ResearchPad - red-cell-biology-its-disorders https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Extensive multilineage analysis in patients with mixed chimerism after allogeneic transplantation for sickle cell disease: insight into hematopoiesis and engraftment thresholds for gene therapy]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_11006 Although studies of mixed chimerism following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) may provide insights into the engraftment needed to correct the disease and into immunological reconstitution, an extensive multilineage analysis is lacking. We analyzed chimerism simultaneously in peripheral erythroid and granulomonocytic precursors/progenitors, highly purified B and T lymphocytes, monocytes, granulocytes and red blood cells (RBC). Thirty-four patients with mixed chimerism and ≥12 months of follow-up were included. A selective advantage of donor RBC and their progenitors/precursors led to full chimerism in mature RBC (despite partial engraftment of other lineages), and resulted in the clinical control of the disease. Six patients with donor chimerism <50% had hemolysis (reticulocytosis) and higher HbS than their donor. Four of them had donor chimerism <30%, including a patient with AA donor (hemoglobin >10 g/dL) and three with AS donors (hemoglobin <10 g/dL). However, only one vaso-occlusive crisis occurred with 68.7% HbS. Except in the patients with the lowest chimerism, the donor engraftment was lower for T cells than for the other lineages. In a context of mixed chimerism after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for SCD, myeloid (rather than T cell) engraftment was the key efficacy criterion. Results show that myeloid chimerism as low as 30% was sufficient to prevent a vaso-occlusive crisis in transplants from an AA donor but not constantly from an AS donor. However, the correction of hemolysis requires higher donor chimerism levels (i.e. ≥50%) in both AA and AS recipients. In the future, this group of patients may need a different therapeutic approach.

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<![CDATA[The phenotypic spectrum of germline YARS2 variants: from isolated sideroblastic anemia to mitochondrial myopathy, lactic acidosis and sideroblastic anemia 2]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c1c2d83d5eed0c48446424d

YARS2 variants have previously been described in patients with myopathy, lactic acidosis and sideroblastic anemia 2 (MLASA2). YARS2 encodes the mitochondrial tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase, which is responsible for conjugating tyrosine to its cognate mt-tRNA for mitochondrial protein synthesis. Here we describe 14 individuals from 11 families presenting with sideroblastic anemia and YARS2 variants that we identified using a sideroblastic anemia gene panel or exome sequencing. The phenotype of these patients ranged from MLASA to isolated congenital sideroblastic anemia. As in previous cases, inter- and intra-familial phenotypic variability was observed, however, this report includes the first cases with isolated sideroblastic anemia and patients with biallelic YARS2 variants that have no clinically ascertainable phenotype. We identified ten novel YARS2 variants and three previously reported variants. In vitro amino-acylation assays of five novel missense variants showed that three had less effect on the catalytic activity of YARS2 than the most commonly reported variant, p.(Phe52Leu), associated with MLASA2, which may explain the milder phenotypes in patients with these variants. However, the other two missense variants had a more severe effect on YARS2 catalytic efficiency. Several patients carried the common YARS2 c.572 G>T, p.(Gly191Val) variant (minor allele frequency =0.1259) in trans with a rare deleterious YARS2 variant. We have previously shown that the p.(Gly191Val) variant reduces YARS2 catalytic activity. Consequently, we suggest that biallelic YARS2 variants, including severe loss-of-function alleles in trans of the common p.(Gly191Val) variant, should be considered as a cause of isolated congenital sideroblastic anemia, as well as the MLASA syndromic phenotype.

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<![CDATA[Non-muscle myosin II drives vesicle loss during human reticulocyte maturation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c1c2d7dd5eed0c4844640db

The process of maturation of reticulocytes into fully mature erythrocytes that occurs in the circulation is known to be characterized by a complex interplay between loss of cell surface area and volume, removal of remnant cell organelles and redundant proteins, and highly selective membrane and cytoskeletal remodeling. However, the mechanisms that underlie and drive these maturational processes in vivo are currently poorly understood and, at present, reticulocytes derived through in vitro culture fail to undergo the final transition to erythrocytes. Here, we used high-throughput proteomic methods to highlight differences between erythrocytes, cultured reticulocytes and endogenous reticulocytes. We identify a cytoskeletal protein, non-muscle myosin IIA (NMIIA) whose abundance and phosphorylation status differs between reticulocytes and erythrocytes and localized it in the proximity of autophagosomal vesicles. An ex vivo circulation system was developed to simulate the mechanical shear component of circulation and demonstrated that mechanical stimulus is necessary, but insufficient for reticulocyte maturation. Using this system in concurrence with non-muscle myosin II inhibition, we demonstrate the involvement of non-muscle myosin IIA in reticulocyte remodeling and propose a previously undescribed mechanism of shear stress-responsive vesicle clearance that is crucial for reticulocyte maturation.

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