ResearchPad - reproductive-genetics https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[The status of preimplantation genetic testing in the UK and USA]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nda4c6530-46cd-48b7-9e66-119e001aa9bc Has the number of preimplantation genetic testing (PGT) cycles in the UK and USA changed between 2014 and 2016?SUMMARY ANSWERFrom 2014 to 2016, the number of PGT cycles in the UK has remained the same at just under 2% but in the USA has increased from 13% to 27%.WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADYPGT was introduced as a treatment option for couples at risk of transmitting a known genetic or chromosomal abnormality to their child. This technology has also been applied as an embryo selection tool in the hope of increasing live birth rates per transfer. ART cycles are monitored in the UK by the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority (HFEA) and in the USA by the Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology (SART). Globally, data are monitored via the ESHRE PGT Consortium.STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATIONThis cross-sectional study used the HFEA and SART databases to analyse PGT cycle data and make comparisons with IVF data to examine the success of and changes in patient treatment pathways. Both data sets were analysed from 2014 to 2016. The UK data included 3385 PGT cycles and the USA data included 94 935 PGT cycles.PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODSFollowing an extensive review of both databases, filters were applied to analyse the data. An assessment of limitations of each database was also undertaken, taking into account data collection by the ESHRE PGT Consortium. In the UK and USA, the publicly available information from these datasets cannot be separated into different indications.MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCEThe proportion of PGT cycles as a total of ART procedures has remained the same in the UK but increased annually in the USA from 13% to 27%. Between 2014 and 2016 inclusive, 3385 PGT cycles have been performed in the UK, resulting in 1074 PGT babies being born. In the USA 94 935 PGT cycles have been performed, resulting in 26 822 babies being born. This gave a success rate per egg collection for PGT of 32% for the UK and 28% for the USA. Analysis of the data by maternal age shows very different patient populations between the UK and USA. These differences may be related to the way PGT is funded in the UK and USA and the lack of HFEA support for PGT for aneuploidy.LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTIONData reported by the HFEA and SART have different limitations. As undertaken by the ESHRE PGT Consortium, both data sets should separate PGT data by indication. Although the HFEA collects data from all IVF clinics in the UK, SART data only represent 83% of clinics in the USA.WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGSWorldwide, a consistent reporting scheme is required in which success rates can convey the effectiveness of PGT approaches for all indications.STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S)No specific funding was obtained and there are no competing interests to declare that are directly related to this project. Joyce Harper is the director of the Embryology and PGD Academy, which offers education in these fields. ]]> <![CDATA[The birth of a baby with mosaicism resulting from a known mosaic embryo transfer: a case report]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nefea16f1-9d0a-4202-a141-ca3b54fb7557

Abstract

Mosaic embryos have the potential to implant and develop into healthy babies. The transfer of mosaic embryos is now considered to be a possible option for women undergoing ART with preimplantation genetic testing for aneuploidies and in the absence of euploid embryos, particularly those with diminished ovarian reserve and/or advanced maternal age. It can aid in avoiding the discard of potentially viable embryos, which might otherwise result in healthy babies. In over 500 studies on mosaicism, there have been no reports of mosaicism in babies born following the transfer of mosaic embryos. Here, we present a case report of a 39-year-old woman with diminished ovarian reserve with only one blastocyst available for trophectoderm biopsy. The transfer of the embryo, which showed 35% mosaicism of monosomy 2, resulted in pregnancy. Amniocentesis revealed a mosaic trisomic mos46,XX(98)/47,XX,+2(2) karyotype. There were no pathological findings in detailed ultrasonography, and the fetus showed a normal fetal growth with no evidence of intrauterine growth retardation. A healthy female baby was born at Week 37. The peripheral blood chromosome analysis validated with fluorescence in situ hybridization showed 2% mosaic monosomy 2 [mos45,XX,-2(2)/46,XX(98)]. This is the first reported case of true fetal mosaicism resulting in a live birth following the transfer of a known mosaic embryo. Worldwide, prenatal diagnosis has shown the depletion of mosaicism in embryos transferred after they have been reported as mosaics. Our case demonstrates the need for close prenatal monitoring and diagnosis by early amniocentesis, preferably at >14 weeks gestation.

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<![CDATA[Exome sequencing reveals novel causes as well as new candidate genes for human globozoospermia]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N9b176612-ccb3-47bb-b806-9fd160ba8171

Abstract

STUDY QUESTION

Can exome sequencing identify new genetic causes of globozoospermia?

SUMMARY ANSWER

Exome sequencing in 15 cases of unexplained globozoospermia revealed deleterious mutations in seven new genes, of which two have been validated as causing globozoospermia when knocked out in mouse models.

WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY

Globozoospermia is a rare form of male infertility characterised by round-headed sperm and malformation of the acrosome. Although pathogenic variants in DPY19L2 and SPATA16 are known causes of globozoospermia and explain up to 70% of all cases, genetic causality remains unexplained in the remaining patients.

STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION

After pre-screening 16 men for mutations in known globozoospermia genes DPY19L2 and SPATA16, exome sequencing was performed in 15 males with globozoospermia or acrosomal hypoplasia of unknown aetiology.

PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHOD

Targeted next-generation sequencing and Sanger sequencing was performed for all 16 patients to screen for single-nucleotide variants and copy number variations in DPY19L2 and SPATA16. After exclusion of one patient with DPY19L2 mutations, we performed exome sequencing for the 15 remaining subjects. We prioritised recessive and X-linked protein-altering variants with an allele frequency of <0.5% in the population database GnomAD in genes with an enhanced expression in the testis. All identified candidate variants were confirmed in patients and, where possible, in family members using Sanger sequencing. Ultrastructural examination of semen from one of the patients allowed for a precise phenotypic characterisation of abnormal spermatozoa.

MAIN RESULTS AND ROLE OF CHANCE

After prioritisation and validation, we identified possibly causative variants in eight of 15 patients investigated by exome sequencing. The analysis revealed homozygous nonsense mutations in ZPBP and CCDC62 in two unrelated patients, as well as rare missense mutations in C2CD6 (also known as ALS2CR11), CCIN, C7orf61 and DHNA17 and a frameshift mutation in GGN in six other patients. All variants identified through exome sequencing, except for the variants in DNAH17, were located in a region of homozygosity. Familial segregation of the nonsense variant in ZPBP revealed two fertile brothers and the patient’s mother to be heterozygous carriers. Paternal DNA was unavailable. Immunohistochemistry confirmed that ZPBP localises to the acrosome in human spermatozoa. Ultrastructural analysis of spermatozoa in the patient with the C7orf61 mutation revealed a mixture of round heads with no acrosomes (globozoospermia) and ovoid or irregular heads with small acrosomes frequently detached from the sperm head (acrosomal hypoplasia).

LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION

Stringent filtering criteria were used in the exome data analysis which could result in possible pathogenic variants remaining undetected. Additionally, functional follow-up is needed for several candidate genes to confirm the impact of these mutations on normal spermatogenesis.

WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS

Our study revealed an important role for mutations in ZPBP and CCDC62 in human globozoospermia as well as five new candidate genes. These findings provide a more comprehensive understanding of the genetics of male infertility and bring us closer to a complete molecular diagnosis for globozoospermia patients which would help to predict the success of reproductive treatments.

STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S)

This study was funded by The Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (918–15-667); National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia (APP1120356) and the National Council for Scientific Research (CONICET), Argentina, PIP grant 11220120100279CO. The authors have nothing to disclose.

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<![CDATA[High-resolution array-CGH analysis on 46,XX patients affected by early onset primary ovarian insufficiency discloses new genes involved in ovarian function]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c929bf3d5eed0c4843843c9

Abstract

STUDY QUESTION

Can high resolution array-CGH analysis on a cohort of women showing a primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) phenotype in young age identify copy number variants (CNVs) with a deleterious effect on ovarian function?

SUMMARY ANSWER

This approach has proved effective to clarify the role of CNVs in POI pathogenesis and to better unveil both novel candidate genes and pathogenic mechanisms.

WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY

POI describes the progression toward the cessation of ovarian function before the age of 40 years. Genetic causes are highly heterogeneous and despite several genes being associated with ovarian failure, most of genetic basis of POI still needs to be elucidated.

STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION

The current study included 67 46,XX patients with early onset POI (<19 years) and 134 control females recruited between 2012 and 2016 at the Medical Cytogenetics and Molecular Genetics Lab, IRCCS Istituto Auxologico Italiano.

PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS

High resolution array-CGH analysis was carried out on POI patients’ DNA. Results of patients and female controls were analyzed to search for rare CNVs. All variants were validated and subjected to a gene content analysis and disease gene prioritization based on the present literature to find out new ovary candidate genes. Case-control study with statistical analysis was carried out to validate our approach and evaluate any ovary CNVs/gene enrichment. Characterization of particular CNVs with molecular and functional studies was performed to assess their pathogenic involvement in POI.

MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE

We identified 37 ovary-related CNVs involving 44 genes with a role in ovary in 32 patients. All except one of the selected CNVs were not observed in the control group. Possible involvement of the CNVs in POI pathogenesis was further corroborated by a case-control analysis that showed a significant enrichment of ovary-related CNVs/genes in patients (P = 0.0132; P = 0.0126). Disease gene prioritization identified both previously reported POI genes (e.g. BMP15, DIAPH2, CPEB1, BNC1) and new candidates supported by transcript and functional studies, such as TP63 with a role in oocyte genomic integrity and VLDLR which is involved in steroidogenesis.

LARGE SCALE DATA

ClinVar database (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/clinvar/); accession numbers SCV000787656 to SCV000787743.

LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION

This is a descriptive analysis for almost all of the CNVs identified. Inheritance studies of CNVs in some non-familial sporadic cases was not performed as the parents’ DNA samples were not available. Addionally, RT-qPCR analyses were carried out in few cases as RNA samples were not always available and the genes were not expressed in blood.

WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS

Our array-CGH screening turned out to be efficient in identifying different CNVs possibly implicated in disease onset, thus supporting the extremely wide genetic heterogeneity of POI. Since almost 50% of cases are negative rare ovary-related CNVs, array-CGH together with next generation sequencing might represent the most suitable approach to obtain a comprehensive genetic characterization of POI patients.

STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S)

Supported by Italian Ministry of Health grants ‘Ricerca Corrente’ (08C203_2012) and ‘Ricerca Finalizzata’ (GR-2011-02351636, BIOEFFECT) to IRCCS Istituto Auxologico Italiano.

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