (n=5) portal vein thrombosis. When appropriate, the gastroduodenal artery and middle hepatic artery were embolized for consolidation of radiotherapy; 18 patients required arterial coil occlusion, two had their cystic artery occluded, and one developed cholecystitis, which was successfully treated with antibiotics and supportive care. Another patient developed a post-radioembolization complication-a peptic ulcer unrelated to arterial reflux of microspheres because both the gastroduodenal and right gastric arteries were occluded. The median time to progression was seven months (range, 3-36 months), and median overall survival from radioembolization was 12 months (range, 3-40 months). Tumor responses included five complete responses, 13 partial responses, one stable disease, and four cases of progressive disease. 

Conclusion: Performing radioembolization in a non-referral, private center in Lebanon resulted in good patient outcomes with few complications.

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<![CDATA[Metastatic Gastric Carcinoma Presenting as Acute Appendicitis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_9463 Metastatic disease is one of the few rare causes which can present with clinical and radiological features of acute appendicitis. In this article, we present a case of a 33-years-old man with known primary gastric malignancy undergoing adjuvant treatment, who presented with clinical peritonitis. Imaging findings revealed acute appendicitis and a sealed-off appendiceal perforation. Diagnosis of metastatic adenocarcinoma to the appendix was confirmed on histopathology. Sound knowledge among clinicians and radiologists regarding clinical presentation and radiological findings of acute abdomen in patients with known primary malignancy can aid in rapid diagnosis and management.

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<![CDATA[Diagnosis and Management of Iatrogenic Hemobilia Secondary to Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt Procedure]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_9462 A patient with end-stage liver disease and subsequent refractory ascites was treated with a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) procedure. The procedure was complicated by massive gastrointestinal hemorrhage with associated rettorragia. Computed tomography angiography (CT-A) was performed and revealed haemobilia due to an artero-biliary fistula between the right hepatic artery and an intrahepatic biliary branch. The patient underwent an attempt at percutaneous embolization. Bleeding was successfully stopped by the embolization of the fistula with coils.

Hemobilia is a rare cause of upper gastrointestinal bleeding with an increasing incidence due to the widespread use of invasive hepatobiliary procedures. Hemobilia is an uncommon complication of TIPS procedures. Nowadays, transcatheter embolization is the gold standard in the management of hemobilia.

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<![CDATA[Acute Calcific Retropharyngeal Tendinitis with Eggshell-like Calcification: Case Report and Literature Review on Time-course Changes in Imaging Findings]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_9454 Acute calcific retropharyngeal tendinitis is a rare disease, and few studies have reported the radiological findings of its time-course in detail. These radiological findings vary according to the calcific stage. We report a case of acute calcific retropharyngeal tendinitis with eggshell-like calcification detected on follow-up computed tomography (CT). We also review pertinent literature on calcific retropharyngeal tendinitis, with a focus on time-course changes in imaging findings.

A 54-year-old Japanese woman presented with acute severe neck pain. She also had a limited range of motion in the rotation of her neck and moderate pain and discomfort during swallowing. Plain radiographs of the cervical spine showed no apparent abnormality. CT revealed massive retropharyngeal calcification in front of the C1-C2 vertebrae. The patient was diagnosed with acute calcific retropharyngeal tendinitis and treated with a soft collar and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Two weeks later, the neck pain and dysphagia improved. At the one-month follow-up, CT showed residual marginal calcification, which was diminishing in size, suggesting eggshell-like calcification.

We believe that although the eggshell calcification appearance is extremely rare, it is important to note this atypical presentation of acute calcific retropharyngeal tendinitis.

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<![CDATA[An Interesting Case of Congenital Intrahepatic Porto-hepatic Shunt as a Cause of Unexplained Encephalopathy]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_9384 Congenital portosystemic shunts can be divided into two types: intrahepatic shunts in which there is an abnormal connection between the branches of the portal vein and either the inferior vena cava or the hepatic veins and less commonly the extrahepatic type in which the portal system is connected to one of the branches of the mesenteric veins. Here we describe a 73-year-old woman who was admitted to the hospital with clinical evidence of encephalopathy and was found to have hyperammonemia. Abdominal computed tomography angiography was performed and revealed a dilated portal vein measuring up to 1.8 cm at the porta-hepatis along with dilated superior mesenteric and splenic veins. Multiple dilated vascular channels were identified within the right hepatic lobe. An intrahepatic portosystemic shunt between an enlarged middle hepatic vein and two separate branches of the right portal vein was demonstrated. A liver biopsy showed normal architecture with no evidence of inflammation or fibrosis. Portosystemic shunts are rare and often detected in adulthood but should be considered as an important cause of unexplained encephalopathy in the absence of cirrhotic liver disease or hepatic trauma. Given that the size of such shunts increases with age, older persons are more prone to the effect of toxic metabolites.This age-associated increase in shunt size may help explain why some patients remain asymptomatic until later in their life which may account for the late presentation in our patient.

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<![CDATA[X-linked Bilateral Periventricular Nodular Heterotopia]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_8828 Teaching Point: Postmortem magnetic resonance imaging can replace conventional autopsy and help diagnosis in combination with other postmortem investigations (e.g. microscopic examination of the placenta, genetic testing, etc.) under the umbrella of minimal invasive autopsy.

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<![CDATA[Intra-Articular Osteoid Osteoma: Radiological Manifestations]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_8825 We report a case of intra-articular osteoid osteoma (IAOO) of the elbow, in order to point out the clinical and imaging features which made the case challenging and caused a diagnostic delay.

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<![CDATA[Right ventricular pressure overload directly affects left ventricular torsion mechanics in patients with precapillary pulmonary hypertension]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_8470 This study examined the impact of septal flattening on left ventricular (LV) torsion in patients with precapillary pulmonary hypertension (PH). Fifty-two patients with proven precapillary PH and 13 healthy controls were included. Ventricular function was assessed including 4D-measurements, tissue velocity imaging, and speckle tracking analysis. Increased eccentricity index (1.39 vs. 1.08, p<0.001), systolic pulmonary artery pressure (64 vs. 29mmHg, p<0.001) and right ventricular Tei index (0.55 vs. 0.28, p = 0.007), and reduced tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (19.0 vs. 26.5mm, p<0.001) were detected in PH patients as compared to controls. With increasing eccentricity of left ventricle, LV torsion was both decreased and delayed. Torsion rate paralleled this pattern of change during systole, but not during diastole. In conclusion, right ventricular pressure overload directly affects LV torsion mechanics. The echocardiographic methodology applied provides novel insights in the interrelation of right- and left ventricular function.

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<![CDATA[Plasma Galectin-3 predicts deleterious vascular dysfunction affecting post-myocardial infarction patients: An explanatory study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7712 In a previous analysis of a post-myocardial infarction (MI) cohort, abnormally high systemic vascular resistances (SVR) were shown to be frequently revealed by MRI during the healing period, independently of MI severity, giving evidence of vascular dysfunction and limiting further recovery of cardiac function. The present ancillary and exploratory analysis of the same cohort was aimed at characterizing those patients suffering from high SVR remotely from MI with a large a panel of cardiovascular MRI parameters and blood biomarkers.MethodsMRI and blood sampling were performed 2–4 days after a reperfused MI and 6 months thereafter in 121 patients. SVR were monitored with a phase-contrast MRI sequence and patients with abnormally high SVR at 6-months were characterized through MRI parameters and blood biomarkers, including Galectin-3, an indicator of cardiovascular inflammation and fibrosis after MI. SVR were normal at 6-months in 90 patients (SVR-) and abnormally high in 31 among whom 21 already had high SVR at the acute phase (SVR++) while 10 did not (SVR+).ResultsWhen compared with SVR-, both SVR+ and SVR++ exhibited lower recovery in cardiac function from baseline to 6-months, while baseline levels of Galectin-3 were significantly different in both SVR+ (median: 14.4 (interquartile range: 12.3–16.7) ng.mL-1) and SVR++ (13.0 (11.7–19.4) ng.mL-1) compared to SVR- (11.7 (9.8–13.5) ng.mL-1, both p < 0.05). Plasma Galectin-3 was an independent baseline predictor of high SVR at 6-months (p = 0.002), together with the baseline levels of SVR and left ventricular end-diastolic volume, whereas indices of MI severity and left ventricular function were not. In conclusion, plasma Galectin-3 predicts a deleterious vascular dysfunction affecting post-MI patients, an observation that could lead to consider new therapeutic targets if confirmed through dedicated prospective studies. ]]> <![CDATA[The qualitative assessment of optical coherence tomography and the central retinal sensitivity in patients with retinitis pigmentosa]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7697 To analyze the relationships between qualitative and quantitative parameters of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and the central retinal sensitivity in patients with retinitis pigmentosa (RP).Materials and methodsNinety-three eyes of 93 patients were finally enrolled, with a median age (quartile) of 58 (24.5) years. We assessed the patients using SD-OCT and the 10–2 program of a Humphry Field Analyzer (HFA). As a qualitative parameter, two graders independently classified the patients’ SD-OCT images into five severity grades (grades 1–5) based on the severity of damage to the photoreceptor inner and outer segments (IS/OS) layer. As quantitative parameters, we measured the IS-ellipsoid zone (IS-EZ) width, IS/OS thickness, outer nuclear layer (ONL) thickness, central macular thickness (CMT, 1 and 3 mm) and macular cube (6 × 6 mm) volume and thickness. The central retinal sensitivity was defined by the best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA; logMAR), average sensitivities of the central 4 (foveal sensitivity [FS]) and 12 (macular sensitivity [MS]) points of the HFA 10–2 program and the mean deviation (MD) of the 10–2 program. Spearman’s correlation was used to assess the association between both qualitative and quantitative parameters and variables of the central retinal sensitivity. In addition, we performed a multiple regression analysis using these parameters to identify the parameters most strongly influencing the central retinal sensitivity.ResultsThe IS/OS severity grade was significantly correlated with the BCVA (ρ = 0.741, P < 0.001), FS (ρ = −0.844, P < 0.001), MS (ρ = −0.820, P < 0.001) and MD (ρ = −0.681, P < 0.001) and showed stronger correlations to them than any other quantitative parameters including the IS-EZ width, IS/OS thickness, ONL thickness, CMTs and macular cube volume/thickness. Furthermore, a step-wise multiple regression analysis indicated that the IS/OS severity grade was more strongly associated with the BCVA (β = 0.659, P < 0.001), FS (β = −0.820, P < 0.001), MS (β = −0.820, P < 0.001) and MD (β = −0.674, P < 0.001) than any other quantitative parameters. The intraclass correlation coefficient between two graders indicated substantial correlation (κ = 0.70).DiscussionThe qualitative grading of OCT based on the severity of the IS/OS layer was simple and strongly correlated with the central retinal sensitivity in patients with RP. It may be useful to assess the central visual function in patients with RP, although there is some variation in severity within the same severity grade. ]]> <![CDATA[Effect of minimally invasive autopsy and ethnic background on acceptance of clinical postmortem investigation in adults]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7646 Autopsy rates worldwide have dropped significantly over the last five decades. Imaging based autopsies are increasingly used as alternatives to conventional autopsy (CA). The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the introduction of minimally invasive autopsy, consisting of CT, MRI and tissue biopsies on the overall autopsy rate (of CA and minimally invasive autopsy) and the autopsy rate among different ethnicities.MethodsWe performed a prospective single center before-after study. The intervention was the introduction of minimally invasive autopsy as an alternative to CA. Minimally invasive autopsy consisted of MRI, CT, and CT-guided tissue biopsies. Autopsy rates over time and the effect of introducing minimally invasive autopsy were analyzed with a linear regression model. We performed a subgroup analysis comparing the autopsy rates of two groups: a group of western-European ethnicity versus a group of other ethnicities.ResultsAutopsy rates declined from 14.0% in 2010 to 8.3% in 2019. The linear regression model showed a significant effect of both time and availability of minimally invasive autopsy on the overall autopsy rate. The predicted autopsy rate in the model started at 15.1% in 2010 and dropped approximately 0.1% per month (β = -0.001, p < 0.001). Availability of minimally invasive autopsy increased the overall autopsy rate by 2.4% (β = 0.024, p < 0.001). The overall autopsy rate of people with an ethnic background other than western-European was significantly higher in years when minimally invasive autopsy was available compared to when it was not (22/176 = 12.5% vs. 81/1014 (8.0%), p = 0.049).ConclusionsThe introduction of the minimally invasive autopsy had a small, but significant effect on the overall autopsy rate. Furthermore, the minimally invasive autopsy appears to be more acceptable than CA among people with an ethnicity other than western-European. ]]> <![CDATA[Model based estimation of QT intervals in non-invasive fetal ECG signals]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7659 The end timing of T waves in fetal electrocardiogram (fECG) is important for the evaluation of ST and QT intervals which are vital markers to assess cardiac repolarization patterns. Monitoring malignant fetal arrhythmias in utero is fundamental to care in congenital heart anomalies preventing perinatal death. Currently, reliable detection of end of T waves is possible only by using fetal scalp ECG (fsECG) and fetal magnetocardiography (fMCG). fMCG is expensive and less accessible and fsECG is an invasive technique available only during intrapartum period. Another safer and affordable alternative is the non-invasive fECG (nfECG) which can provide similar assessment provided by fsECG and fMECG but with less accuracy (not beat by beat). Detection of T waves using nfECG is challenging because of their low amplitudes and high noise. In this study, a novel model-based method that estimates the end of T waves in nfECG signals is proposed. The repolarization phase has been modeled as the discharging phase of a capacitor. To test the model, fECG signals were collected from 58 pregnant women (age: (34 ± 6) years old) bearing normal and abnormal fetuses with gestational age (GA) 20-41 weeks. QT and QTc intervals have been calculated to test the level of agreement between the model-based and reference values (fsECG and Doppler Ultrasound (DUS) signals) in normal subjects. The results of the test showed high agreement between model-based and reference values (difference < 5%), which implies that the proposed model could be an alternative method to detect the end of T waves in nfECG signals.

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<![CDATA[Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings and Their Association with Electroencephalogram Data in Children with Partial Epilepsy]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nb68fb722-9c5e-4a04-913e-5fc8fb7d0d92 Background

It is important to identify the neuroimaging features that are associated with partial epilepsy in children. Advances in technology have recently been made to localize focal epileptogenic lesions, especially high-resolution structural imaging with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The recommendation that electroencephalography (EEG) should be the gold standard and that MRI should be optional has been questioned. The present study aims to evaluate the efficacy of MRI in children with partial epilepsy and to compare the diagnostic yields of MRI and EEG data.

Methods

The present study was conducted among one hundred twelve 1- to 6-year-old children with partial epilepsy. All patients underwent EEG and brain MRI. The epileptogenic lesions were identified on the basis of the signal intensities and morphological abnormalities seen on MRI. The correlation between MRI and EEG abnormal findings was analyzed using a chi-square test.

Results

Abnormal MRI findings were present in 34.8% (n = 39) of the sample. The EEG and MRI data agreed with respect to classifications into abnormal or normal in 48.2% of the sample (n = 54). Of the 27 patients with normal EEG findings, six (22.2%) had abnormal MRI findings. Inter-rater agreement showed the compatibility between EEG and MRI not significant (weighted Kappa = 0.105).

Conclusion

A number of MRI abnormalities were found in our study of otherwise normal children, although the correlation between these results was not clear. The follow-up of these children will help us identify the important abnormalities. Despite the small sample size, our results showed that normal EEG findings do not predict normal brain MRI data in children with partial epilepsy.

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<![CDATA[Acute Myocardial Infarction in a Young Woman: Role of Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Establishing the Diagnosis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N113e902b-3fcb-4963-9871-1a4dc9caa5ed Evaluation of acute coronary syndromes (ACS) in young women presents a clinical challenge. An unremarkable coronary angiogram may not exclude ACS, as spontaneous lesion revascularization, resolved coronary spams, or spontaneous coronary dissection (SCAD) can often be missed. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) can provide useful information in acute myocardial infarction (MI) by confirming and sizing acute infarction and delineating the etiology when angiography is inconclusive. Here, we report a case of a 39-year-old postpartum woman with a history of hyperlipidemia who presented with a one-day history of atypical angina. On presentation, she was found to have transient ST-segment elevation in high lateral leads and elevated troponin. Coronary angiography revealed a nonobstructive lesion in the first obtuse marginal branch (OM1) distribution. The patient subsequently underwent cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for further delineation of etiology, which confirmed acute infarction in the OM1 distribution. Diagnosis of myocardial infarction with no obstructive coronary artery disease (MINOCA) secondary to acute coronary artery dissection type 2 (SCAD-2) was made. The patient was managed conservatively with medical therapy. CMR has emerged as a front-line diagnostic imaging modality in acute MI and can provide invaluable information in the confirmation and sizing of infarction, delineating tissue characteristics, establishing the etiology of infarction, and prognostication.

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