ResearchPad - recurrent-neural-networks https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Using case-level context to classify cancer pathology reports]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7869 Individual electronic health records (EHRs) and clinical reports are often part of a larger sequence—for example, a single patient may generate multiple reports over the trajectory of a disease. In applications such as cancer pathology reports, it is necessary not only to extract information from individual reports, but also to capture aggregate information regarding the entire cancer case based off case-level context from all reports in the sequence. In this paper, we introduce a simple modular add-on for capturing case-level context that is designed to be compatible with most existing deep learning architectures for text classification on individual reports. We test our approach on a corpus of 431,433 cancer pathology reports, and we show that incorporating case-level context significantly boosts classification accuracy across six classification tasks—site, subsite, laterality, histology, behavior, and grade. We expect that with minimal modifications, our add-on can be applied towards a wide range of other clinical text-based tasks.

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<![CDATA[Efficient neural decoding of self-location with a deep recurrent network]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c70678ed5eed0c4847c7217

Place cells in the mammalian hippocampus signal self-location with sparse spatially stable firing fields. Based on observation of place cell activity it is possible to accurately decode an animal’s location. The precision of this decoding sets a lower bound for the amount of information that the hippocampal population conveys about the location of the animal. In this work we use a novel recurrent neural network (RNN) decoder to infer the location of freely moving rats from single unit hippocampal recordings. RNNs are biologically plausible models of neural circuits that learn to incorporate relevant temporal context without the need to make complicated assumptions about the use of prior information to predict the current state. When decoding animal position from spike counts in 1D and 2D-environments, we show that the RNN consistently outperforms a standard Bayesian approach with either flat priors or with memory. In addition, we also conducted a set of sensitivity analysis on the RNN decoder to determine which neurons and sections of firing fields were the most influential. We found that the application of RNNs to neural data allowed flexible integration of temporal context, yielding improved accuracy relative to the more commonly used Bayesian approaches and opens new avenues for exploration of the neural code.

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<![CDATA[Artificial intelligence to predict needs for urgent revascularization from 12-leads electrocardiography in emergency patients]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c3fa5a6d5eed0c484ca6e4b

Background

Patient with acute coronary syndrome benefits from early revascularization. However, methods for the selection of patients who require urgent revascularization from a variety of patients visiting the emergency room with chest symptoms is not fully established. Electrocardiogram is an easy and rapid procedure, but may contain crucial information not recognized even by well-trained physicians.

Objective

To make a prediction model for the needs for urgent revascularization from 12-lead electrocardiogram recorded in the emergency room.

Method

We developed an artificial intelligence model enabling the detection of hidden information from a 12-lead electrocardiogram recorded in the emergency room. Electrocardiograms obtained from consecutive patients visiting the emergency room at Keio University Hospital from January 2012 to April 2018 with chest discomfort was collected. These data were splitted into validation and derivation dataset with no duplication in each dataset. The artificial intelligence model was constructed to select patients who require urgent revascularization within 48 hours. The model was trained with the derivation dataset and tested using the validation dataset.

Results

Of the consecutive 39,619 patients visiting the emergency room with chest discomfort, 362 underwent urgent revascularization. Of them, 249 were included in the derivation dataset and the remaining 113 were included in validation dataset. For the control, 300 were randomly selected as derivation dataset and another 130 patients were randomly selected for validation dataset from the 39,317 who did not undergo urgent revascularization. On validation, our artificial intelligence model had predictive value of the c-statistics 0.88 (95% CI 0.84–0.93) for detecting patients who required urgent revascularization.

Conclusions

Our artificial intelligence model provides information to select patients who need urgent revascularization from only 12-leads electrocardiogram in those visiting the emergency room with chest discomfort.

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