ResearchPad - regular-article https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Self‐reported mental health and cortisol activity at 27‐28 years of age in individuals born with very low birthweight]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7080

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<![CDATA[Survey of paediatricians caring for children with life‐limiting conditions found that they were involved in advance care planning]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_6776 Advance care planning (ACP) is a strategy to align future care and treatment with preferences of patients and families. This study assesses the experiences of ACP among paediatricians caring for children with life‐limiting conditions.MethodsPaediatricians from five Dutch university hospitals and the national oncology centre completed a survey during May to September 2017, which investigated experiences with ACP in their most recent case of a deceased child and with ACP in general.ResultsA total of 207 paediatricians responded (36%). After exclusion of responses with insufficient data (n = 39), 168 were analysed (29%). These included experiences with an individual case in 86%. ACP themes were discussed with parents in all cases. Topics common to many cases were diagnosis, life expectancy, care goals, the parent's fears and code status. ACP conversations occurred with children in 23% of cases. The joy in living was the most frequent topic. The frequency of ACP conversations was insufficient according to 49% of the respondents. In 60%, it was stated that ACP has to result in a documented code status.ConclusionPaediatricians reported having ACP conversations mainly with parents focusing on medical issues. There was limited insight into the child's preferences for care and treatment. ]]> <![CDATA[Cortical hyperactivation at low working memory load: A primary processing abnormality in people with schizophrenia?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_5903 A frequent finding when studying substrates of working memory (WM) deficits in people with schizophrenia (PSZ) is task-induced hyperactivation relative to healthy control subjects (HCS) when WM load is low. Hyperactivation accompanying similar performance is commonly attributed to cognitive deficits rendering relatively easy operations more resource-consuming. To test if hyperactivation at low load really is secondary to cognitive impairment in PSZ, we re-analyzed functional MRI data showing left posterior parietal cortex (PPC) hyperactivation in PSZ when holding a single color-item in WM. In subgroups matched for the number of items successfully stored in WM (K) by excluding the highest-performing HCS and lowest-performing PSZ, performance was almost identical across all set sizes (1–7). While BOLD activation at the larger set sizes did not differ between groups, PSZ still robustly hyperactivated left PPC when a single item had to be maintained. The same pattern was observed in subgroups matched for model-based estimates of WM capacity or attentional lapse rate. Given that in the K-matched subsamples PSZ performed as well as HCS even in the most challenging load conditions and that no BOLD signal difference was seen at high loads, it is implausible that PSZ over-recruited WM-related neural structures because they were more challenged by maintaining a single item in WM. Instead, the findings are consistent with a primary schizophrenia-related processing abnormality as proposed by the hyperfocusing hypothesis, which suggests that an abnormally narrow but intense focusing of processing resources is central to many aspects of impaired cognition in PSZ.

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<![CDATA[Functional brain network characteristics are associated with epilepsy severity in childhood absence epilepsy]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_5897 While cognitive impairments are not generally considered to be part of the childhood absence epilepsy (CAE) syndrome, some recent studies report cognitive, mainly attentional, deficits. Here we set out to investigate the whole brain functional network of children with CAE and controls. Furthermore, the possible relation of the functional network abnormalities with epilepsy and neurocognitive characteristics is studied.

Seventeen children with childhood CAE (aged 9.2 ± 2.1 years) and 15 controls (aged 9.8 ± 1.8 years) were included. Resting state functional MRI was acquired to study the functional network. Using graph theoretical analysis, three global metrics of the functional network were investigated: the characteristic path length, the clustering coefficient, and the small-worldness. A multivariable linear regression model including age, sex, and subject motion as covariates was used to investigate group differences in the graph metrics. Subsequently, relations of the graph metrics with epilepsy and neurocognitive characteristics were assessed.

Longer path lengths, weaker clustering and a lower small-world network topology were observed in children with CAE compared to controls. Moreover, longer path lengths were related to a longer duration of CAE and a higher number of absence seizure per hour. Clustering and small-worldness were not significantly related to epilepsy or neurocognitive characteristics.

The organization of the functional network of children with CAE is less efficient compared to controls, and is related to disease duration. These preliminary findings suggest that CAE is associated with alterations in the functional network.

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<![CDATA[Impulsivity Relates to Relative Preservation of Mesolimbic Connectivity in Patients with Parkinson Disease]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nd6521479-a8e6-4cff-9d83-3e34657b2d70 The relationship between Parkinson Disease (PD) pathology, dopamine replacement therapy (DRT), and impulse control disorder (ICD) development is still incompletely understood. Given the sensorimotor-lateral substantia nigra (SN) selective degeneration associated with PD, we posit that a relative sparing of the limbic-medial SN in the context of DRT drives impulsive, reward-seeking behavior in PD patients with recent history of severe impulsivity.MethodsImpulsive and control participants were selected from a consecutive list of PD patients receiving pre-operative deep brain stimulation (DBS) planning scans including 3T structural MRI and 64 direction diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Using previously identified substantia nigra (SN) subsegment network connectivity profiles to develop classification targets, split-hemisphere target-based SN segmentation with probabilistic tractography was performed. The relative subsegment volumes and strength of connectivity between the SN and the limbic, associative, and motor network targets were compared.ResultsOur results show that there is greater probability of connectivity between the SN and limbic network targets relative to motor and associative network targets in PD patients with recent history of severe impulsivity as compared to PD patients without impulsivity (P = 0.0075). We did not observe relative volumetric subsegment differences across groups.ConclusionFirstly, our results suggest that fine-grained, atlas-derived classification targets may be used in PD to parcellate and classify functionally distinct subsegments of the SN, with the apparent preservation of previously reported topographical limbic-medial SN, associative-ventral SN, and sensorimotor-lateral SN orientation. We suggest that relative, as opposed to absolute, degeneration amongst SN-associated dopaminergic networks relates to the impulsivity phenotype in PD. ]]> <![CDATA[Neural correlates of <i>NOS1</i> ex1f-VNTR allelic variation in panic disorder and agoraphobia during fear conditioning and extinction in fMRI]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nd2789d03-a168-4afb-8721-9e6ddc3f649e Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (NOS-I) impacts on fear/anxiety-like behavior in animals. In humans, the short (S) allele of a functional promotor polymorphism of NOS1 (NOS1 ex1f-VNTR) has been shown to be associated with higher anxiety and altered fear conditioning in healthy subjects in the amygdala and hippocampus (AMY/HIPP). Here, we explore the role of NOS1 ex1f-VNTR as a pathophysiological correlate of panic disorder and agoraphobia (PD/AG). In a sub-sample of a multicenter cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) randomized controlled trial in patients with PD/AG (n = 48: S/S-genotype n=15, S/L-genotype n=21, L/L-genotype n=12) and healthy control subjects, HS (n = 34: S/S-genotype n=7, S/L-genotype n=17, L/L-genotype=10), a differential fear conditioning and extinction fMRI-paradigm was used to investigate how NOS1 ex1f-VNTR genotypes are associated with differential neural activation in AMY/HIPP. Prior to CBT, L/L-allele carriers showed higher activation than S/S-allele carriers in AMY/HIPP. A genotype × diagnosis interaction revealed that the S-allele in HS was associated with a pronounced deactivation in AMY/HIPP, while patients showed contrary effects. The interaction of genotype × stimulus type (CS+, conditioned stimulus associated with an aversive stimulus vs. CS-, unassociated) showed effects on differential learning in AMY/HIPP. All effects were predominately found during extinction. Genotype associated effects in patients were not altered after CBT. Low statistical power due to small sample size in each subgroup is a major limitation. However, our findings provide first preliminary evidence for dysfunctional neural fear conditioning/extinction associated with NOS1 ex1f-VNTR genotype in the context of PD/AG, shedding new light on the complex interaction between genetic risk, current psychopathology and treatment-related effects.

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<![CDATA[L-dopa treatment increases oscillatory power in the motor cortex of Parkinson's disease patients]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N74c1fcef-b061-449f-b7c8-4f90b3f26fb7 Parkinson's disease (PD) is a movement disorder caused by dopaminergic neurodegeneration. Levodopa (L-dopa) is an effective medication for alleviating motor symptoms in PD that has been shown previously to reduce subcortical beta (13–30 Hz) oscillations. How L-dopa influences oscillations in the motor cortex is unclear. In this study, 21 PD patients were recorded with magnetoencephalography (MEG) in L-dopa ON and OFF states. Oscillatory components of resting-state power spectra were compared between the two states and the significant effect was localized using beamforming. Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) III akinesia and rigidity sub-scores for the most affected hemibody were correlated with source power values for the contralateral hemisphere. An L-dopa-induced power increase was found over the central sensors significant in the 18–30 Hz range (F(1,20)  > 14.8, PFWE corr < 0.05, cluster size inference with P = 0.001 cluster-forming threshold). Beamforming localization of this effect revealed distinct peaks at the bilateral sensorimotor cortex. A significant correlation between the magnitude of L-dopa induced 18–30 Hz oscillatory motor-cortical power increase and the degree of improvement in contralateral akinesia and rigidity was found (F(2, 19) = 4.9, pone-tailed = 0.02, R2 = 0.2). Power in the same range was also inversely correlated with combined akinesia and rigidity scores in the L-dopa OFF state (F(2, 19) = 9.2, ptwo-tailed = 0.007, R2 = 0.33) but not in the L-dopa ON state (F(2, 19) = 0.27, ptwo-tailed = 0.6, R2 = 0.01). These results suggest that the role of motor cortical beta oscillations in PD is distinct from that of subcortical beta.

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<![CDATA[SVM recursive feature elimination analyses of structural brain MRI predicts near-term relapses in patients with clinically isolated syndromes suggestive of multiple sclerosis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ncd38f39a-db07-47e3-9e3f-256bd94c7d8c

Highlights

  • RFE-SVMs predict future outcome of CIS patients with conservative accuracy estimates between 64.9% and 88.1%.

  • Recursive feature selection improves classification performance compared to using all information.

  • Relevant features include regional WM lesion load and GM density, as well as the type of CIS onset.

  • Cross-validation introduces positive bias on accuracy estimate.

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<![CDATA[Modelling of amorphous cellulose depolymerisation by cellulases, parametric studies and optimisation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5bc7089c40307c7ceb6cd937

Highlights

  • A mechanistic model for heterogeneous cellulose hydrolysis by cellulases.

  • A modeling framework for uncertainty analysis, model reduction and refinement.

  • The parameters were estimated.

  • Composition of cellulases cocktail was optimized using the model.

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<![CDATA[A multilayer approach to multiplexity and link prediction in online geo-social networks]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N7cdc13be-c1b7-46cd-b194-b388f8657288

Online social systems are multiplex in nature as multiple links may exist between the same two users across different social media. In this work, we study the geo-social properties of multiplex links, spanning more than one social network and apply their structural and interaction features to the problem of link prediction across social networking services. Exploring the intersection of two popular online platforms - Twitter and location-based social network Foursquare - we represent the two together as a composite multilayer online social network, where each platform represents a layer in the network. We find that pairs of users connected on both services, have greater neighbourhood similarity and are more similar in terms of their social and spatial properties on both platforms in comparison with pairs who are connected on just one of the social networks. Our evaluation, which aims to shed light on the implications of multiplexity for the link generation process, shows that we can successfully predict links across social networking services. In addition, we also show how combining information from multiple heterogeneous networks in a multilayer configuration can provide new insights into user interactions on online social networks, and can significantly improve link prediction systems with valuable applications to social bootstrapping and friend recommendations.

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<![CDATA[Estimating suicide occurrence statistics using Google Trends]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nddae28b9-aa79-41a7-b4de-09d7ee95c812

Data on the number of people who have committed suicide tends to be reported with a substantial time lag of around two years. We examine whether online activity measured by Google searches can help us improve estimates of the number of suicide occurrences in England before official figures are released. Specifically, we analyse how data on the number of Google searches for the terms ‘depression’ and ‘suicide’ relate to the number of suicides between 2004 and 2013. We find that estimates drawing on Google data are significantly better than estimates using previous suicide data alone. We show that a greater number of searches for the term ‘depression’ is related to fewer suicides, whereas a greater number of searches for the term ‘suicide’ is related to more suicides. Data on suicide related search behaviour can be used to improve current estimates of the number of suicide occurrences.

Electronic Supplementary Material

The online version of this article (doi:10.1140/epjds/s13688-016-0094-0) contains supplementary material.

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<![CDATA[Biochemical and immunological studies of nucleocapsid proteins of severe acute respiratory syndrome and 229E human coronaviruses]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N9a558ceb-2a6f-40c0-8b0a-cce63d668fab

Abstract

Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a serious health threat and its early diagnosis is important for infection control and potential treatment of the disease. Diagnostic tools require rapid and accurate methods, of which a capture ELISA method may be useful. Toward this goal, we have prepared and characterized soluble full‐length nucleocapsid proteins (N protein) from SARS and 229E human coronaviruses. N proteins form oligomers, mostly as dimers at low concentration. These two N proteins degrade rapidly upon storage and the major degraded N protein is the C‐terminal fragment of amino acid (aa) 169–422. Taken together with other data, we suggest that N protein is a two‐domain protein, with the N‐terminal aa 50–150 as the RNA‐binding domain and the C‐terminal aa 169–422 as the dimerization domain. Polyclonal antibodies against the SARS N protein have been produced and the strong binding sites of the anti‐nucleocapsid protein (NP) antibodies produced were mapped to aa 1–20, aa 150–170 and aa 390–410. These sites are generally consistent with those mapped by sera obtained from SARS patients. The SARS anti‐NP antibody was able to clearly detect SARS virus grown in Vero E6 cells and did not cross‐react with the NP from the human coronavirus 229E. We have predicted several antigenic sites (15–20 amino acids) of S, M and N proteins and produced antibodies against those peptides, some of which could be recognized by sera obtained from SARS patients. Antibodies against the NP peptides could detect the cognate N protein clearly. Further refinement of these antibodies, particularly large‐scale production of monoclonal antibodies, could lead to the development of useful diagnostic kits for diseases associated with SARS and other human coronaviruses.

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<![CDATA[Mathematical prediction of the time evolution of the COVID-19 pandemic in Italy by a Gauss error function and Monte Carlo simulations]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nc21e4eb9-230d-4875-a149-c4121ff840e3

In this paper are presented mathematical predictions on the evolution in time of the number of positive cases in Italy of the COVID-19 pandemic based on official data and on the use of a function of the type of a Gauss error function, with four parameters, as a cumulative distribution function. We have analyzed the available data for China and Italy. The evolution in time of the number of cumulative diagnosed positive cases of COVID-19 in China very well approximates a distribution of the type of the error function, that is, the integral of a normal, Gaussian distribution. We have then used such a function to study the potential evolution in time of the number of positive cases in Italy by performing a number of fits of the official data so far available. We then found a statistical prediction for the day in which the peak of the number of daily positive cases in Italy occurs, corresponding to the flex of the fit, that is, to the change in sign of its second derivative (i.e., the change from acceleration to deceleration), as well as of the day in which a substantial attenuation of such number of daily cases is reached. We have also analyzed the predictions of the cumulative number of fatalities in both China and Italy, obtaining consistent results. We have then performed 150 Monte Carlo simulations to have a more robust prediction of the day of the above-mentioned peak and of the day of the substantial decrease in the number of daily positive cases and fatalities. Although official data have been used, those predictions are obtained with a heuristic approach since they are based on a statistical approach and do not take into account either a number of relevant issues (such as number of daily nasopharyngeal swabs, medical, social distancing, virological and epidemiological) or models of contamination diffusion.

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<![CDATA[Exploring the flavour structure of the high-scale MSSM]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N0bdf386e-b6c1-4ceb-9000-c37211c08d26

We analyse the sensitivity of quark flavour-changing observables to the MSSM, in a regime of heavy superpartners. We analyse four distinct and motivated frameworks characterising the structure of the soft-breaking terms by means of approximate flavour symmetries. We show that a set of six low-energy observables with realistic chances of improvement in the near future, namely [TeX:] \documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$\Delta M_{s,d}$$\end{document}ΔMs,d, [TeX:] \documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$\epsilon _K$$\end{document}ϵK, [TeX:] \documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$\epsilon _K'/\epsilon _K$$\end{document}ϵK/ϵK, [TeX:] \documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$\mathcal {B} (K\rightarrow \pi \nu {{\bar{\nu }}})$$\end{document}B(Kπνν¯), and the phase of D[TeX:] \documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$${\bar{D}}$$\end{document}D¯ mixing, could play a very important role in characterising these frameworks for superpartner masses up to [TeX:] \documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$\mathcal {O}(100)$$\end{document}O(100) TeV. We show that these observables remain very interesting even in a long-term perspective, i.e. even taking into account the direct mass reach of the most ambitious future high-energy colliders.

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<![CDATA[Patients with mutations of the Thyroid hormone beta-receptor show an ADHD-like phenotype for performance monitoring: an electrophysiological study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N3aa20a24-1d50-46b0-902b-e5526db8932e

Highlights

  • Mutations in the thyroid hormone receptor beta (THRB) lead to relative hyperthyroidism in the brain.

  • Electrophysiological biomarkers of performance monitoring (ERN and Pe components) show a pattern similar to ADHD in carriers of THRB mutations.

  • The phenotype of THRB mutation carriers is indistinguishable from ADHD with regard to performance monitoring.

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<![CDATA[Heterogeneity of executive function revealed by a functional random forest approach across ADHD and ASD]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nb034bcec-4329-46bb-b596-825ca25bf535

Highlights

  • Functional random forest identified transdiagnostic ASD and ADHD subtypes.

  • Subtypes are directly tied to ADHD symptoms, relevant to ASD and ADHD.

  • Neurocognitive subtypes do not map one to one with functional connectivity trends.

  • There may be multiple mechanistic “pathways” to observed phenotypes.

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<![CDATA[Network position and health care worker infections]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nc82d8ec0-a57d-4d5b-adc7-b8ef79aa66c1

We use a newly collected data set coupled with an agent-based model to study the spread of infectious disease in hospitals. We estimate the average and marginal infections created by various worker groups in a hospital as a function of their network position in order to identify groups most crucial in a hospital-based epidemic. Surprisingly, we find that many groups with primary patient care responsibilities play a small role in spreading an infectious disease within our hospital data set. We also demonstrate that the effect of different network positions can be as important as the effect of different transmission rates for some categories of workers.

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<![CDATA[Characterization and changes of a chromosomal-scaffolding protein in human epithelia]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ndf7d3662-6266-4ad2-a536-09d53986baa0

Abstract.

Chromosomal-scaffolding proteins exert DNA structural functions during mitosis, and gene regulatory functions such as RNA splicing/polymerization and DNA replication in interphase, allowing the progression of the cell cycle. Recently, it has been reported that topoisomerases play a key role in DNA repair, suggesting an additional regulatory mechanism of the chromosome structure on DNA metabolism and cell cycle checkpoints. Despite the progress made toward the understanding of the genome organization and expression, few changes have been reported in the chromosome scaffold of malignant cells associated with the cancer phenotype. In a previous work, we reported LFM-1 protein (Licensing Factor Model-1) as a chromosomal-scaffold component transiently associated with mitotic chromosomes in MDCK (Madin Darby canine kidney) epithelial cells (Vega-Salas and Salas 1996). In this work, we explore LFM-1 expression in human epithelia with contrasting tumorigenicity during the progression of the cell cycle. Although cell metabolic labeling shows synthesis of a common 87-kDa LFM-1 precursor during G2-phase in both non-tumorigenic and cancer cells, surprisingly, the post-translational LFM-1 chromosome-bound polypeptide displays a different apparent molecular weight and binding to chromosomes in the cancer phenotype. The finding of a highly phosphorylated LFM-1 60-kDa form with abnormal binding to chromosomes in human carcinoma cells suggests a structural/regulatory role(s) of the chromosome-scaffold/matrix in DNA metabolism in cancer-related events of cell proliferation.

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<![CDATA[Heavy metal concentrations in sediments and Cyprinus carpio from Maqalika Reservoir –Maseru, Lesotho: An analysis of potential health risks to Fish consumers]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ndefe75dd-4bdb-48c1-8f15-64fb29fa35d1

Graphical abstract

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<![CDATA[Search for direct pair production of supersymmetric partners to the \documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$${\uptau }_{}^{}$$\end{document}τ lepton in proton–proton collisions at \documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$\sqrt{s}=13\,\text {TeV} $$\end{document}s=13TeV]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nfbe47268-86d3-48f1-ac38-dd5ad8f6fe07

A search is presented for [TeX:] \documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$${\uptau }_{}^{}$$\end{document}τ slepton pairs produced in proton–proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 13[TeX:] \documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$\,\text {TeV}$$\end{document}TeV. The search is carried out in events containing two [TeX:] \documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$${\uptau }_{}^{}$$\end{document}τ leptons in the final state, on the assumption that each [TeX:] \documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$${\uptau }_{}^{}$$\end{document}τ slepton decays primarily to a [TeX:] \documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$${\uptau }_{}^{}$$\end{document}τ lepton and a neutralino. Events are considered in which each [TeX:] \documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$${\uptau }_{}^{}$$\end{document}τ lepton decays to one or more hadrons and a neutrino, or in which one of the [TeX:] \documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$${\uptau }_{}^{}$$\end{document}τ leptons decays instead to an electron or a muon and two neutrinos. The data, collected with the CMS detector in 2016 and 2017, correspond to an integrated luminosity of 77.2[TeX:] \documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$\,\text {fb}^{-1}$$\end{document}fb-1. The observed data are consistent with the standard model background expectation. The results are used to set 95% confidence level upper limits on the cross section for [TeX:] \documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$${\uptau }_{}^{}$$\end{document}τ slepton pair production in various models for [TeX:] \documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$${\uptau }_{}^{}$$\end{document}τ slepton masses between 90 and 200[TeX:] \documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$\,\text {GeV}$$\end{document}GeV and neutralino masses of 1, 10, and 20[TeX:] \documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$\,\text {GeV}$$\end{document}GeV. In the case of purely left-handed [TeX:] \documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$${\uptau }_{}^{}$$\end{document}τ slepton production and decay to a [TeX:] \documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$${\uptau }_{}^{}$$\end{document}τ lepton and a neutralino with a mass of 1[TeX:] \documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$\,\text {GeV}$$\end{document}GeV, the strongest limit is obtained for a [TeX:] \documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$${\uptau }_{}^{}$$\end{document}τ slepton mass of 125[TeX:] \documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$\,\text {GeV}$$\end{document}GeV at a factor of 1.14 larger than the theoretical cross section.

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