ResearchPad - regular-issue https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Paediatric acute lymphoblastic leukaemia and caesarean section: A report from the United Kingdom Childhood Cancer Study (UKCCS)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_6869 Reports have suggested that children born by caesarean initiated before labour onset may be at increased risk of developing acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). However, with most data being derived from case‐control study interviews, information on the underpinning reasons for caesarean section is sparse, and evidence is conflicting.ObjectivesUse clinical records compiled at the time of delivery to investigate the association between childhood ALL and caesarean delivery; examining timing in relation to labour onset, and reasons for the procedure.MethodsData are from the UK Childhood Cancer Study, a population‐based case‐control study conducted in the 1990s, when caesarean section rates were relatively low, in England, Scotland, and Wales. Children with ALL were individually matched to two controls on sex, date of birth, and region of residence. Information on mode of delivery and complications was abstracted from obstetric records. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using logistic regression models adjusted for matching variables and relevant covariates.ResultsAround 75% of the 1034 cases and 1914 controls were born through unassisted vaginal delivery. Caesarean delivery was as frequent in cases and controls (OR 1.07, 95% CI 0.84, 1.36). No association was observed between ALL and caesarean delivery either during or before labour, with adjusted ORs of 1.08 (95% CI 0.78, 1.48) and 1.09 (95% CI 0.78, 1.53), respectively. For B‐cell ALL, the ORs were 1.14 (95% CI 0.81, 1.59) for caesarean during labour and 1.21 (95% CI 0.85, 1.72) for prelabour. The underpinning reasons for caesarean delivery differed between cases and controls; with preeclampsia, although very rare, being more common amongst cases born by caesarean (OR 8.91, 95% CI 1.48, 53.42).ConclusionsOur obstetric record‐based study found no significant evidence that caesarean delivery increased the risk of childhood ALL, either overall or when carried out before labour. ]]> <![CDATA[Amplifying Panic and Facilitating Prevention: Multifaceted Effects of Traditional and Social Media Use During the 2015 MERS Crisis in South Korea]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N7ca3ef94-40e9-4fb6-8ca5-5499ad449650 In the context of the 2015 Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) outbreak in South Korea, this study examines the multifaceted effects of media use considering the current complex media environment. Analysis of a two-wave online panel survey found that traditional media use had a positive influence on MERS knowledge while social media use did not. However, knowledge did not facilitate preventive behaviors. In contrast, negative emotional responses due to media use stimulated desirable behaviors. Furthermore, social media use directly influenced behavioral responses but traditional media use did not show the same effects. Different functions of traditional and social media during an epidemic are discussed.

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<![CDATA[Neuromelanin, aging, and neuronal vulnerability in Parkinson's disease]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N184c86bb-cabf-4124-8f9d-36e58eeb3cd7

Abstract

Neuromelanin, a dark brown intracellular pigment, has long been associated with Parkinson's disease (PD). In PD, neuromelanin‐containing neurons preferentially degenerate, tell‐tale neuropathological inclusions form in close association with this pigment, and neuroinflammation is restricted to neuromelanin‐containing areas. In humans, neuromelanin accumulates with age, which in turn is the main risk factor for PD. The potential contribution of neuromelanin to PD pathogenesis remains unknown because, in contrast to humans, common laboratory animals lack neuromelanin. The recent introduction of a rodent model exhibiting an age‐dependent production of human‐like neuromelanin has allowed, for the first time, for the consequences of progressive neuromelanin accumulation—up to levels reached in elderly human brains—to be assessed in vivo. In these animals, intracellular neuromelanin accumulation above a specific threshold compromises neuronal function and triggers a PD‐like pathology. As neuromelanin levels reach this threshold in PD patients and presymptomatic PD patients, the modulation of neuromelanin accumulation could provide a therapeutic benefit for PD patients and delay brain aging. © 2019 The Author. Movement Disorders published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

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