ResearchPad - reoviruses https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[A model for the assessment of bluetongue virus serotype 1 persistence in Spain]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_11225 Bluetongue virus (BTV) is an arbovirus of ruminants that has been circulating in Europe continuously for more than two decades and has become endemic in some countries such as Spain. Spain is ideal for BTV epidemiological studies since BTV outbreaks from different sources and serotypes have occurred continuously there since 2000; BTV-1 has been reported there from 2007 to 2017. Here we develop a model for BTV-1 endemic scenario to estimate the risk of an area becoming endemic, as well as to identify the most influential factors for BTV-1 persistence. We created abundance maps at 1-km2 spatial resolution for the main vectors in Spain, Culicoides imicola and Obsoletus and Pulicaris complexes, by combining environmental satellite data with occurrence models and a random forest machine learning algorithm. The endemic model included vector abundance and host-related variables (farm density). The three most relevant variables in the endemic model were the abundance of C. imicola and Obsoletus complex and density of goat farms (AUC 0.86); this model suggests that BTV-1 is more likely to become endemic in central and southwestern regions of Spain. It only requires host- and vector-related variables to identify areas at greater risk of becoming endemic for bluetongue. Our results highlight the importance of suitable Culicoides spp. prediction maps for bluetongue epidemiological studies and decision-making about control and eradication measures.

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<![CDATA[Ecological niche modeling the potential geographic distribution of four Culicoides species of veterinary significance in Florida, USA]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c7067aad5eed0c4847c7470

Epizootic hemorrhagic disease (EHD) is a viral arthropod-borne disease affecting wild and domestic ruminants, caused by infection with epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV). EHDV is transmitted to vertebrate animal hosts by biting midges in the genus Culicoides Latreille (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). Culicoides sonorensis Wirth and Jones is the only confirmed vector of EHDV in the United States but is considered rare in Florida and not sufficiently abundant to support EHDV transmission. This study used ecological niche modeling to map the potential geographical distributions and associated ecological variable space of four Culicoides species suspected of transmitting EHDV in Florida, including Culicoides insignis Lutz, Culicoides stellifer (Coquillett), Culicoides debilipalpis Hoffman and Culicoides venustus Lutz. Models were developed with the Genetic Algorithm for Rule Set Production in DesktopGARP v1.1.3 using species occurrence data from field sampling along with environmental variables from WorldClim and Trypanosomiasis and Land use in Africa. For three Culicoides species (C. insignis, C. stellifer and C. debilipalpis) 96–98% of the presence points were predicted across the Florida landscape (63.8% - 72.5%). For C. venustus, models predicted 98.00% of presence points across 27.4% of Florida. Geographic variations were detected between species. Culicoides insignis was predicted to be restricted to peninsular Florida, and in contrast, C. venustus was predicted to be primarily in north Florida and the panhandle region. Culicoides stellifer and C. debilipalpis were predicted nearly statewide. Environmental conditions also differed by species, with some species’ ranges predicted by more narrow ranges of variables than others. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) was a major predictor of C. venustus and C. insignis presence. For C. stellifer, Land Surface Temperature, Middle Infrared were the most limiting predictors of presence. The limiting variables for C. debilipalpis were NDVI Bi-Annual Amplitude and NDVI Annual Amplitude at 22.5% and 28.1%, respectively. The model outputs, including maps and environmental variable range predictions generated from these experiments provide an important first pass at predicting species of veterinary importance in Florida. Because EHDV cannot exist in the environment without the vector, model outputs can be used to estimate the potential risk of disease for animal hosts across Florida. Results also provide distribution and habitat information useful for integrated pest management practices.

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<![CDATA[A cross-sectional serosurvey in a sheep population in central Italy following a bluetongue epidemic]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c3fa5cbd5eed0c484ca89e4

Bluetongue (BT) is a viral disease that affects ruminants and is transmitted by midges of the genus Culicoides spp. The seroprevalence, the clinical form and the occurrence rates significantly differ in relation to several factors such as bluetongue virus (BTV) serotype, host species, breed susceptibility, specific previous exposure, vector ecology, husbandry and health status. Following the 2001–2006 BTV2 and BTV16 epidemics in central Italy, a new epidemic caused by BTV1 occurred in 2013–2015 causing 398 outbreaks in a susceptible population of about 1 million ruminants. The present study assessed the BTV1 seroprevalence in the sheep population of central Italy by conducting two cross-sectional surveys, in the proximity of and within BT outbreak farms. A total of 2,984 sheep from 437 farms were sampled. The animal-level prevalence was 19% (95% CI: 17–21%), the between-herd prevalence was 46% (95% CI: 41–51%) and the within-herd prevalence was 21% (95% CI: 16–26%). Risk factors were investigated by logistic regression models. Living on a farm where an outbreak occurred and the number of outbreaks in proximity of the farm were identified as risk factors, while herd size was identified as a protective factor. This study represents the first BT survey in southern Europe and reports valuable findings on BTV epidemiology. Despite intensive virus circulation, the estimated seroprevalences were low. The assessment of the population immunity level is crucial for defining an efficient vaccination strategy and for predicting the impact of future virus circulation. In view of the low seroprevalence detected albeit an extensive BTV1 circulation, the population immunity was likely to be inadequate in preventing new BTV1 epidemics. Moreover, considering the recurrent introduction of new serotypes from North Africa and the Balkans, the control of multi-serotype BTV infections will continue to present a challenge in the near future.

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<![CDATA[Rotavirus genome replication: Some assembly required]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db5aab0ee8fa60bdf2a5 ]]> <![CDATA[Evaluating the Impact of Breastfeeding on Rotavirus Antigenemia and Disease Severity in Indian Children]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daa8ab0ee8fa60ba874d

Objectives

To evaluate the contribution of breastfeeding to Rotavirus (RV)-induced antigenemia and/or RNAemia and disease severity in Indian children (<2 yrs age).

Methods

Paired stool and serum samples were collected from (a) hospitalized infants with diarrhea (n = 145) and (b) healthy control infants without diarrhea (n = 28). Stool RV-antigen was screened in both groups by commercial rapid-test and enzyme immunoassay. The disease severity was scored and real-time-PCR was used for viral-load estimation. Serum was evaluated for RV-antigenemia by EIA and RV-RNAemia by RT-PCR. Data was stratified by age-group and breastfeeding status and compared.

Results

Presence of RV-antigenemia and RV-RNAemia was positively related with presence of RV in stool. Disease severity and stool viral-load was significantly associated with RV-antigenemia[(r = 0.74; CI:0.66 to 0.84; P<0.0001,R2 = 0.59) and (r = -0.55; CI:-0.68 to -0.39; P<0.0001,R2 = 0.31) respectively], but not with RV-RNAemia. There was significant reduction in RV-antigenemiarate in the breast-fed group compared to non-breastfed infants, especially in 0–6 month age group (P<0.001). Non-breastfed infants were at risk for RV-antigenemia with severe disease manifestations in form of high Vesikari scores correlating with high fever, more vomiting episodes and dehydration.

Conclusion

RV-antigenemia was common in nonbreastfed children with severe RV-diarrhea and correlated with stool RV-load and disease severity.

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<![CDATA[Association of Maternal Immunity with Rotavirus Vaccine Immunogenicity in Zambian Infants]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da9cab0ee8fa60ba40c2

Introduction

Live attenuated oral vaccines against rotavirus (RV) have been shown to be less efficacious in children from developing countries. Reasons for this disparity are not fully understood. We assessed the role of maternal factors including breast milk RV-specific IgA, transplacentally acquired infant serum RV-specific IgG and maternal HIV status in seroconversion among Zambian infants routinely immunized with Rotarix™ (RV1).

Methods

420 mother-child pairs were recruited at infant age 6–12 weeks in Lusaka. Clinical information and samples were collected at baseline and at one month following the second dose of RV1. Determination of breast milk RV-specific IgA and serum RV-specific IgA and IgG was done using standardized ELISA. Seroconversion was defined as a ≥ 4 fold rise in serum IgA titre from baseline to one-month post RV1 dose 2, while seropositivity of IgA was defined as serum titre ≥ 40 and antibody variables were modelled on log-base 2. Logistic regression was used to identify predictors of the odds of seroconversion.

Results

Baseline infant seropositivity was 25.5% (91/357). The seroconversion frequency was 60.2% (130/216). Infants who were IgA seropositive at baseline were less likely to seroconvert compared to their seronegative counterparts (P = 0.04). There was no evidence of an association between maternal HIV status and seroconversion (P = 0.25). Higher titres of breast milk rotavirus-specific IgA were associated with a lower frequency of seroconverson (Nonparametric test for trend Z = -2.84; P<0.01): a two-fold increase in breast milk RV-specific IgA titres was associated with a 22% lower odds of seroconversion (OR = 0.80; 95% CI = 0.68–0.94; P = 0.01). There was seasonal variation in baseline breast milk rotavirus-specific IgA titres, with significantly higher GMTs during the cold dry months (P = 0.01).

Conclusion

Low immunogenicity of RV1 vaccine could be explained in part by exposure to high antibody titres in breast milk and early exposure to wild-type rotavirus infections. Potential interference of anti-RV specific IgA in breast milk and pre-vaccination serum RV specific-IgA and IgG titres with RV1 seroconversion and effectiveness requires further research.

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<![CDATA[The Intestinal Eukaryotic Virome in Healthy and Diarrhoeic Neonatal Piglets]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da36ab0ee8fa60b86609

Neonatal porcine diarrhoea of uncertain aetiology has been reported from a number of European countries. The aim of the present study was to use viral metagenomics to examine a potential viral involvement in this diarrhoea and to describe the intestinal virome with focus on eukaryotic viruses. Samples from the distal jejunum of 50 diarrhoeic and 19 healthy piglets from 10 affected herds were analysed. The viral fraction of the samples was isolated and nucleic acids (RNA and DNA fractions) were subjected to sequence independent amplification. Samples from diarrhoeic piglets from the same herds were pooled whereas samples from healthy piglets were analysed individually. In total, 29 clinical samples, plus two negative controls and one positive control consisting of a mock metagenome were sequenced using the Ion Torrent platform. The resulting sequence data was subjected to taxonomic classification using Kraken, Diamond and HMMER. In the healthy specimens, eight different mammalian virus families were detected (Adenoviridae, Anelloviridae, Astroviridae, Caliciviridae, Circoviridae, Parvoviridae, Picornaviridae, and Reoviridae) compared to four in the pooled diarrhoeic samples (Anelloviridae, Circoviridae, Picornaviridae, and Reoviridae). It was not possible to associate a particular virus family with the investigated diarrhoea. In conclusion, this study does not support the hypothesis that the investigated diarrhoea was caused by known mammalian viruses. The results do, however, indicate that known mammalian viruses were present in the intestine as early as 24–48 hours after birth, indicating immediate infection post-partum or possibly transplacental infection.

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<![CDATA[Genetic Diversity of G3 Rotavirus Strains Circulating in Argentina during 1998–2012 Assessed by Full Genome Analyses]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da14ab0ee8fa60b7a7eb

Seasonal shifts in the predominant strains and the periodic emergence of new strains are epidemiological features of human rotaviruses. After the sporadic detection in two samples in 1998, G3P[8] strains reemerged as the predominant rotavirus during 2008–2009 in Argentina. Notably, in 2011 6.3% (37/587) of samples presented the G3P[6] genotypes, which coincided with the recent detection of G3P[6] and G2P[6] strains in South America and Europe. Analyses of the 11 gene segments of four G3P[8] and two G3P[6] strains revealed that G3P[8] strains detected a decade apart (1998 and 2009) presented minor differences, while the G3P[6] strains presented a complete different genomic constellation albeit showing a similar VP7 gene. This study provides insights in the dynamics and evolution of one of the genotypes with the wider range of hosts and inter-species transmission potential.

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<![CDATA[A Bat-Derived Putative Cross-Family Recombinant Coronavirus with a Reovirus Gene]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da1cab0ee8fa60b7d636

The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) in 2002 and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in 2012 has generated enormous interest in the biodiversity, genomics and cross-species transmission potential of coronaviruses, especially those from bats, the second most speciose order of mammals. Herein, we identified a novel coronavirus, provisionally designated Rousettus bat coronavirus GCCDC1 (Ro-BatCoV GCCDC1), in the rectal swab samples of Rousettus leschenaulti bats by using pan-coronavirus RT-PCR and next-generation sequencing. Although the virus is similar to Rousettus bat coronavirus HKU9 (Ro-BatCoV HKU9) in genome characteristics, it is sufficiently distinct to be classified as a new species according to the criteria defined by the International Committee of Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). More striking was that Ro-BatCoV GCCDC1 contained a unique gene integrated into the 3’-end of the genome that has no homologs in any known coronavirus, but which sequence and phylogeny analyses indicated most likely originated from the p10 gene of a bat orthoreovirus. Subgenomic mRNA and cellular-level observations demonstrated that the p10 gene is functional and induces the formation of cell syncytia. Therefore, here we report a putative heterologous inter-family recombination event between a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA virus and a double-stranded segmented RNA virus, providing insights into the fundamental mechanisms of viral evolution.

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<![CDATA[Incidence of Norovirus and Other Viral Pathogens That Cause Acute Gastroenteritis (AGE) among Kaiser Permanente Member Populations in the United States, 2012–2013]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da70ab0ee8fa60b9492b

Noroviruses and other viral pathogens are increasingly recognized as frequent causes of acute gastroenteritis (AGE). However, few laboratory-based data are available on the incidence of AGE caused by viral pathogens in the U.S. This study examined stool specimens submitted for routine clinical diagnostics from patients enrolled in Kaiser Permanente (KP) health plans in metro Portland, OR, and the Maryland, District of Columbia, and northern Virginia geographic areas to estimate the incidence of viral enteropathogens in these populations. Over a one-year study period, participating laboratories randomly selected stools submitted for routine clinical diagnostics for inclusion in the study along with accompanying demographic and clinical data. Selected stools were tested for norovirus, rotavirus, sapovirus, and astrovirus using standardized real-time RT-PCR protocols. Each KP site provided administrative data which were used in conjunction with previously published data on healthcare utilization to extrapolate pathogen detection rates into population-based incidence rates. A total of 1,099 specimens collected during August 2012 to September 2013 were included. Mean age of patients providing stool specimens was 46 years (range: 0–98 years). Noroviruses were the most common viral pathogen identified among patients with AGE (n = 63 specimens, 6% of specimens tested). In addition, 22 (2%) of specimens were positive for rotavirus; 19 (2%) were positive for sapovirus; and 7 (1%) were positive for astrovirus. Incidence of norovirus-associated outpatient visits was 5.6 per 1,000 person-years; incidence of norovirus disease in the community was estimated to be 69.5 per 1,000 person-years. Norovirus incidence was highest among children <5 years of age (outpatient incidence = 25.6 per 1,000 person-years; community incidence = 152.2 per 1,000 person-years), followed by older adults aged >65 years (outpatient incidence = 7.8 per 1,000 person-years; community incidence = 75.8 per 1,000 person-years). Outpatient incidence rates of rotavirus, sapovirus, and astrovirus were 2.0, 1.6, 0.6 per 1,000 person-years, respectively; community incidence rates for these viruses were 23.4, 22.5, and 8.5 per 1,000 person-years, respectively. This study provides the first age-group specific laboratory-based community and outpatient incidence rates for norovirus AGE in the U.S. Norovirus was the most frequently detected viral enteropathogen across the age spectrum with the highest rates of norovirus disease observed among young children and, to a lesser extent, the elderly. These data provide a better understanding of the norovirus disease burden in the United States, including variations within different age groups, which can help inform the development, targeting, and future impacts of interventions, including vaccines.

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<![CDATA[Determinants of severe dehydration from diarrheal disease at hospital presentation: Evidence from 22 years of admissions in Bangladesh]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db5aab0ee8fa60bdf28e

Background

To take advantage of emerging opportunities to reduce morbidity and mortality from diarrheal disease, we need to better understand the determinants of life-threatening severe dehydration (SD) in resource-poor settings.

Methodology/findings

We analyzed records of patients admitted with acute diarrheal disease over twenty-two years at the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (1993–2014). Patients presenting with and without SD were compared by multivariable logistic regression models, which included socio-demographic factors and pathogens isolated. Generalized additive models evaluated non-linearities between age or household income and SD. Among 55,956 admitted patients, 13,457 (24%) presented with SD. Vibrio cholerae was the most common pathogen isolated (12,405 patients; 22%), and had the strongest association with SD (AOR 4.77; 95% CI: 4.41–5.51); detection of multiple pathogens did not exacerbate SD risk. The highest proportion of severely dehydrated patients presented in a narrow window only 4–12 hours after symptom onset. Risk of presenting with SD increased sharply from zero to ten years of age and remained high throughout adolescence and adulthood. Adult women had a 38% increased odds (AOR 1.38; 95% CI: 1.30–1.46) of SD compared to adult men. The probability of SD increased sharply at low incomes. These findings were consistent across pathogens.

Conclusions/significance

There remain underappreciated populations vulnerable to life-threatening diarrheal disease that include adult women and the very poor. In addition to efforts that address diarrheal disease in young children, there is a need to develop interventions for these other high-risk populations that are accessible within 4 hours of symptom onset.

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<![CDATA[Development of a GeXP-multiplex PCR assay for the simultaneous detection and differentiation of six cattle viruses]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db4fab0ee8fa60bdb9d0

Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), Bluetongue virus (BTV), Vesicular stomatitis Virus (VSV), Bovine viral diarrheal (BVDV), Bovine rotavirus (BRV), and Bovine herpesvirus 1 (IBRV) are common cattle infectious viruses that cause a great economic loss every year in many parts of the world. A rapid and high-throughput GenomeLab Gene Expression Profiler (GeXP) analyzer-based multiplex PCR assay was developed for the simultaneous detection and differentiation of these six cattle viruses. Six pairs of chimeric primers consisting of both the gene-specific primer and a universal primer were designed and used for amplification. Then capillary electrophoresis was used to separate the fluorescent labeled PCR products according to the amplicons size. The specificity of GeXP-multiplex PCR assay was examined with samples of the single template and mixed template of six viruses. The sensitivity was evaluated using the GeXP-multiplex PCR assay on serial 10-fold dilutions of ssRNAs obtained via in vitro transcription. To further evaluate the reliability, 305 clinical samples were tested by the GeXP-multiplex PCR assay. The results showed that the corresponding virus specific fragments of genes were amplified. The detection limit of the GeXP-multiplex PCR assay was 100 copies/μL in a mixed sample of ssRNAs containing target genes of six different cattle viruses, whereas the detection limit for the Gexp-mono PCR assay for a single target gene was 10 copies/μL. In detection of viruses in 305 clinical samples, the results of GeXP were consistent with simplex real-time PCR. Analysis of positive samples by sequencing demonstrated that the GeXP-multiplex PCR assay had no false positive samples of nonspecific amplification. In conclusion, this GeXP-multiplex PCR assay is a high throughput, specific, sensitive, rapid and simple method for the detection and differentiation of six cattle viruses. It is an effective tool that can be applied for the rapid differential diagnosis of clinical samples and for epidemiological investigation.

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<![CDATA[Etiology of acute diarrhea in the elderly in China: A six-year observational study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db50ab0ee8fa60bdc02c

Acute diarrhea leads to a substantial disease burden among the elderly worldwide. However, in the context of increasingly aging trend in China, the prevalence of etiological agents among elderly diarrheal patients was undetermined. This study aimed to explore the major enteropathogens of acute diarrhea among outpatients older than 65 years in China, and also the epidemiological features of the pathogens. Demographic and clinical data for acute diarrhea among outpatients older than 65 years were collected from 213 participating hospitals from 2009 to 2014. Stool specimens were collected and tested for 13 enteric viruses and bacteria. The proportion of outpatients positive for targeted pathogens was analyzed by residential areas and seasonal patterns. Among the 7,725 patients enrolled, 1,617 (20.9%)were positive for any one of the 13 study pathogens. The predominant pathogen was norovirus (9.0%), followed by diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) (5.5%), rotavirus (3.9%), non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) (2.9%), and Shigella spp. (2.5%). The prevalence of Shigella spp. among rural patients (6.9%) was higher than that among urban patients (1.6%) (p < 0.001), with opposite trend for DEC (3.6% versus 5.9%, p = 0.007). An obvious seasonal pattern was observed for major pathogens, with peak for norovirus in autumn, rotavirus in winter and DEC, NTS, and Shigella spp. in summer. A wide variety of enteropathogens were detected among the elderly with acute diarrhea in China, with norovirus and DEC being the most commonly isolated pathogens. A strong seasonal pattern was observed for major pathogens of acute diarrhea among the elderly.

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<![CDATA[Full-Genome Sequencing and Confirmation of the Causative Agent of Erythrocytic Inclusion Body Syndrome in Coho Salmon Identifies a New Type of Piscine Orthoreovirus]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db29ab0ee8fa60bd0dfa

Erythrocytic inclusion body syndrome (EIBS) causes mass mortality in farmed salmonid fish, including the coho salmon, Onchorhynchus kisutchi, and chinook salmon, O. tshawytscha. The causative agent of the disease is a virus with an icosahedral virion structure, but this virus has not been characterized at the molecular level. In this study, we sequenced the genome of a virus purified from EIBS-affected coho salmon. The virus has 10 dsRNA genomic segments (L1, L2, L3, M1, M2, M3, S1, S2, S3, and S4), which closely resembles the genomic organization of piscine orthoreovirus (PRV), the causative agent of heart and skeletal inflammation (HSMI) in Atlantic salmon and HSMI-like disease in coho salmon. The genomic segments of the novel virus contain at least 10 open reading frames (ORFs): lambda 1 (λ1), λ2, λ3, mu 1 (μ1), μ2, μNS, sigma 1 (σ1), σ2, σ3, and σNS. An additional ORF encoding a 12.6-kDa protein (homologue of PRV p13) occurs in the same genomic segment as σ3. Phylogenetic analyses based on S1 and λ3 suggest that this novel virus is closely related to PRV, but distinctly different. Therefore, we designated the new virus ‘piscine orthoreovirus 2’ (PRV-2). Reverse transcription–quantitative real-time PCR revealed a significant increase in PRV-2 RNA in fish blood after the artificial infection of EIBS-naïve fish but not in that of fish that had recovered from EIBS. The degree of anemia in each fish increased as the PRV-2 RNA increased during an epizootic season of EIBS on an inland coho salmon farm. These results indicate that PRV-2 is the probable causative agent of EIBS in coho salmon, and that the host acquires immunity to reinfection with this virus. Further research is required to determine the host range of PRV species and the relationship between EIBS and HSMI in salmonid fish.

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<![CDATA[Norovirus and Sapovirus Epidemiology and Strain Characteristics among Navajo and Apache Infants]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da1bab0ee8fa60b7cef6

Norovirus and sapovirus are important causes of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) among American Indian infants. We investigated the prevalence and molecular epidemiology of norovirus and sapovirus in American Indian infants who have historically experienced a high burden of AGE compared to other US populations. Stool samples were collected from 241 children with AGE (cases) and from 343 infants without AGE (controls) ≤9 months of age from 2002–2004. Cases experienced forceful vomiting and/or 3 or more watery or looser-than-normal stools in 24 hours. Stools were tested by real-time RT-PCR for norovirus GI, GII and GIV and sapovirus GI, GII, GIV and GV. Positive samples were genotyped after sequencing conventional RT-PCR products. Norovirus was identified in 76 (31.5%) of the cases and 70 (20.4%) of the controls (p<0.001). GII.3 and GII.4 Farmington Hills were the most frequently identified genotypes in 14.5% and 30.3% of cases and 17.1% and 27.1% of controls, respectively. Sapovirus GI and GII genotypes were identified in 8 (3.3%) of cases and 8 (2.3%) of controls and a single GIV virus was detected in a control. The same norovirus and sapovirus genotypes were circulating in the general U.S. population in the same time period. The high detection rate of norovirus in healthy controls suggests significant asymptomatic transmission in young infants in these communities.

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<![CDATA[Identification of the Genome Segments of Bluetongue Virus Serotype 26 (Isolate KUW2010/02) that Restrict Replication in a Culicoides sonorensis Cell Line (KC Cells)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dabcab0ee8fa60baf3bd

Bluetongue virus (BTV) can infect most ruminant species and is usually transmitted by adult, vector-competent biting midges (Culicoides spp.). Infection with BTV can cause severe clinical signs and can be fatal, particularly in naïve sheep and some deer species. Although 24 distinct BTV serotypes were recognized for several decades, additional ‘types’ have recently been identified, including BTV-25 (from Switzerland), BTV-26 (from Kuwait) and BTV-27 from France (Corsica). Although BTV-25 has failed to grow in either insect or mammalian cell cultures, BTV-26 (isolate KUW2010/02), which can be transmitted horizontally between goats in the absence of vector insects, does not replicate in a Culicoides sonorensis cell line (KC cells) but can be propagated in mammalian cells (BSR cells). The BTV genome consists of ten segments of linear dsRNA. Mono-reassortant viruses were generated by reverse-genetics, each one containing a single BTV-26 genome segment in a BTV-1 genetic-background. However, attempts to recover a mono-reassortant containing genome-segment 2 (Seg-2) of BTV-26 (encoding VP2), were unsuccessful but a triple-reassortant was successfully generated containing Seg-2, Seg-6 and Seg-7 (encoding VP5 and VP7 respectively) of BTV-26. Reassortants were recovered and most replicated well in mammalian cells (BSR cells). However, mono-reassortants containing Seg-1 or Seg-3 of BTV-26 (encoding VP1, or VP3 respectively) and the triple reassortant failed to replicate, while a mono-reassortant containing Seg-7 of BTV-26 only replicated slowly in KC cells.

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<![CDATA[Quantifying the roles of host movement and vector dispersal in the transmission of vector-borne diseases of livestock]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db5aab0ee8fa60bdf2f0

The role of host movement in the spread of vector-borne diseases of livestock has been little studied. Here we develop a mathematical framework that allows us to disentangle and quantify the roles of vector dispersal and livestock movement in transmission between farms. We apply this framework to outbreaks of bluetongue virus (BTV) and Schmallenberg virus (SBV) in Great Britain, both of which are spread by Culicoides biting midges and have recently emerged in northern Europe. For BTV we estimate parameters by fitting the model to outbreak data using approximate Bayesian computation, while for SBV we use previously derived estimates. We find that around 90% of transmission of BTV between farms is a result of vector dispersal, while for SBV this proportion is 98%. This difference is a consequence of higher vector competence and shorter duration of viraemia for SBV compared with BTV. For both viruses we estimate that the mean number of secondary infections per infected farm is greater than one for vector dispersal, but below one for livestock movements. Although livestock movements account for a small proportion of transmission and cannot sustain an outbreak on their own, they play an important role in establishing new foci of infection. However, the impact of restricting livestock movements on the spread of both viruses depends critically on assumptions made about the distances over which vector dispersal occurs. If vector dispersal occurs primarily at a local scale (99% of transmission occurs <25 km), movement restrictions are predicted to be effective at reducing spread, but if dispersal occurs frequently over longer distances (99% of transmission occurs <50 km) they are not.

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<![CDATA[Detection of Rotavirus Using Padlock Probes and Rolling Circle Amplification]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9ffab0ee8fa60b737bf

Rotavirus infections are one of the most common reasons for hospitalizations due to gastrointestinal diseases. Rotavirus is often diagnosed by latex agglutination assay, chromatography immunoassay, or by electron microscopy, which are all quite insensitive. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, on the other hand, is very sensitive to variations at the genomic level. We developed a novel assay based on a set of 58 different padlock probes with a detection limit of 1,000 copies. Twenty-two patient samples were analyzed and the assay showed high concordance with a PCR-based assay. In summary, we present a new assay for sensitive and variation tolerant detection of rotavirus.

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<![CDATA[Prevalence and Genetic Diversity of Enteric Viruses in Children with Diarrhea in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dadeab0ee8fa60bbac0b

Enteric viruses are a major cause of diarrhea in children, especially those under five years old. Identifying the viral agents is critical to the development of effective preventive measures. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and genetic diversity of common enteric viruses in children under five years old in Burkina Faso. Stool samples from children with (n = 263) and without (n = 50) diarrhea disorders were collected in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso from November 2011 to September 2012. Rotavirus, norovirus, sapovirus, astrovirus, adenovirus and Aichivirus A were detected using real-time or end-point (RT-)PCR. Rotavirus strains were G and P genotyped by multiplex RT-PCR and other viral strains were characterized by sequencing of viral subgenomic segements. At least one viral agent was detected in 85.6% and 72% of the symptomatic and asymptomatic patients, respectively. Rotavirus (63.5%), adenovirus (31.2%) and genogroup II norovirus (18.2%) were the most prevalent viruses in symptomatic patients, but only rotavirus and genogroup II norovirus were significantly associated with diarrhea (OR: 7.9, 95%CI: 3.7–17; OR: 3.5, 95%CI: 1–11.7, respectively). Sapovirus (10.3%), astrovirus (4.9%), genogroup I norovirus (2.7%) and Aichivirus A (0.8%) were less prevalent. The predominant genotype of rotavirus was G9P[8] (36.5%), and the predominant norovirus strain was GII.4 variant 2012 (71.4%). Among sapovirus, the genogroup II (87.5%) predominated. Astrovirus type 1 (41.7%) was the most frequent astrovirus identified. Aichivirus A belonged to the three genotypes (A, B and C). Enteric adenoviruses type 40 and 41 were identified in 10.2% and 5.1% respectively. Several cases of co-infections were detected. The results highlight the high prevalence and the high diversity of enteric viruses in Burkinabe children.

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<![CDATA[Rotavirus Genotypes and Vaccine Effectiveness from a Sentinel, Hospital-Based, Surveillance Study for Three Consecutive Rotavirus Seasons in Lebanon]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da47ab0ee8fa60b8bfde

Introduction

Globally, rotavirus (RV) is the leading cause of gastroenteritis (GE) in children. Longitudinal data about changes in RV genotype distribution and vaccine effectiveness (VE) are scarce. This study was conducted in Lebanon over 3 consecutive RV seasons to estimate the rate of RVGE hospitalization, identify RV genotypes, determine the seasonal and geographical variations, and calculate RV VE.

Materials and Methods

This prospective, multicenter, hospital-based surveillance study was conducted between 2011 and 2013 and enrolled children (<5 years) admitted for GE. Socio-demographic and clinical data about the current episode of GE at admission were collected. Genotypes were determined from stool samples testing positive for RV by PCR.

Results

Of 1,414 cases included in the final analysis, 83% were <2 years old and 55.6% were boys. Median duration of hospitalization was 4 days and 91.6% of GE cases were severe (Vesikari score ≥11). PCR testing showed that 30.3% of subjects were RV-positive of which 62.1% had fever versus 71.1% of RV-negative subjects (P = 0.001). RV was predominantly detected in the cold season from November till March (69.9%). G and P genotype pairs for all RV-positive stool specimens showed a predominance of G1P[8] in 36% (n = 154) of specimens, G9P[8] in 26.4% (n = 113), and G2P[4] in 17.8% (n = 76). RV-negative subjects were more likely to be RV-vaccinated (21%) compared to the RV-positive subjects (11.3%) (P<0.001), with a vaccine breakthrough rate of 18.8%. The ratio of RV1-vaccinated for each RV5-vaccinated subject was 7.8 and VE against RV disease was 68.4% (95%CI, 49.6%-80.2%).

Conclusion

RV is a major cause of GE requiring hospitalization of children under 5 years of age in Lebanon. A few genotypes predominated over the three RV seasons studied. Mass RV vaccination will likely decrease the burden of hospitalization due to RV. VE is similar to what has been observed for other middle-income countries.

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