ResearchPad - reactive-oxygen-species https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[A grape seed extract maternal dietary supplementation improves egg quality and reduces ovarian steroidogenesis without affecting fertility parameters in reproductive hens]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14599 In broiler hens, the genetic selection increased susceptibility to metabolic disorders and reproductive dysfunctions. In human ovarian cells, grape seed extracts (GSE) improved steroid production. Here, we investigated the effects of a GSE dietary supplementation on egg production and quality, fertility parameters, Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) and steroid content in yolk egg associated to plasma adipokines in broiler hens. For this, we designed two in vivo experiments, the first one included three groups of hens: A (control), B and C (supplemented with GSE at 0.5% and 1% of the total diet composition, respectively, since week 4), and the second one used two groups of hens: A (control) and D (supplemented with GSE at 1% of the total diet composition since hatching). We assessed the egg production from 23th to 40th weeks and quality at 33th week. After artificial inseminations, the fertility parameters were calculated. In egg yolk, Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) level and steroid production were evaluated by Ros-Glo H202 and ELISA assay, respectively. Expression of steroidogenic enzymes and adipokines and their receptors was determined by RT-qPCR in ovarian cells and plasma adipokines (RARRES2, ADIPOQ and NAMPT) were evaluated by specific ELISA assays. The fertility parameters and egg production were unaffected by GSE supplementation whatever the experiment (exp.). However, the rate of double-yolk eggs decreased for all GSE supplemented groups (exp. 1 P <0.01, exp.2, P<0.02). In exp.1, C group eggs were bigger and larger (P<0.0001) and the shell elasticity was higher for both B and C (P<0.0003) as compared to control. In the egg yolk, GSE supplementation in both exp. reduced ROS content and steroidogenesis consistent with a decrease in P450 aromatase and StAR mRNA expression and basal in vitro progesterone secretion in granulosa cells (P<0.001). Interestingly, in both exp. RARRES2 plasma levels were positively correlated while ADIPOQ and NAMPT plasma levels were negatively correlated, with steroids and ROS in yolk (P<0.0001). Taken together, maternal dietary GSE supplementation did not affect egg production and fertility parameters whereas it reduced ROS content and steroidogenesis in yolk egg. Furthermore, it ameliorated egg quality by decreasing the number of double-yolk eggs and by improving the size of normal eggs and the elasticity of the shell. Taken together, our data suggest the possibility of using dietary maternal GSE to improve egg quality.

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<![CDATA[Melatonin decreases M1 polarization via attenuating mitochondrial oxidative damage depending on UCP2 pathway in prorenin-treated microglia]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6b266ad5eed0c484289a2f

Accumulating evidence suggests that neuroinflammation and oxidative stress in cardiovascular center contribute to the pathological processes underlying hypertension. Microglia activation triggers the inflammation and oxidative stress. Melatonin is a documented potent anti-inflammatory regent and antioxidant, the underlying roles of melatonin in regulating microglia activation via mitochondria remain unclear. In present study, we investigated the protective role of melatonin in decreasing M1 phenotype switching via attenuating mitochondrial oxidative damage in dependence on uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) pathway in microglia. Prorenin (20 nmol/L; 24 hr) was used to induce inflammation in cultured microglia. Mitochondrial morphology was detected by transmission electron microscope. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by using DCFH-DA fluorescence imaging and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP, ΔΨm) was evaluated by JC-1 staining. The indicator of the redox status as the ratio of the amount of total NADP+ to total NADPH, and the expression of 6 subunits of NADPH oxidase is measured. The pro-inflammatory cytokines releasing was measured by qPCR. UCP2 and activated AMPKα (p-AMPKα) expression were examined by immunoblot. Melatonin (100 μM) markedly alleviated the M1 microglia phenotype shifting and abnormal mitochondria morphology. Melatonin attenuated prorenin-induced ΔΨm increasing and ROS overproduction. Melatonin decreased the redox ratio (NADP+/NADPH) and the p47phox and gp91phox subunits of NADPH oxidase expression in prorenin-treated microglia. These effects were reversed in the presence of UCP2 siRNA. Our results suggested that the protective effect of melatonin against prorenin-induced M1 phenotype switching via attenuating mitochondrial oxidative damage depending on UCP2 upregulation in prorenin-treated microglia.

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<![CDATA[The red pepper’s spicy ingredient capsaicin activates AMPK in HepG2 cells through CaMKKβ]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c59fed8d5eed0c484135716

Capsaicin is a natural compound present in chili and red peppers and the responsible of their spicy flavor. It has recently provoked interest because of its antitumoral effects in many cell types although its action mechanism is not clearly understood. As metabolic dysregulation is one of the hallmarks of cancer cells and the key metabolic sensor in the AMP-activated kinase (AMPK), in this study we explored the ability of capsaicin to modulate AMPK activity. We found that capsaicin activated AMPK in HepG2 cells by increasing AMPK phosphorylation and its downstream target ACC. Mechanistically, we determined that capsaicin activated AMPK through the calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase β, CaMKKβ as either the CaMKK inhibitor STO-609 or CaMKK knock down with siRNA abrogated the activation of AMPK. Moreover, capsaicin decreased cell viability, inhibited Akt/mTOR pathway and increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) in HepG2 cells. AMPK activation was involved in the underpinning mechanism of capsaicin-induced cell death.

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<![CDATA[Epicatechin modulates stress-resistance in C. elegans via insulin/IGF-1 signaling pathway]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c58d64cd5eed0c484031b1e

The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has been used to examine the influence of epicatechin (EC), an abundant flavonoid in the human diet, in some stress biomarkers (ROS production, lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation). Furthermore, the ability of EC to modulate the expression of some key genes in the insulin/IGF-1 signaling pathway (IIS), involved in longevity and oxidative or heat shock stress response, has also been explored. The final aim was to contribute to the elucidation of the mechanisms involved in the biological effects of flavonoids. The results showed that EC-treated wild-type C. elegans exhibited increased survival and reduced oxidative damage of biomolecules when submitted to thermal stress. EC treatment led to a moderate elevation in ROS levels, which might activate endogenous mechanisms of defense protecting against oxidative insult. The enhanced stress resistance induced by EC was found to be mediated through the IIS pathway, since assays in daf-2, age-1, akt-1, akt-2, sgk-1, daf-16, skn-1 and hsf-1 loss of function mutant strains failed to show any heat-resistant phenotype against thermal stress when treated with EC. Consistently, EC treatment upregulated the expression of some stress resistance associated genes, such as gst-4, hsp-16.2 and hsp-70, which are downstream regulated by the IIS pathway.

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<![CDATA[Blue light irradiation and its beneficial effect on Dupuytren’s fibroblasts]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c42438ed5eed0c4845e05ab

Dupuytren’s contracture is a fibroproliferative disorder affecting the palmar fascia of the hand. Most affected are the ring fingers, and little fingers of middle-aged men. Symptomatic for this disease is the increased proliferation and differentiation of fibroblasts to myofibroblasts, which is accompanied by an elevated α-SMA expression. The present study evaluated the therapeutic benefit of blue light (λ = 453 nm, 38 mW/cm2, continuous radiance, spot size 10–12 cm2) as well as the molecular mechanism mediating this effect. It could be determined that blue light significantly diminished the induced α-SMA protein expression in both normal palmar fibroblasts and Duypuytren’s fibroblasts. The beneficial effect mediated by this irradiance, radiant exposure and wavelength was associated with an elevated reactive oxygen species generation. Furthermore, the data underlines the potential usefulness of blue light irradiation as a promising therapy option for Dupuytren’s disease, especially for relapse prevention, and may represent a useful strategy to treat further fibrotic diseases, such as keloids, hypertrophic scarring, and scleroderma.

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<![CDATA[Ligand-activated PPARδ inhibits angiotensin II-stimulated hypertrophy of vascular smooth muscle cells by targeting ROS]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c3e505ed5eed0c484d80f2b

We investigated the effect of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ (PPARδ) on angiotensin II (Ang II)-triggered hypertrophy of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Activation of PPARδ by GW501516, a specific ligand of PPARδ, significantly inhibited Ang II-stimulated protein synthesis in a concentration-dependent manner, as determined by [3H]-leucine incorporation. GW501516-activated PPARδ also suppressed Ang II-induced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in VSMCs. Transfection of small interfering RNA (siRNA) against PPARδ significantly reversed the effects of GW501516 on [3H]-leucine incorporation and ROS generation, indicating that PPARδ is involved in these effects. By contrast, these GW501516-mediated actions were potentiated in VSMCs transfected with siRNA against NADPH oxidase (NOX) 1 or 4, suggesting that ligand-activated PPARδ elicits these effects by modulating NOX-mediated ROS generation. The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor LY294002 also inhibited Ang II-stimulated [3H]-leucine incorporation and ROS generation by preventing membrane translocation of Rac1. These observations suggest that PPARδ is an endogenous modulator of Ang II-triggered hypertrophy of VSMCs, and is thus a potential target to treat vascular diseases associated with hypertrophic changes of VSMCs.

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<![CDATA[Carbonylation accumulation of the Hypsibius exemplaris anhydrobiote reveals age-associated marks]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c2d2eaed5eed0c484d9b150

Together with nematodes and rotifers, tardigrade belong to micrometazoans that can cope with environmental extremes such as UV and solar radiations, dehydration, supercooling or overheating. Tardigrade can resist the harshest conditions by turning to cryptobiosis, an anhydrobiotic state that results from almost complete dehydration and is characterized by an ametabolic status. Although reports have challenged the molecular basis of the mechanisms underlying genomic injury resistance, little is yet known regarding the possible involvement of other tardigrade macromolecules in injury during a stress experience. In this report, we show that the tardigrade Hypsibius exemplaris can accumulate molecular damages by means of in situ detection of carbonyls. Furthermore, we demonstrate that living tardigrade can accumulate carbonylation. Finally, we reveal that anhydrobiotic tardigrade can be constitutively affected by carbonylation that marks aging in other metazoans.

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<![CDATA[P38 MAPK inhibition prevents polybrene-induced senescence of human mesenchymal stem cells during viral transduction]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c2d2ec1d5eed0c484d9b70f

The unique capacity of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to migrate to the sites of damage, following intravenous transplantation, along with their proliferation and differentiation abilities make them promising candidates for MSC-based gene therapy. This therapeutic approach requires high efficacy delivery of stable transgenes to ensure their adequate expression in MSCs. One of the methods to deliver transgenes is via the viral transduction of MSCs. However, due to low transduction efficiency of MSCs, various polications are used to promote the association of viral particles with membranes of target cells. Among these polications polybrene is the most widely used one. Unfortunately, viral infection in presence of polybrene was shown to negatively affect proliferation rate of stem cells. The molecular mechanism underlying this effect is not yet uncovered. Therefore, the present study aimed to elucidate the mechanism of this phenomenon as well as to develop an effective approach to overcome the negative impact of polybrene on the properties of human endometrium-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMESCs) during lentiviral infection. We found that the negative effect on proliferation observed during the viral infection in presence of polybrene is mediated by the polycation itself. Furthermore, we revealed that the treatment with polybrene alone led to the p38 MAPK-dependent premature senescence of hMESCs. These findings allowed us to develop an effective strategy to attenuate the negative polybrene impact on the hMESCs properties during lentiviral infection by inhibiting the activity of p38 MAPK. Importantly, the proposed approach did not attenuate the transduction efficiency of hMESCs, yet prevented polybrene-induced senescence and thereby restored the proliferation of the infected cells. These results provide the plausible means to reduce side effects of polybrene during the viral infection of primary cells, particularly MSCs.

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<![CDATA[Supplementation of in vitro culture medium with FSH to grow follicles and mature oocytes can be replaced by extracts of Justicia insularis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c141eb3d5eed0c484d27d69

The present study evaluated the effect of supplementing in vitro culture medium with J. insularis compared to FSH on isolated secondary follicles and in vitro maturation of oocytes from those follicles. Secondary follicles were isolated from sheep ovaries and individually cultured for 18 days in α-MEM+ (Control), α-MEM+ supplemented with 100 ng/mL recombinant bovine follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) or with 0.3, 1.25, or 2.5 mg/mL of J. insularis extract (JI0.3, JI1.25, and JI2.5, respectively). Culture medium collected every 2 days was used to measure ROS levels. At the end of the culture period, cumulus oocytes complex (COCs) were collected and matured in vitro. Follicular walls were used for mRNA quantitation. JI0.3 led to a higher (P < 0.05) percentages of intact follicles than other groups after 18 days of culture. While follicular diameter remained unchanged from Day 6 onwards with JI0.3 and FSH, percentages of antral cavity formation were higher (P < 0.05) with JI0.3 at Day 6 than in all other treatments. No differences were observed between controls and treatment groups regarding ROS levels and mRNA expression of genes. Viability of resulting oocytes was higher (P < 0.05) in JI0.3 compared to FSH. Interestingly, in control experiment, supplementation of maturation medium with JI0.3 led to higher (P < 0.05) percentages of metaphase II compared to controls. Although more validations will be needed, it seems that this natural extract could be used as a cheap and easily available alternative to commercial FSH.

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<![CDATA[Study of the ichthyotoxic microalga Heterosigma akashiwo by transcriptional activation of sublethal marker Hsp70b in Transwell co-culture assays]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b6da1a5463d7e4dccc5fae5

Despite the advance of knowledge about the factors and potential mechanisms triggering the ichthyotoxicity in microalgae, these remain unclear or are controversial for several species (e.g. Heterosigma). Neither typical toxicity tests carried out with cell extracts nor direct exposure to harmful species were proved suitable to unravel the mechanism of harm. Ichthyotoxic species show a complex harmful effect on fish, which is mediated through various mechanisms depending on the species. In this work, we present a method to study sub-lethal effects triggered by reactive oxygen species of a population of harmful algae in vivo over a fish cell line. To that end, Transwell co-cultures in which causative and target species are separated by a 0.4 μm pore membrane were carried out. This allowed the evaluation of the effect of the released molecules by cells in a rapid and compact test. In our method, the harmful effect was sensed through the transcriptional activation of sub-lethal marker Hsp70b in the CHSE214 salmon cell line. The method was tested with the raphidophyte Heterosigma akashiwo and Dunaliella tertiolecta (as negative control). It was shown that superoxide intracellular content and its release are not linked in these species. The methodology allowed proving that reactive oxygen species produced by H. akashiwo are able to induce the transcriptional activation of sub-lethal marker Hsp70b. However, neither loss of viability nor apoptosis was observed in CHSE214 salmon cell line except when exposed to direct contact with the raphidophyte cells (or their extract). Consequently, ROS was not concluded to be the main cause of ichthyotoxicity in H. akashiwo.

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<![CDATA[Potential involvement of the 18 kDa translocator protein and reactive oxygen species in apoptosis of THP-1 macrophages induced by sonodynamic therapy]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b03d223463d7e6e6b5b78ed

Sonodynamic therapy (SDT) with exogenous protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) or endogenous PpIX derived from 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) has been carried out to produce apoptotic effects on macrophages, indicating a potential treatment methodology for atherosclerosis. Our previous studies have found that mitochondria damage by reactive oxygen species (ROS) plays a major role in the SDT-induced apoptosis. This study aimed at investigating the potential involvement of the mitochondrial 18 kDa translocator protein (TSPO) and ROS in the pro-apoptotic effects of SDT on THP-1 macrophages. THP-1 macrophages were divided into control and SDT groups, and went through pretreatment of the specific TSPO ligand PK11195 and ROS scavengers N-Acetyl Cysteine (NAC), then compared with groups without pretreatment. Application of PK11195 reduced intracellular accumulation of endogenous PpIX. PK11195 and NAC reduced the generation of intracellular ROS and oxidation of cardiolipin induced by SDT, respectively. PK11195 and NAC also reduced SDT-induced mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) loss, the translocation of cytochrome c and cell apoptosis. PpIX accumulation, ROS generation and cell apoptosis were also attenuated by siTSPO. Our findings indicate the pivotal role of TSPO and ROS in SDT-induced cardiolipin oxidation, ΔΨm collapse, cytochrome c translocation and apoptosis in THP-1 macrophages.

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<![CDATA[Alpha-Synuclein Proteins Promote Pro-Inflammatory Cascades in Microglia: Stronger Effects of the A53T Mutant]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dae3ab0ee8fa60bbc4e6

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is histologically described by the deposition of α-synuclein, whose accumulation in Lewy bodies causes dopaminergic neuronal death. Although most of PD cases are sporadic, point mutations of the gene encoding the α-synuclein protein cause inherited forms of PD. There are currently six known point mutations that result in familial PD. Oxidative stress and neuroinflammation have also been described as early events associated with dopaminergic neuronal degeneration in PD. Though it is known that microglia are activated by wild-type α-synuclein, little is known about its mutated forms and the signaling cascades responsible for this microglial activation. The present study was designed to investigate consequences of wild-type and mutant α-synuclein (A53T, A30P and E46K) exposure on microglial reactivity. Interestingly, we described that α-synuclein-induced microglial reactivity appeared to be peptide-dependent. Indeed, the A53T protein activated more strongly microglia than the wild-type α-synuclein and other mutants. This A53T-induced microglial reactivity mechanism was found to depend on phosphorylation mechanisms mediated by MAPKs and on successive NFkB/AP-1/Nrf2 pathways activation. These results suggest that the microgliosis intensity during PD might depend on the type of α-synuclein protein implicated. Indeed, mutated forms are more potent microglial stimulators than wild-type α-synuclein. Based on these data, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant therapeutic strategies may be valid in order to reduce microgliosis but also to subsequently slow down PD progression, especially in familial cases.

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<![CDATA[Regulation of Reactive Oxygen Species and the Antioxidant Protein DJ-1 in Mastocytosis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da49ab0ee8fa60b8c847

Neoplastic accumulation of mast cells in systemic mastocytosis (SM) associates with activating mutations in the receptor tyrosine kinase KIT. Constitutive activation of tyrosine kinase oncogenes has been linked to imbalances in oxidant/antioxidant mechanisms in other myeloproliferative disorders. However, the impact of KIT mutations on the redox status in SM and the potential therapeutic implications are not well understood. Here, we examined the regulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and of the antioxidant protein DJ-1 (PARK-7), which increases with cancer progression and acts to lessen oxidative damage to malignant cells, in relationship with SM severity. ROS levels were increased in both indolent (ISM) and aggressive variants of the disease (ASM). However, while DJ-1 levels were reduced in ISM with lower mast cell burden, they rose in ISM with higher mast cell burden and were significantly elevated in patients with ASM. Studies on mast cell lines revealed that activating KIT mutations induced constant ROS production and consequent DJ-1 oxidation and degradation that could explain the reduced levels of DJ-1 in the ISM population, while IL-6, a cytokine that increases with disease severity, caused a counteracting transcriptional induction of DJ-1 which would protect malignant mast cells from oxidative damage. A mouse model of mastocytosis recapitulated the biphasic changes in DJ-1 and the escalating IL-6, ROS and DJ-1 levels as mast cells accumulate, findings which were reversed with anti-IL-6 receptor blocking antibody. Our findings provide evidence of increased ROS and a biphasic regulation of the antioxidant DJ-1 in variants of SM and implicate IL-6 in DJ-1 induction and expansion of mast cells with KIT mutations. We propose consideration of IL-6 blockade as a potential adjunctive therapy in the treatment of patients with advanced mastocytosis, as it would reduce DJ-1 levels making mutation-positive mast cells vulnerable to oxidative damage.

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<![CDATA[Piperine, a Natural Bioenhancer, Nullifies the Antidiabetic and Antioxidant Activities of Curcumin in Streptozotocin-Diabetic Rats]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db06ab0ee8fa60bc871b

Knowing that curcumin has low bioavailability when administered orally, and that piperine has bioenhancer activity by inhibition of hepatic and intestinal biotransformation processes, the aim of this study was to investigate the antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of curcumin (90 mg/kg) and piperine (20 or 40 mg/kg), alone or co-administered, incorporated in yoghurt, in streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic rats. The treatment for 45 days of STZ-diabetic rats with curcumin-enriched yoghurt improved all parameters altered in this experimental model of diabetes: the body weight was increased in association with the weight of skeletal muscles and white adipose tissues; the progressive increase in the glycemia levels was avoided, as well as in the glycosuria, urinary urea, dyslipidemia, and markers of liver (alanine and aspartate aminotransferases and alkaline phosphatase) and kidney (urinary protein) dysfunction; the hepatic oxidative stress was decreased, since the activities of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase and gluthatione peroxidase were increased, and the levels of malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl groups were reduced. The dose of 20 mg/kg piperine also showed antidiabetic and antioxidant activities. The treatment of STZ-diabetic rats with both curcumin and 20 mg/kg piperine in yoghurt did not change the antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of curcumin; notably, the treatment with both curcumin and 40 mg/kg piperine abrogated the beneficial effects of curcumin. In addition, the alanine aminotransferase levels were further increased in diabetic rats treated with curcumin and 40 mg/kg piperine in comparison with untreated diabetic rats. These findings support that the co-administration of curcumin with a bioenhancer did not bring any advantage to the curcumin effects, at least about the antidiabetic and antioxidant activities, which could be related to changes on its biotransformation.

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<![CDATA[Discovery of Novel Orally Active Tetrahydro-Naphthyl-N-Acylhydrazones with In Vivo Anti-TNF-α Effect and Remarkable Anti-Inflammatory Properties]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da21ab0ee8fa60b7eed6

LASSBio-1524 was designed as inhibitor of the IKK-β (kappa β kinase inhibitor) enzyme, which participates in the activation of the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) canonical pathway, and its three N-acylhydrazone new analogues, LASSBio-1760, LASSBio-1763 and LASSBio-1764 are now being tested on their anti-inflammatory potential. The activity of these compounds was evaluated with the subcutaneous air pouch induced by carrageenan and by subsequent measurement of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS). In the acute inflammation model, the oral pretreatment with doses from 0.3 to 30 mg/kg of N-acylhydrazone derivatives was able to significantly reduce leukocyte migration to the cavity. Pretreatment with LASSBio-1524 and its analogues also decreased NO, TNF-α and ROS biosynthesis an events closely involved with NF-kB pathway. The tetrahydronaphthyl-N-acylhydrazone derivative LASSBio-1764 was the most promising compound from this series, surpassing even LASSBio-1524. Additionally, none of the compounds demonstrated myelotoxicity or cytotoxicity. Cell viability was assayed and these compounds demonstrated to be safe at different concentrations. Western blot analysis demonstrated that LASSBio-1524 and LASSBio-1760 inhibited NF-κB expression in RAW 264.7 cell lineage. Our data indicate that the tested compounds have anti-inflammatory activity, which may be related to inhibition of leukocyte migration, reducing the production of NO, TNF-α and ROS. LASSBio-1524 and LASSBio-1760, in addition to these features, also reduced p65 nuclear expression assessed by western blot in RAW 264.7 murine cells.

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<![CDATA[60-Day Chronic Exposure to Low Concentrations of HgCl2 Impairs Sperm Quality: Hormonal Imbalance and Oxidative Stress as Potential Routes for Reproductive Dysfunction in Rats]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db4cab0ee8fa60bdab79

Mercury is a toxic and bio-accumulative heavy metal of global concern. While good deals of research have been conducted on the toxic effects of mercury, little is known about the mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of male reproductive dysfunction induced by mercury. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the effects and underlying mechanisms of chronic mercury exposure at low levels on male reproductive system of rats. Three-month-old male Wistar rats were divided into two groups and treated for 60 days with saline (i.m., Control) and HgCl2 (i.m. 1st dose: 4.6 µg/kg, subsequent doses 0.07 µg/kg/day). We analyzed sperm parameters, hormonal levels and biomarkers of oxidative stress in testis, epididymis, prostate and vas deferens. Mercury treatment decreased daily sperm production, count and motility and increased head and tail morphologic abnormalities. Moreover, mercury treatment decreased luteinizing hormone levels, increased lipid peroxidation on testis and decreased antioxidant enzymes activities (superoxide dismutase and catalase) on reproductive organs. Our data demonstrate that 60-day chronic exposure to low concentrations of HgCl2 impairs sperm quality and promotes hormonal imbalance. The raised oxidative stress seems to be a potential mechanism involved on male reproductive toxicity by mercury.

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<![CDATA[Blockade of cyclophilin D rescues dexamethasone-induced oxidative stress in gingival tissue]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db50ab0ee8fa60bdbe8b

Glucocorticoids (GCs) are frequently used for the suppression of inflammation in chronic inflammatory diseases. Excessive GCs usage is greatly associated with several side effects, including gingival ulceration, the downward migration of the epithelium, attachment loss and disruption of transeptal fibers. The mechanisms underlying GCs-induced impairments in gingival tissue remains poorly understood. Mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with various oral diseases, such as chronic periodontitis, age-related alveolar bone loss and hydrogen peroxide-induced cell injury in gingival. Here, we reported an unexplored role of cyclophilin D (CypD), the major component of mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP), in dexamethasone (Dex)-induced oxidative stress accumulation and cell dysfunctions in gingival tissue. We demonstrated that the expression level of CypD significantly increased under Dex treatment. Blockade of CypD by pharmaceutical inhibitor cyclosporine A (CsA) significantly protected against Dex-induced oxidative stress accumulation in gingival tissue. And the protective effects of blocking CypD in Dex-induced gingival fibroblasts dysfunction were evidenced by rescued mitochondrial function and suppressed production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In addition, blockade of CypD by pharmaceutical inhibitor CsA or gene knockdown also restored Dex-induced cell toxicity in HGF-1 cells, as shown by suppressed mitochondrial ROS production, increased CcO activity and decreased apoptosis. We also suggested a role of oxidative stress-mediated p38 signal transduction in this event, and antioxidant N-acety-l-cysteine (NAC) could obviously blunted Dex-induced oxidative stress. These findings provide new insights into the role of CypD-dependent mitochondrial pathway in the Dex-induced gingival injury, indicating that CypD may be potential therapeutic strategy for preventing Dex-induced oxidative stress and cell injury in gingival tissue.

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<![CDATA[Caspase-1/ASC Inflammasome-Mediated Activation of IL-1β–ROS–NF-κB Pathway for Control of Trypanosoma cruzi Replication and Survival Is Dispensable in NLRP3−/− Macrophages]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9fdab0ee8fa60b729e7

In this study, we have utilized wild-type (WT), ASC−/−, and NLRP3−/− macrophages and inhibition approaches to investigate the mechanisms of inflammasome activation and their role in Trypanosoma cruzi infection. We also probed human macrophages and analyzed published microarray datasets from human fibroblasts, and endothelial and smooth muscle cells for T. cruzi-induced changes in the expression genes included in the RT Profiler Human Inflammasome arrays. T. cruzi infection elicited a subdued and delayed activation of inflammasome-related gene expression and IL-1β production in mφs in comparison to LPS-treated controls. When WT and ASC−/− macrophages were treated with inhibitors of caspase-1, IL-1β, or NADPH oxidase, we found that IL-1β production by caspase-1/ASC inflammasome required reactive oxygen species (ROS) as a secondary signal. Moreover, IL-1β regulated NF-κB signaling of inflammatory cytokine gene expression and, subsequently, intracellular parasite replication in macrophages. NLRP3−/− macrophages, despite an inability to elicit IL-1β activation and inflammatory cytokine gene expression, exhibited a 4-fold decline in intracellular parasites in comparison to that noted in matched WT controls. NLRP3−/− macrophages were not refractory to T. cruzi, and instead exhibited a very high basal level of ROS (>100-fold higher than WT controls) that was maintained after infection in an IL-1β-independent manner and contributed to efficient parasite killing. We conclude that caspase-1/ASC inflammasomes play a significant role in the activation of IL-1β/ROS and NF-κB signaling of cytokine gene expression for T. cruzi control in human and mouse macrophages. However, NLRP3-mediated IL-1β/NFκB activation is dispensable and compensated for by ROS-mediated control of T. cruzi replication and survival in macrophages.

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<![CDATA[Robust DNA Damage Response and Elevated Reactive Oxygen Species in TINF2-Mutated Dyskeratosis Congenita Cells]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da04ab0ee8fa60b75163

Dyskeratosis Congenita (DC) is an inherited multisystem premature aging disorder with characteristic skin and mucosal findings as well as a predisposition to cancer and bone marrow failure. DC arises due to gene mutations associated with the telomerase complex or telomere maintenance, resulting in critically shortened telomeres. The pathogenesis of DC, as well as several congenital bone marrow failure (BMF) syndromes, converges on the DNA damage response (DDR) pathway and subsequent elevation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Historically, DC patients have had poor outcomes following bone marrow transplantation (BMT), perhaps as a consequence of an underlying DNA hypersensitivity to cytotoxic agents. Previously, we demonstrated an activated DDR and increased ROS, augmented by chemotherapy and radiation, in somatic cells isolated from DC patients with a mutation in the RNA component of telomerase, TERC. The current study was undertaken to determine whether previous findings related to ROS and DDR in TERC patients’ cells could be extended to other DC mutations. Of particular interest was whether an antioxidant approach could counter increased ROS and decrease DC pathologies. To test this, we examined lymphocytes from DC patients from different DC mutations (TERT, TINF2, and TERC) for the presence of an active DDR and increased ROS. All DC mutations led to increased steady-state p53 (2-fold to 10-fold) and ROS (1.5-fold to 2-fold). Upon exposure to ionizing radiation (XRT), DC cells increased in both DDR and ROS to a significant degree. Exposing DC cells to hydrogen peroxide also revealed that DC cells maintain a significant oxidant burden compared to controls (1.5-fold to 3-fold). DC cell culture supplemented with N-acetylcysteine, or alternatively grown in low oxygen, afforded significant proliferative benefits (proliferation: maximum 2-fold increase; NAC: 5-fold p53 decrease; low oxygen: maximum 3.5-fold p53 decrease). Together, our data supports a mechanism whereby telomerase deficiency and subsequent shortened telomeres initiate a DDR and create a pro-oxidant environment, especially in cells carrying the TINF2 mutations. Finally, the ameliorative effects of antioxidants in vitro suggest this could translate to therapeutic benefits in DC patients.

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<![CDATA[New Anti-Inflammatory Metabolites by Microbial Transformation of Medrysone]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db0aab0ee8fa60bc9c44

Microbial transformation of the anti-inflammatory steroid medrysone (1) was carried out for the first time with the filamentous fungi Cunninghamella blakesleeana (ATCC 8688a), Neurospora crassa (ATCC 18419), and Rhizopus stolonifer (TSY 0471). The objective was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory potential of the substrate (1) and its metabolites. This yielded seven new metabolites, 14α-hydroxy-6α-methylpregn-4-ene-3,11,20-trione (2), 6β-hydroxy-6α-methylpregn-4-ene-3,11,20-trione (3), 15β-hydroxy-6α-methylpregn-4-ene-3,11,20-trione (4), 6β,17α-dihydroxy-6α-methylpregn-4-ene-3,11,20-trione (5), 6β,20S-dihydroxy-6α-methylpregn-4-ene-3,11-dione (6), 11β,16β-dihydroxy-6α-methylpregn-4-ene-3,11-dione (7), and 15β,20R-dihydroxy-6α-methylpregn-4-ene-3,11-dione (8). Single-crystal X-ray diffraction technique unambiguously established the structures of the metabolites 2, 4, 6, and 8. Fungal transformation of 1 yielded oxidation at the C-6β, -11β, -14α, -15β, -16β positions. Various cellular anti-inflammatory assays, including inhibition of phagocyte oxidative burst, T-cell proliferation, and cytokine were performed. Among all the tested compounds, metabolite 6 (IC50 = 30.3 μg/mL) moderately inhibited the reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced from zymosan-induced human whole blood cells. Compounds 1, 4, 5, 7, and 8 strongly inhibited the proliferation of T-cells with IC50 values between <0.2–10.4 μg/mL. Compound 7 was found to be the most potent inhibitor (IC50 < 0.2 μg/mL), whereas compounds 2, 3, and 6 showed moderate levels of inhibition (IC50 = 14.6–20.0 μg/mL). Compounds 1, and 7 also inhibited the production of pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α. All these compounds were found to be non-toxic to 3T3 cells (mouse fibroblast), and also showed no activity when tested against HeLa (human epithelial carcinoma), or against PC3 (prostate cancer) cancer cell lines.

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