ResearchPad - reflection Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Multipurpose chemical liquid sensing applications by microwave approach]]> In this work, a novel sensor based on printed circuit board (PCB) microstrip rectangular patch antenna is proposed to detect different ratios of ethanol alcohol in wines and isopropyl alcohol in disinfectants. The proposed sensor was designed by finite integration technique (FIT) based high-frequency electromagnetic solver (CST) and was fabricated by Proto Mat E33 machine. To implement the numerical investigations, dielectric properties of the samples were first measured by a dielectric probe kit then uploaded into the simulation program. Results showed a linear shifting in the resonant frequency of the sensor when the dielectric constant of the samples were changed due to different concentrations of ethanol alcohol and isopropyl alcohol. A good agreement was observed between the calculated and measured results, emphasizing the usability of dielectric behavior as an input sensing agent. It was concluded that the proposed sensor is viable for multipurpose chemical sensing applications.

<![CDATA[Psychometric characteristics and factorial structures of the Defensive Pessimism Questionnaire—Spanish Version (DPQ-SV)]]>

The aim of this study was to validate the Spanish version of the Defensive Pessimism Questionnaire. A sample of undergraduate students (N = 539) was measured on defensive pessimism using the Defensive Pessimism Questionnaire (DPQ), optimism and pessimism using the Life Orientation Test (LOT), positive and negative affect using the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, and anxiety using the trait subscale of the State and Trait Anxiety Inventory. A Spanish version of the DPQ (DPQ-SV) is presented. Exploratory and Robust Confirmatory Factor Analysis had a bi-dimensional structure (Reflectivity and Negative Expectation). Omega coefficient showed a high internal consistency and the temporal stability was high in each dimension. Both DPQ-SV subscales (Negative Expectation and Reflectivity) showed adequate convergence with LOT-optimism and LOT-pessimism. Reflectivity showed adequate criterion validity with trait-anxiety and negative affect, but inadequate criterion validity with positive affect. Negative Expectation showed excellent criterion validity with trait-anxiety and negative affect and good criterion validity with positive affect. Finally, mediation analysis showed that Negative Expectation had a significant indirect mediating effect between trait-anxiety and negative affect. Reflectivity had a significant indirect mediating effect between trait-anxiety and negative and positive affect. Analysis of the psychometric properties of the DPQ-SV subscale scores showed that it is a two factor adequate measurement tool for its use in this type of samples.

<![CDATA[Children’s descriptions of playing and learning as related processes]]>

Many studies have examined children’s understanding of playing and learning as separate concepts, but the ways that children relate playing and learning to one another remain relatively unexplored. The current study asked 5- to 8-year-olds (N = 92) to define playing and learning, and examined whether children defined them as abstract processes or merely as labels for particular types of activities. We also asked children to state whether playing and learning can occur simultaneously, and examined whether they could give examples of playing and learning with attributes either congruent or incongruent with those activities. Older children were more likely to define both playing and learning in terms of abstract processes, rather than by describing particular topics or activities. Children who defined both playing and learning in this way were able to generate more examples of situations where they were simultaneously playing and learning, and were better able to generate examples of learning with characteristics of play, and examples of playing with characteristics of learning. These data suggest that children develop an understanding that learning and playing can coincide. These results are critical to researchers and educators who seek to integrate play and learning, as children’s beliefs about these concepts can influence how they reflect on playful learning opportunities.

<![CDATA[Physical exam: where’s the evidence? A medical student's experience]]> ]]> <![CDATA[Modeling financial interval time series]]>

In financial economics, a large number of models are developed based on the daily closing price. When using only the daily closing price to model the time series, we may discard valuable intra-daily information, such as maximum and minimum prices. In this study, we propose an interval time series model, including the daily maximum, minimum, and closing prices, and then apply the proposed model to forecast the entire interval. The likelihood function and the corresponding maximum likelihood estimates (MLEs) are obtained by stochastic differential equation and the Girsanov theorem. To capture the heteroscedasticity of volatility, we consider a stochastic volatility model. The efficiency of the proposed estimators is illustrated by a simulation study. Finally, based on real data for S&P 500 index, the proposed method outperforms several alternatives in terms of the accurate forecast.

<![CDATA[Deliberate reasoning is not affected by language]]>


Millions of people use a second language every day. Does this have an effect on their decision-making? Are decisions in a second language more deliberate? Two mechanisms have been proposed: reduced emotionality or increased deliberation. Most studies so far used problems where both mechanisms could contribute to a foreign language effect. Here, we aimed to identify whether deliberate reasoning increases for problems that are devoid of any emotional connotation when using a second language or having to switch between native and second language.


We measured deliberate reasoning with items from the cognitive reflection test, ratio bias, a probability matching task, and base rate neglect items. We recruited over 500 participants from Norway and the Netherlands that had English as their second language. Participants were randomly assigned to either the native, switching or second language condition. We measured: number of correctly answered items–deliberate reasoning score, perceived effort, perceived accuracy or confidence, and language proficiency.


Deliberate reasoning was not increased when using a second language or when having to switch between native and second language. All three groups performed equally well. Significant predictors of deliberate reasoning were age, gender, education, perceived effort, and confidence but not the language context. Participants with low English proficiency spent more time reading compared to more fluent speakers.


There is no advantage of second language on deliberate reasoning in the absence of time pressure. Deliberation was not increased by providing items in a second language, but through the willingness to spend cognitive effort and time to read carefully.

<![CDATA[Further empirical data for torsion on bowed strings]]>

Research on bowed string motion focuses on transverse waves rather than on torsional waves. These are believed to play only a minor role for stabilizing vibrations and no role for perception. Here, torsion is measured on both sides of the bow contact point for a variety of bridge-bow distances on a cello string. Every periodic string release is preceeded by a reverse torsional motion independent from bowing position or dynamics. Transverse and torsional motions are coupled and there are cases of stabilization, but also cases of perturbation or surrender. Structural and timing analyses of torsional waves suggest that the earlier concepts of differential slipping can be essentially confirmed while the concept of Schelleng ripples cannot be confirmed and the concept of subharmonics is under question.

<![CDATA[Annotated primary scientific literature: A pedagogical tool for undergraduate courses]]>

Annotated primary scientific literature is a teaching and learning resource that provides scaffolding for undergraduate students acculturating to the authentic scientific practice of obtaining and evaluating information through the medium of primary scientific literature. Utilizing annotated primary scientific literature as an integrated pedagogical tool could enable more widespread use of primary scientific literature in undergraduate science classrooms with minimal disruption to existing syllabi. Research is ongoing to determine an optimal implementation protocol, with these preliminary iterations presented here serving as a first look at how students respond to annotated primary scientific literature. The undergraduate biology student participants in our study did not, in general, have an abundance of experience reading primary scientific literature; however, they found the annotations useful, especially for vocabulary and graph interpretation. We present here an implementation protocol for using annotated primary literature in the classroom that minimizes the use of valuable classroom time and requires no additional pedagogical training for instructors.

<![CDATA[Email fraud: The search for psychological predictors of susceptibility]]>

Decisions that we make about email legitimacy can result in a pernicious threat to security of both individuals and organisations. Yet user response to phishing emails is far from uniform; some respond while others do not. What is the source of this diversity in decision-making? From a psychological perspective, we consider cognitive and situational influences that might explain why certain users are more susceptible than others. Alongside an email judgment task employed as a proxy for fraud susceptibility, 224 participants completed a range of cognitive tasks. In addition, we manipulated time pressure for email legitimacy judgments. We identify cognitive reflection and sensation seeking as significant, albeit modest, predictors of susceptibility. Further to this, participants asked to make quicker responses made more judgment errors. We conclude there are cognitive signatures that partially contribute to email fraud susceptibility, with implications for efforts to limit online security breaches and train secure behaviors.

<![CDATA[Human scalp evoked potentials related to the fusion between a sound source and its simulated reflection]]>

The auditory system needs to fuse the direct wave (lead) from a sound source and its time-delayed reflections (lag) to achieve a single sound image perception. This lead-lag fusion plays crucial roles in auditory processing in reverberant environments. Here, we investigated neural correlates of the lead-lag fusion by tracking human cortical potentials evoked by a break in the correlation (BIC) between the lead and lag when the time delay between the two was 0, 2, or 4 ms. The BIC evoked a scalp potential consisting of an N1 and a P2 component. Both components were modulated by the delay. The effects of the delay on the amplitude of the two components were similar, an increase of the delay resulting in a decrease of the amplitude. In contrast, the delay differently modulated the latency of the two components, an increase of the delay resulting in an increase of the P2 latency but not an increase of the N1 latency. Similar to the P2 latency, the reaction time for subjective detection of the BIC also increased with the delay. These findings suggest that both the N1 and the P2 evoked by the BIC are neural correlates of the lead-lag fusion and that, relative to the N1, the P2 may be more closely related to listeners’ perception of the fusion. Our study thus provides a neurophysiological and objective approach for investigating the fusion between the direct sound wave from a sound source and its reflections.

<![CDATA[The National Institutes of Health measure of Healing Experience of All Life Stressors (NIH-HEALS): Factor analysis and validation]]>

Two hundred patients with severe and/or life-threatening disease were recruited form the NIH Clinical Center and participated in the validation of the NIH-HEALS, which included exploratory factor analysis, principal component analysis, reliability, convergent validity, and divergent validity analyses. Item-reducing principal components analysis and internal consistency and split-half reliability demonstrated excellent internal consistency and split-half reliability (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.89, split-half reliability = 0.95). Exploratory factor analysis revealed a three-factor structure, namely Connection (including religious, spiritual, and interpersonal), Reflection & Introspection, and Trust & Acceptance. Seven items were not retained. Convergent and divergent validity of 35-item NIH-HEALS against other validated measures of healing and spirituality provided strong evidence for its validity. As predicted, the Healed factor of the Self-Integration Scale (SIS), and Meaning, Peace, and Faith factors of the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Spiritual Well-Being-12 Scale (FACIT-SP12) were all positively and significantly correlated with the NIH-HEALS and its three factors. Divergent validity was also confirmed by the significant negative correlation between the NIH-HEALS and the Codependent factor on the SIS. Confirmatory Factor Analyses revealed good model fit by GFI (0.96), adjusted GFI (0.95), SRMR (0.077), and RMSEA (0.065), supporting the use of the NIH-HEALS with 35 items.

<![CDATA[A novel 3D ray launching technique for radio propagation prediction in indoor environments]]>

Radio propagation prediction simulation methods based on deterministic technique such as ray launching is extensively used to accomplish radio channel characterization. However, the superiority of the simulation depends on the number of rays launched and received. This paper presented the indoor three-dimensional (3D) Minimum Ray Launching Maximum Accuracy (MRLMA) technique, which is applicable for an efficient indoor radio wave propagation prediction. Utilizing the novel MRLMA technique in the simulation environment for ray lunching and tracing can drastically reduce the number of rays that need to be traced, and improve the efficiency of ray tracing. Implementation and justification of MRLMA presented in the paper. An indoor office 3D layouts are selected and simulations have been performed using the MRLMA and other reference techniques. Results showed that the indoor 3D MRLMA model is appropriate for wireless communications network systems design and optimization process with respect to efficiency, coverage, number of rays launching, number of rays received by the mobile station, and simulation time.

<![CDATA[Impact of clinical severity of stroke on the severity and recovery of visuospatial neglect]]>

Background and purpose

There is growing evidence that visuospatial neglect (VSN) is associated with lower functional performance in other modalities and is not restricted to the lesioned hemisphere alone, and may also affect the non-lesioned hemisphere in severe first-ever strokes. We aimed to investigate the longitudinal association between the severity of VSN, as reflected by the extent of ipsilesional and contralesional spatial attention deficit, and clinical severity of stroke.


This is a secondary data analysis with merged data from two prospective cohort studies. Resulting in 90 patients and 8 longitudinal measurements at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 8, 12, and 26 weeks post-stroke onset. A letter cancellation test (LCT) was used as the primary outcome measure to demonstrate presence and severity of VSN. The clinical severity of stroke was classified using the Bamford Classification.


No significant association between clinical severity and the number of ipsilesional, as well as contralesional, omissions on the LCT was observed. Recovery of VSN at the contralesional hemiplegic, as well as ipsilesional non-hemiplegic side, was only dependent on ‘time’ as a reflection of spontaneous neurobiological recovery post-stroke. The recovery of the ipsilesional extension of VSN was significantly slower for the total anterior circulation infarct (TACI) group compared to the non-TACI group.


Larger strokes have a significant negative impact on recovery of visual attention at the non-hemiplegic side. No clinical determinants that regulate spontaneous time-dependent recovery of VSN were found. While early ‘stroke severity’ has been regarded as a strong predictor of functional outcome at a group level, other prognostic factors (demographic, stroke related) need to be determined.

<![CDATA[Material and shape perception based on two types of intensity gradient information]]>

Visual estimation of the material and shape of an object from a single image includes a hard ill-posed computational problem. However, in our daily life we feel we can estimate both reasonably well. The neural computation underlying this ability remains poorly understood. Here we propose that the human visual system uses different aspects of object images to separately estimate the contributions of the material and shape. Specifically, material perception relies mainly on the intensity gradient magnitude information, while shape perception relies mainly on the intensity gradient order information. A clue to this hypothesis was provided by the observation that luminance-histogram manipulation, which changes luminance gradient magnitudes but not the luminance-order map, effectively alters the material appearance but not the shape of an object. In agreement with this observation, we found that the simulated physical material changes do not significantly affect the intensity order information. A series of psychophysical experiments further indicate that human surface shape perception is robust against intensity manipulations provided they do not disturb the intensity order information. In addition, we show that the two types of gradient information can be utilized for the discrimination of albedo changes from highlights. These findings suggest that the visual system relies on these diagnostic image features to estimate physical properties in a distal world.

<![CDATA[Suspected cases of COVID-19: study protocol for reporting characteristics and the outcomes]]> <![CDATA[Estimating the Effective Permittivity for Reconstructing Accurate Microwave-Radar Images]]>

We present preliminary results from a method for estimating the optimal effective permittivity for reconstructing microwave-radar images. Using knowledge of how microwave-radar images are formed, we identify characteristics that are typical of good images, and define a fitness function to measure the relative image quality. We build a polynomial interpolant of the fitness function in order to identify the most likely permittivity values of the tissue. To make the estimation process more efficient, the polynomial interpolant is constructed using a locally and dimensionally adaptive sampling method that is a novel combination of stochastic collocation and polynomial chaos. Examples, using a series of simulated, experimental and patient data collected using the Tissue Sensing Adaptive Radar system, which is under development at the University of Calgary, are presented. These examples show how, using our method, accurate images can be reconstructed starting with only a broad estimate of the permittivity range.

<![CDATA[Specific and Individuated Death Reflection Fosters Identity Integration]]>

Identity integration is the process wherein a person assimilates multiple or conflicting identities (e.g., beliefs, values, needs) into a coherent, unified self-concept. Three experiments examined whether contemplating mortality in a specific and individuated manner (i.e., via the death reflection manipulation) facilitated outcomes indicative of identity integration. Participants in the death reflection condition (vs. control conditions) considered positive and negative life experiences as equally important in shaping their current identity (Experiment 1), regarded self-serving values and other-serving values as equally important life principles (Experiment 2), and were equally motivated to pursue growth-oriented and security-oriented needs (Experiment 3). Death reflection motivates individuals to integrate conflicting aspects of their identity into a coherent self-concept. Given that identity integration is associated with higher well-being, the findings have implications for understanding the psychological benefits of existential contemplation.

<![CDATA[The mediating role of rumination in the relation between attentional bias towards thin female bodies and eating disorder symptomatology]]>

The present study sought to investigate the association between selective attentional processing of body images, rumination, and eating disorder symptoms in young women. Seventy-three undergraduate female students (ages 17–24) completed a modified dot-probe task to assess whether young women showed a differential attentional bias pattern towards thin and non-thin female bodies. Participants also completed self-report measures of eating disorder pathology. It was found that increased reports of dietary restraint and body dissatisfaction were associated with both greater attentional bias towards thin bodies and avoidance of non-thin bodies (as compared to neutral images), although the former relationship was stronger than the latter. The results suggest attentional vigilance to thin-ideal images plays a greater role in the potential development and/or maintenance of eating disorder symptoms, at least in a university sample of young women. Results also revealed that eating disorder-specific rumination mediated the relationship between attentional bias to thin ideal images and eating disorder symptoms. These findings build on existing research and theories, for example the impaired disengagement model of rumination, and have potential clinical applications such as specifically targeting ruminative and/or attentional processes in the prevention and/or treatment of eating disorder symptoms.

<![CDATA[Atheists and Agnostics Are More Reflective than Religious Believers: Four Empirical Studies and a Meta-Analysis]]>

Individual differences in the mere willingness to think analytically has been shown to predict religious disbelief. Recently, however, it has been argued that analytic thinkers are not actually less religious; rather, the putative association may be a result of religiosity typically being measured after analytic thinking (an order effect). In light of this possibility, we report four studies in which a negative correlation between religious belief and performance on analytic thinking measures is found when religious belief is measured in a separate session. We also performed a meta-analysis on all previously published studies on the topic along with our four new studies (N = 15,078, k = 31), focusing specifically on the association between performance on the Cognitive Reflection Test (the most widely used individual difference measure of analytic thinking) and religious belief. This meta-analysis revealed an overall negative correlation (r) of -.18, 95% CI [-.21, -.16]. Although this correlation is modest, self-identified atheists (N = 133) scored 18.7% higher than religiously affiliated individuals (N = 597) on a composite measure of analytic thinking administered across our four new studies (d = .72). Our results indicate that the association between analytic thinking and religious disbelief is not caused by a simple order effect. There is good evidence that atheists and agnostics are more reflective than religious believers.

<![CDATA[Intuition and Moral Decision-Making – The Effect of Time Pressure and Cognitive Load on Moral Judgment and Altruistic Behavior]]>

Do individuals intuitively favor certain moral actions over others? This study explores the role of intuitive thinking—induced by time pressure and cognitive load—in moral judgment and behavior. We conduct experiments in three different countries (Sweden, Austria, and the United States) involving over 1,400 subjects. All subjects responded to four trolley type dilemmas and four dictator games involving different charitable causes. Decisions were made under time pressure/time delay or while experiencing cognitive load or control. Overall we find converging evidence that intuitive states do not influence moral decisions. Neither time-pressure nor cognitive load had any effect on moral judgments or altruistic behavior. Thus we find no supporting evidence for the claim that intuitive moral judgments and dictator game giving differ from more reflectively taken decisions. Across all samples and decision tasks men were more likely to make utilitarian moral judgments and act selfishly compared to women, providing further evidence that there are robust gender differences in moral decision-making. However, there were no significant interactions between gender and the treatment manipulations of intuitive versus reflective decision-making.