ResearchPad - reproductive-system-procedures https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Regional variation of hysterectomy for benign uterine diseases in Switzerland]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14622 Hysterectomy is the last treatment option for benign uterine diseases, and vaginal hysterectomy is preferred over more invasive techniques. We assessed the regional variation in hysterectomy rates for benign uterine diseases across Switzerland and explored potential determinants of variation.MethodsWe conducted a population-based analysis using patient discharge data from all Swiss hospitals between 2013 and 2016. Hospital service areas (HSAs) for hysterectomies were derived by analyzing patient flows. We calculated age-standardized mean procedure rates and measures of regional variation (extremal quotient [EQ], highest divided by lowest rate) and systematic component of variation [SCV]). We estimated the reduction in the variance of crude hysterectomy rates across HSAs in multilevel regression models, with incremental adjustment for procedure year, age, cultural/socioeconomic factors, burden of disease, and density of gynecologists.ResultsOverall, 40,211 hysterectomies from 54 HSAs were analyzed. The mean age-standardized hysterectomy rate was 298/100,000 women (range 186–456). While the variation in overall procedure rate was moderate (EQ 2.5, SCV 3.7), we found a very high procedure-specific variation (EQ vaginal 5.0, laparoscopic 6.3, abdominal 8.0; SCV vaginal 17.5, laparoscopic 11.2, abdominal 16.9). Adjusted for procedure year, demographic, cultural, and sociodemographic factors, a large share (64%) of the variance remained unexplained (vaginal 63%, laparoscopic 85%, abdominal 70%). The main determinants of variation were socioeconomic/cultural factors. Burden of disease and the density of gynecologists was not associated with procedure rates.ConclusionsSwitzerland has a very high regional variation in vaginal, laparoscopic, and abdominal hysterectomy for benign uterine disease. After adjustment for potential determinants of variation including demographic factors, socioeconomic and cultural factors, burden of disease, and the density of gynecologists, two thirds of the variation remain unexplained. ]]> <![CDATA[Towards a fully automated surveillance of well-being status in laboratory mice using deep learning: Starting with facial expression analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N201121b9-bfe0-423d-91d1-e349ea424365

Assessing the well-being of an animal is hindered by the limitations of efficient communication between humans and animals. Instead of direct communication, a variety of parameters are employed to evaluate the well-being of an animal. Especially in the field of biomedical research, scientifically sound tools to assess pain, suffering, and distress for experimental animals are highly demanded due to ethical and legal reasons. For mice, the most commonly used laboratory animals, a valuable tool is the Mouse Grimace Scale (MGS), a coding system for facial expressions of pain in mice. We aim to develop a fully automated system for the surveillance of post-surgical and post-anesthetic effects in mice. Our work introduces a semi-automated pipeline as a first step towards this goal. A new data set of images of black-furred laboratory mice that were moving freely is used and provided. Images were obtained after anesthesia (with isoflurane or ketamine/xylazine combination) and surgery (castration). We deploy two pre-trained state of the art deep convolutional neural network (CNN) architectures (ResNet50 and InceptionV3) and compare to a third CNN architecture without pre-training. Depending on the particular treatment, we achieve an accuracy of up to 99% for the recognition of the absence or presence of post-surgical and/or post-anesthetic effects on the facial expression.

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<![CDATA[Voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) for prevention of heterosexual transmission of HIV and risk compensation in adult males in Soweto: Findings from a programmatic setting]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c8acc83d5eed0c48498f8f2

Background

Clinical trials have clearly shown a reduction in HIV acquisition through voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC). However, data assessing risk compensation under programmatic conditions is limited.

Methods

This was a prospective cohort of HIV seronegative males aged 18–40 years receiving VMMC between November 2012 and July 2014. HIV serostatus was determined pre and post VMMC. Risk compensation was defined as a decrease in condom use at last sex act and/or an increase in concurrent sexual relationships, both measured twelve months post-circumcision.

Results

A total of 233 males were enrolled and underwent voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) for prevention against HIV. There was no evidence of risk compensation post-circumcision as defined in this study. Significant increases in proportion of participants in the 18–24 years age group who knew the HIV status of their sexual partner (39% to 56%, p = 0.0019), self-reported condom use at last sex act (21% to 34%, p = 0.0106) and those reporting vaginal sexual intercourse in the past 12 months (67% to 79%, p-value = <0.0001) were found. In both 18–24 and 25–40 years age groups, there was a significant increase in perception of being at risk of contracting HIV (70% to 84%, p-value = <0.0001).

Conclusion

No significant risk compensation was observed in this study on comparing pre-and post-circumcision behaviour. An increase in proportion of participants in the 18–24 years age group who had vaginal intercourse in the first 12 months post-circumcision as a possibility of risk compensation was minimal and negated by an increase in proportion of those reporting using a condom at the last sex act, increase in knowledge of partner’s HIV status and lack of increase in alcohol post-circumcision.

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<![CDATA[Histogram analysis of prostate cancer on dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging: A preliminary study emphasizing on zonal difference]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6c75d9d5eed0c4843d02ed

Background

This study evaluated the performance of histogram analysis in the time course of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) for differentiating cancerous tissues from benign tissues in the prostate.

Methods

We retrospectively analyzed the histograms of DCE-MRI of 30 patients. Histograms within regions of interest(ROI) in the peripheral zone (PZ) and transitional zone (TZ) were separately analyzed. The maximum difference wash-in slope (MWS) and delay phase slope (DPS) were defined for each voxel. Differences in histogram parameters, namely the mean, standard deviation (SD), the coefficient of variation (CV), kurtosis, skewness, interquartile range (IQR), percentile (P10, P25, P75, P90, and P90P10), Range, and modified full width at half-maximum (mFWHM) between cancerous and benign tissues were assessed.

Results

In the TZ, CV for ROIs of 7.5 and 10mm was the only significantly different parameter of the MWS (P = 0.034 and P = 0.004, respectively), whereas many parameters of the DPS (mean, skewness, P10, P25, P50, P75 and P90) differed significantly (P = <0.001–0.016 and area under the curve [AUC] = 0.73–0.822). In the PZ, all parameters of the MWS exhibited significant differences, except kurtosis and skewness in the ROI of 7.5mm(P = <0.001–0.017 and AUC = 0.865–0.898). SD, IQR, mFWHM, P90P10 and Range were also significant differences in the DPS (P = 0.001–0.035).

Conclusion

The histogram analysis of DCE-MRI is a potentially useful approach for differentiating prostate cancer from normal tissues. Different histogram parameters of the MWS and DPS should be applied in the TZ and PZ.

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<![CDATA[Therapeutic effect of localized vibration on alveolar bone of osteoporotic rats]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c59feb1d5eed0c4841352ff

Objectives

Vibration, in the form of high frequency acceleration (HFA), stimulates alveolar bone formation under physiologic conditions and during healing after dental extractions. It is not known if HFA has an anabolic effect on osteoporotic alveolar bone. Our objective is to determine if HFA has a regenerative effect on osteoporotic alveolar bone.

Methods and materials

Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups: 1) Ovariectomized Group (OVX), 2) Sham-OVX Group that received surgery without ovariectomy, 3) OVX-HFA Group that was ovariectomized and treated daily with HFA, 4) OVX+Static Force Group that was ovariectomized and received the same force as HFA, but without vibration, and 5) Control Group that did not receive any treatment. All animals were fed a low mineral diet for 3 months. Osteoporosis was confirmed by micro-CT of the fifth lumbar vertebra and femoral head. HFA was applied to the maxillary first molar for 5 minutes/day for 28 and 56 days. Maxillae were collected for micro-CT, histology, fluorescent microscopy, protein and RNA analysis, and three-point bending mechanical testing.

Results

Micro-CT analysis revealed significant alveolar bone osteoporosis in the OVX group. Vibration restored the quality and quantity of alveolar bone to levels similar to the Sham-OVX group. Animals exposed to HFA demonstrated higher osteoblast activity and lower osteoclast activity. Osteogenic transcription factors (RUNX2, Foxo1, Osterix and Wnt signaling factors) were upregulated following vibration, while RANKL/RANK and Sclerostin were downregulated. HFA did not affect serum TRAcP-5b or CTx-1 levels. The osteogenic effect was highest at the point of HFA application and extended along the hemimaxillae this effect did not cross to the contra-lateral side.

Conclusions

Local application of vibration generated gradients of increased anabolic metabolism and decreased catabolic metabolism in alveolar bone of osteoporotic rats. Our findings suggest that HFA could be a predictable treatment for diminished alveolar bone levels in osteoporosis patients.

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<![CDATA[Current management of cervical cancer in Poland—Analysis of the questionnaire trial for the years 2002-2014 in relation to ASCO 2016 recommendations]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5ca28fd5eed0c48441e638

Objectives

To assess the survival of patients with cervical cancer (CC). Since the recommendations concerning cervical cancer management adopted by Polish medical societies do not differ significantly from the ESGO or non-European guidelines, and the fact that evaluation of the system for CC treatment in Poland, as well as the mortality rate of Polish women with CC, which is 70% higher than the average for European Union (EU) countries, justifies the hypothesis that treatment of CC in Poland deviates from the Polish and international recommendations. This article puts forward the current management of cervical cancer in Poland and discusses it in the context of ASCO guidelines.

Material and methods

A survey retrospective multicenter analysis of the medical records of 1247 patients with cervical cancer who underwent treatment for disease and who had completed at least two years of follow-up.

Results

Although concurrent radiotherapy and chemotherapy is a standard treatment of FIGO IB to IVA cervical cancer patients in enhanced- and maximum-resources settings, in our analysis, we found that the percentage of women subjected to chemotherapy was lower than in countries where total survival rates were lower.

Conclusion

Within the IA to II A cervical cancer patients studied group, the methods of treatment remained in line with ASCO guidelines for countries with the highest standard of care.

Although concurrent radiotherapy and chemotherapy is a standard treatment of FIGO IB to IVA cervical cancer patients in enhanced- and maximum-resources settings, in our analysis, we found that the percentage of women subjected to chemotherapy was lower than in countries where total survival rates were lower.

Our findings, together with the inconsistencies within the cervical cancer screening program, may be one of the explanations of poorer survival rate of women with cervical cancer in Poland.

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<![CDATA[Recent incidence and surgery trends for prostate cancer: Towards an attenuation of overdiagnosis and overtreatment?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c61e937d5eed0c48496f9f2

Background

Screening for prostate cancer is frequent in high-income countries, including Switzerland. Notably due to overdiagnosis and overtreatment, various organisations have recently recommended against routine screening, potentially having an impact on incidence, mortality, and surgery rates. Our aim was therefore to examine whether secular trends in the incidence and mortality of prostate cancer, and in prostatectomy rates, have recently changed in Switzerland.

Methods

We conducted a population-based trend study in Switzerland from 1998 to 2012. Cases of invasive prostate cancer, deaths from prostate cancer, and prostatectomies were analysed. We calculated changes in age-standardised prostate cancer incidence rates, stratified by tumor stage (early, advanced), prostate cancer-specific mortality, and prostatectomy rates.

Results

The age-standardised incidence rate of prostate cancer increased greatly in men aged 50–69 years (absolute mean annual change +4.6/100,000, 95% CI: +2.9 to +6.2) between 1998 and 2002, and stabilised afterwards. In men aged ≥ 70 years, the incidence decreased slightly between 1998 and 2002, and more substantially since 2003. The incidence of early tumor stages increased between 1998 and 2002 only in men aged 50–69 years, and then stabilised, while the incidence of advanced stages remained stable across both age strata. The rate of prostatectomy increased markedly until 2002, more so in the 50 to 69 age range than among men aged ≥ 70 years; it leveled off after 2002 in both age strata. Trends in surgery were driven by radical prostatectomy. Since 1998, the annual age-standardised mortality rate of prostate cancer slightly declined in men aged 50–69 years (absolute mean annual change -0.1/100,000, 95% CI: -0.2 to -0.1) and ≥ 70 years (absolute mean annual change -0.5/100,000, 95% CI: -0.7 to -0.3).

Conclusions

The increases in the incidence of early stage prostate cancer and prostatectomy observed in Switzerland among men younger than 70 years have concomitantly leveled off around 2002/2003. Given the decreasing mortality, these trends may reflect recent changes in screening and clinical workup practices, with a possible attenuation of overdiagnosis and overtreatment.

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<![CDATA[“To speak or not to speak”: A qualitative analysis on the attitude and willingness of women to start conversations about voluntary medical male circumcision with their partners in a peri-urban area, South Africa]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c644936d5eed0c484c2f8d6

Introduction

Voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) reduces the risk of HIV infection in heterosexual men and has long-term indirect protection for women, yet VMMC uptake in South Africa remains low (49.8%) in men (25–49 years). We explored the attitude and willingness of women to start conversations on VMMC with their sexual partners in a South African peri-urban setting to increase VMMC uptake.

Methods

Thirty women with median age of 30 years (inter-quartile range 26–33 years) were interviewed in a language of their choice. Key questions included: types of approach to use, gender roles, benefits and barriers to introducing the topic of VMMC, and perceptions of VMMC. Interviews were digitally-recorded, transcribed, and translated. Through a standard iterative process, a codebook was developed (QSR NVIVO 10 software) and inductive thematic analysis applied.

Results

Most women were willing talk to their sexual partners about circumcision, but indicated that the decision to circumcise remained that of their sexual partner. Women felt that they should encourage their partners, show more interest in circumcision, be patient, speak in a caring and respectful tone, choose a correct time when their partner was relaxed and talk in a private space about VMMC. Using magazine/newspaper articles, pamphlets or advertisements were identified as tools that could aid their discussion. Substantial barriers to initiating conversations on VMMC included accusations by partner on infidelity, fear of gender-based violence, cultural restrictions and hesitation to speak to a mature partner about circumcision.

Conclusions

Women need to ensure that before talking to their partner about circumcision, the environment and approach that they use are conducive. Female social network forums could be used to educate women on conversation techniques, skills to use when talking to their partners and how to address communication challenges about circumcision. Involvement of women in VMMC awareness campaigns could encourage circumcision uptake among men.

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<![CDATA[Fecal microbiota changes associated with dehorning and castration stress primarily affects light-weight dairy calves]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c521839d5eed0c484797843

Gastrointestinal tract (GIT) microbiota and stress can impact animal health. Studies have shown that perturbations in the GIT microbiota can influence host health and productivity by affecting physiological homeostasis, metabolism, hematopoiesis and inflammation. The present study aimed to evaluate possible effects of dehorning and castration stress on the GIT microbiota of dairy calves. Dehorning and castration are routinely performed on over 90% of dairy farms, and analgesics like flunixin meglumine (FLU) are given at the time of these procedures to reduce pain. We analyzed fecal microbiota of 24 weaned male dairy calves at two different stages in their life (at 10 weeks for dehorning and 36 weeks age for castration) to determine any GIT microbiota changes due to these stressful procedures and the FLU treatment. Dehorning was performed using an electrocautery dehorner applied to the horn for 10 seconds, and surgical castration was used as the castration method. Our analysis showed that the Shannon diversity index was significantly higher in animals that were not dehorned compared to dehorned animals. Castration stress also resulted in a significant decrease in Shannon diversity index, which was more pronounced in lower weight calves. Body weight and stress had significant effects on the taxonomic profiles of the GIT microbiota. There was a significant difference in the GIT bacterial community structure between heavy- and light-weight calves at Day 3 after castration but not at Day 0 (prior to castration). Our results indicate that dehorning and castration stress reduced microbial diversity of the GIT microbiota, but only in light-weight calves. This work is important for elucidating biological effects of stress on dairy calves and identifying potential modulation points in the microbiota of these food-producing animals to improve animal health and production.

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<![CDATA[Clinical utility of MRI in the decision-making process before radical prostatectomy: Systematic review and meta-analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c3d0118d5eed0c484038457

Context

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is currently the most accurate imaging modality to assess local prostate cancer stage. Despite a growing body of evidence, incorporation of MRI images into decision-making process concerning surgical template of radical prostatectomy, is complex and still poorly understood.

Objective

We sought to determine the value of MRI in preoperative planning before radical prostatectomy.

Materials and methods

Systematic search through electronic PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases from 2000 up to April 2018 was performed. Only studies that used preoperative MRI in decision-making process regarding extension of resection in patients with prostate cancer, in whom radical prostatectomy was an initial form of treatment were included into analysis. Their quality was scored by Risk Of Bias In Non-Randomized Studies of Interventions system. Meta-analysis was performed to calculate the weighted summary proportion under the fixed or random effects model as appropriate and pooled effects were depicted on forest plots.

Results

The results showed that the preoperative MRI led to the modification of initial surgical template in one third of cases (35%). This occurred increasingly with the rising prostate cancer-risk category: 28%, 33%, 52% in low-, intermediate- and high-risk group, respectively. Modification of neurovascular bundle-sparing surgery based on MRI appeared to have no impact on the positive surgical margin rate. The decision based on MRI was correct on average in 77% of cases and differed across prostate cancer-risk categories: 63%, 75% and 91% in low-, intermediate- and high-risk group, accordingly.

Conclusions

In summary, MRI has a considerable impact on the decision-making process regarding the extent of resection during radical prostatectomy. Adaptation of MRI images by operating surgeons has at worst no significant impact on surgical margin status, however its ability to decrease the positive surgical margin rates remains unconfirmed.

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<![CDATA[Distinguishing protest responses in contingent valuation: A conceptualization of motivations and attitudes behind them]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c3e4f65d5eed0c484d74dbe

The percentage of protesters in contingent valuation surveys is substantial–about 20% across many studies. This paper seeks to clarify the motivations behind protest responses. In addition, the question whether the estimation of willingness to pay (WTP) is more biased by the exclusion or inclusion of protest bids is yet undecided. Methodological improvements are difficult for three reasons: motivations behind protest responses are largely unclear, definitions of protest differ between studies and often only participants who state a zero WTP are asked for their reasons. Our survey on farm animal welfare (n = 1335) provides detailed motivations, two definitions and includes debriefing of all participants for their WTP. We find that protest bids are not a refusal to answer, they are neither irrational nor driven by lack of understanding. Quite the contrary, a large part of participants is directly motivated by moral reasons. Furthermore, protest responses are not coupled to a zero WTP. In our sample, only 8% out of 32% protesting participants had a zero WTP. Only a small fraction of zero bids (0.4%) are true WTP-statements, i.e. respondents were satisfied with the status quo. This finding has important implications for existing WTP-estimates which might be biased. Finally, we provide detailed estimates of the WTP for animal welfare issues by including and excluding different types of protesters and outliers.

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<![CDATA[Variation in severe postpartum hemorrhage management: A national vignette-based study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c1c0ac6d5eed0c484426a7b

Objectives

To assess variations in management of severe postpartum hemorrhage: 1) between obstetricians in the same situation 2) by the same obstetrician in different situations.

Study design

A link to a vignette-based survey was emailed to obstetricians of 215 maternity units; the questionnaire asked them to report how they would manage the PPH described in 2 previously validated case-vignettes of different scenarios of severe PPH. Vignette 1 described a typical immediate, severe PPH, and vignette 2 a less typical case of severe but gradual PPH. They were constructed in 3 successive steps and included multiple-choice questions proposing several types of clinical practice options at each step. Variations in PPH were assessed in a descriptive analysis; agreement about management and its timing between vignette 1 and vignette 2 was assessed with the Kappa coefficient.

Results

Analysis of complete responses from 119 (43.4%) obstetricians from 53 (24.6%) maternity units showed delayed or inadequate management in both vignettes. While 82.3% and 83.2% of obstetricians (in vignettes 1 and 2, respectively) would administer oxytocin 15 minutes after PPH diagnosis, only 52.9% and 29.4% would alert other team members. Management by obstetricians of the two vignette situations was inconsistent in terms of choice of treatment and timing of almost all treatments.

Conclusion

Case vignettes demonstrated inadequate management as well as variations in management between obstetricians and in different PPH situations. Protocols or procedures are necessary in all maternity units to reduce the variations in practices that may explain a part of the delay in management that leads to PPH-related maternal mortality and morbidity.

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<![CDATA[Lower allergen levels in hypoallergenic Curly Horses? A comparison among breeds by measurements of horse allergens in hair and air samples]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c1ab852d5eed0c4840278d8

Background

Exposure to horses can cause severe allergic reactions in sensitized individuals. The breed, American Bashkir Curly Horse is categorized as hypoallergenic, primarily due to reports of allergic patients experiencing fewer symptoms while handling this special breed. The possible reasons for this phenomenon could be lower allergen production and/or reduced allergen release into the air because of increased sebum content in their skin and hair compared to other breeds. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to compare different horse breeds in relation to allergen content in hair and airborne dust samples.

Methods

In total, 224 hair samples from 32 different horse breeds were investigated. Personal nasal filters were used to collect airborne dust during the grooming of 20 Curly Horses and 20 Quarter Horses. Quantitative analysis of all samples was performed using two newly developed immunoassays for the detection of horse dander (HD) antigens and the major allergen Equ c 1 and the commercial assay for Equ c 4. Results were analyzed using multiple linear regression models for hair samples and the Mann Whitney U test for airborne samples.

Results

Horse antigen and allergen levels differed up to four orders of magnitude between individual animals. Despite enormous variability, levels of HD antigen, Equ c 1 and Equ c 4 in hair were significantly related to the breed and gender combined with the castration status of male animals. Curly Horses had significantly higher concentrations of all three tested parameters compared to the majority of the investigated breeds (medians: 11800 μg/g for HD antigen, 2400 μg/g for Equ c 1, and 258 kU/g for Equ c 4). Tinker Horses, Icelandic Horses and Shetland Ponies were associated with approximately 7-fold reduced levels of HD antigen and Equ c 1, and up to 25-fold reduced levels of Equ c 4 compared to Curly Horses. Compared to mares, stallions displayed increased concentrations of HD antigens, Equ c 1 and Equ c 4 by a factor 2.2, 3.5 and 6.7, respectively. No difference was observed between mares and geldings. No differences in airborne allergen concentrations collected with personal nasal filters during grooming were found between Curly and Quarter Horses.

Conclusion

Breed and castration status had a significant influence on the antigen and allergen levels of horse hair. However, these differences were smaller than the wide variability observed among individual horses. Compared to other breeds, Curly Horses were not associated with lower allergen levels in hair and in air samples collected during grooming. Our approach provides no molecular explanation why Curly Horses are considered to be hypoallergenic.

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<![CDATA[Ovarian reserve after uterine artery embolization in women with morbidly adherent placenta: A cohort study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c0993cbd5eed0c4842ad977

Objective

To evaluate ovarian reserve in women after preservative cesarean delivery using uterine artery embolization due to morbidly adherent placenta.

Study design

A historical cohort study including all women admitted to a single tertiary care center, with morbidly adherent placenta that had preservative cesarean delivery with bilateral uterine artery embolization. Inclusion criteria included gestational age >24 weeks, singleton pregnancy and placenta increta / percreta. Exclusion criteria included maternal age > 43 years old and cesarean hysterectomy. Control group included women attending the infertility clinic due to male factor or single women conceiving via sperm donation, matched by age. Blood samples were collected on day 2–5 of menstruations for hormonal profile and Anti Mullarian Hormone (AMH) levels. Primary outcome was ovarian reserve evaluated by the levels of AMH.

Results

59 women underwent preservative cesarean delivery using uterine artery embolization during the study period. 21 women met inclusion criteria (33.9%) and were matched controls (n = 40). Circulating levels of E2 and FSH did not differ significantly between the two groups (p = 0.665, p = 0.396, respectively). AMH was lower in the study group (median 0.8 IQR 0.44–1.80) compared to the controls (median 2.08 IQR 1.68–3.71) (p = 0.001). This finding was consistent in linear multivariate regression analysis where the group of cesarean delivery using bilateral artery embolization due to placenta accrete was significantly predictive for the levels of AMH (B = -1.308, p = 0.012).

Conclusion

Women post preservative cesarean delivery using uterine artery embolization due to placenta accrete have lower ovarian reserve compare to controls matched by age.

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<![CDATA[Concordance of tomographic ultrasound and multiplanar ultrasound in detecting levator ani muscle injury in patients with pelvic organ prolapse]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b4a287c463d7e4513b897f6

Aim

To compare the evaluations of evaluate levator ani muscle injury (LAMI) by tomographic ultrasound imaging (TUI) and multiplanar (MP) ultrasound in patients with pelvic organ prolapse (POP).

Method

This retrospective analysis studied women who underwent International Continence Society POP quantification examination between October 2015 and June 2016. LAMI was assessed by both TUI and MP ultrasounds. Concordance of these two testing results was analyzed. Their correlations with clinical symptoms were also studied.

Results

A total of 135 women were included. All the patients with POP had a minimal LAMI depth ≥ 7 mm. Two examinations, TUI and MP, had satisfactory concordance (k = 0.71, P < 0.01). Depth of LAMI in the coronal plane demonstrated good agreement with TUI scores (r = 0.84; P < 0.01). After controlling for age, BMI, and parity, to have clinically significant POP and POP symptoms, the odds ratios (ORs) for the depth of LAMI in the coronal plane were 1.31 (95% CI 1.19–1.44) and 1.25 (95% CI 1.14–1.36), and for TUI scores were 1.72 (95% CI 1.37–2.17) and 1.63 (95% CI 1.31–2.03). Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses showed a cutoff depth of 7 mm of LAMI yielded a sensitivity of 62% and specificity of 80% for POP symptoms.

Conclusions

TUI and MP had satisfactory concordance in detecting LAMI and correlated with clinical symptoms of POP.

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<![CDATA[Prognostic Impact of Time to Ipsilateral Breast Tumor Recurrence after Breast Conserving Surgery]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9fbab0ee8fa60b7230b

Background

The poor prognosis of patients who experience ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR) after breast conserving surgery (BCS) is established. A short time between primary cancer and IBTR is a prognostic factor but no clinically relevant threshold was determined. Classification of IBTR may help tailor treatment strategies.

Purpose

We determined a specific time frame, which differentiates IBTR into early and late recurrence, and identified prognostic factors for patients with IBTR at time of the recurrence.

Methods

We analyzed 2209 patients with IBTR after BCS. We applied the optimal cut-points method for survival data to determine the cut-off times to IBTR. A subgroup analysis was performed by hormone receptor (HR) status. Survival analyses were performed using a Cox proportional hazard model to determine clinical features associated with distant-disease-free survival (DDFS) after IBTR. We therefor built decision trees.

Results

On the 828 metastatic events observed, the majority occurred within the first 3 months after IBTR: 157 in the HR positive group, 98 in the HR negative group. We found different prognostic times to IBTR: 49 months in the HR positive group, 33 in the HR negative group. After multivariate analysis, time to IBTR was the first discriminant prognostic factor in both groups (HR 0.65 CI95% [0.54–0.79] and 0.42 [0.30–0.57] respectively). The other following variables were significantly correlated with the DDFS: the initial number of positive lymph nodes for both groups, the initial tumor size and grade for HR positive tumors.

Conclusion

A short interval time to IBTR is the strongest factor of poor prognosis and reflects occult distant disease. It would appear that prognosis after IBTR depends more on clinical and histological parameters than on surgical treatment. A prospective trial in a low-risk group of patients to validate the safety of salvage BCS instead of mastectomy in IBTR is needed.

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<![CDATA[Effect of Preoperative Risk Group Stratification on Oncologic Outcomes of Patients with Adverse Pathologic Findings at Radical Prostatectomy]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da06ab0ee8fa60b75e10

Background

Current National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines recommend postoperative radiation therapy based only on adverse pathologic findings (APFs), irrespective of preoperative risk group. We assessed whether a model incorporating both the preoperative risk group and APFs could predict long-term oncologic outcomes better than a model based on APFs alone.

Methods

We retrospectively reviewed 4,404 men who underwent radical prostatectomy (RP) at our institution between 1992 and 2014. After excluding patients receiving neoadjuvant therapy or with incomplete pathological or follow-up data, 3,092 men were included in the final analysis. APFs were defined as extraprostatic extension (EPE), seminal vesicle invasion (SVI), or a positive surgical margin (PSM). The adequacy of model fit to the data was compared using the likelihood-ratio test between the models with and without risk groups, and model discrimination was compared with the concordance index (c-index) for predicting biochemical recurrence (BCR) and prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM). We performed multivariate Cox proportional hazard model and competing risk regression analyses to identify predictors of BCR and PCSM in the total patient group and each of the risk groups.

Results

Adding risk groups to the model containing only APFs significantly improved the fit to the data (likelihood-ratio test, p <0.001) and the c-index increased from 0.693 to 0.732 for BCR and from 0.707 to 0.747 for PCSM. A RP Gleason score (GS) ≥8 and a PSM were independently associated with BCR in the total patient group and also each risk group. However, only a GS ≥8 and SVI were associated with PCSM in the total patient group (GS ≥8: hazard ratio [HR] 5.39 and SVI: HR 3.36) and the high-risk group (GS ≥8: HR 6.31 and SVI: HR 4.05).

Conclusion

The postoperative estimation of oncologic outcomes in men with APFs at RP was improved by considering preoperative risk group stratification. Although a PSM was an independent predictor for BCR, only a RP GS ≥8 and SVI were associated with PCSM in the total patient and high-risk groups.

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<![CDATA[Effectiveness of and Financial Returns to Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision for HIV Prevention in South Africa: An Incremental Cost-Effectiveness Analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dac2ab0ee8fa60bb13de

Background

Empirical studies and population-level policy simulations show the importance of voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) in generalized epidemics. This paper complements available scenario-based studies (projecting costs and outcomes over some policy period, typically spanning decades) by adopting an incremental approach—analyzing the expected consequences of circumcising one male individual with specific characteristics in a specific year. This approach yields more precise estimates of VMMC’s cost-effectiveness and identifies the outcomes of current investments in VMMC (e.g., within a fiscal budget period) rather than of investments spread over the entire policy period.

Methods/Findings

The model has three components. We adapted the ASSA2008 model, a demographic and epidemiological model of the HIV epidemic in South Africa, to analyze the impact of one VMMC on HIV incidence over time and across the population. A costing module tracked the costs of VMMC and the resulting financial savings owing to reduced HIV incidence over time. Then, we used several financial indicators to assess the cost-effectiveness of and financial return on investments in VMMC. One circumcision of a young man up to age 20 prevents on average over 0.2 HIV infections, but this effect declines steeply with age, e.g., to 0.08 by age 30. Net financial savings from one VMMC at age 20 are estimated at US$617 at a discount rate of 5% and are lower for circumcisions both at younger ages (because the savings occur later and are discounted more) and at older ages (because male circumcision becomes less effective). Investments in male circumcision carry a financial rate of return of up to 14.5% (for circumcisions at age 20). The cost of a male circumcision is refinanced fastest, after 13 y, for circumcisions at ages 20 to 25. Principal limitations of the analysis arise from the long time (decades) over which the effects of VMMC unfold—the results are therefore sensitive to the discount rate applied, and more generally to the future course of the epidemic and of HIV/AIDS-related policies pursued by the government.

Conclusions

VMMC in South Africa is highly effective in reducing both HIV incidence and the financial costs of the HIV response. The return on investment is highest if males are circumcised between ages 20 and 25, but this return on investment declines steeply with age.

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<![CDATA[Biomechanical Characteristics of Osteoporotic Fracture Healing in Ovariectomized Rats: A Systematic Review]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9ebab0ee8fa60b6c971

Biomechanical tests are widely used in animal studies on osteoporotic fracture healing. However, the biomechanical recovery process is still unknown, leading to difficulty in choosing time points for biomechanical tests and in correctly assessing osteoporotic fracture healing. To determine the biomechanical recovery process during osteoporotic fracture healing, studies on osteoporotic femur fracture healing with biomechanical tests in ovariectomized rat (OVX) models were collected from PUBMED, EMBASE, and Chinese databases. Quadratic curves of fracture healing time and maximum load were fitted with data from the analyzed studies. In the fitted curve for normal fractures, the predicted maximum load was 145.56 N, and the fracture healing time was 88.0 d. In the fitted curve for osteoporotic fractures, the predicted maximum load was 122.30 N, and the fracture healing time was 95.2 d. The maximum load of fractured femurs in OVX rats was also lower than that in sham rats at day 84 post-fracture (D84 PF). The fracture healing time was prolonged and maximum load at D84 PF decreased in OVX rats with closed fractures. The maximum load of Wister rats was higher than that of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats, but the fracture healing time of SD and Wister rats was similar. Osteoporotic fracture healing was delayed in rats that were < = 12 weeks old when ovariectomized, and at D84 PF, the maximum load of rats < = 12 weeks old at ovariectomy was lower than that of rats >12 weeks old at ovariectomy. There was no significant difference in maximum load at D84 PF between rats with an osteoporosis modeling time <12 weeks and > = 12 weeks. In conclusion, fracture healing was delayed and biomechanical property decreased by osteoporosis. Time points around D95.2 PF should be considered for biomechanical tests of osteoporotic femur fracture healing in OVX rat models. Osteoporotic fracture healing in OVX rats was affected by the fracture type but not by the strain of the rat.

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<![CDATA[Factors Associated with Knowledge of and Willingness for Adult Male Circumcision in Changsha, China]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da0fab0ee8fa60b78e54

Background

Male circumcision (MC) has been shown to reduce the risk of male genital diseases. MC is not commonly practiced among Chinese males and little is known about the factors associated with their knowledge of and willingness for MC. This study was to explore the knowledge regarding the foreskin among Chinese males and to identify factors associated with their willingness to undergo circumcision.

Methods

A total of 237 patients with redundant prepuce/phimosis were interviewed through face-to-face interviews. The items on the questionnaire included: demographics, an objective scale assessing knowledge about the foreskin, willingness to have MC, the attitudes of sexual partners and doctors toward redundant prepuce/phimosis, and the approaches that patients used to acquire knowledge regarding the prepuce. Univariate analysis and multiple logistic regression analysis were performed to identify factors that are associated with willingness to be circumcised (WTC).

Results

A total of 212 patients completed the interview. Multivariable logistic regression showed that three factors were significantly associated with WTC: being married (OR = 0.43), perceiving redundant prepuce/phimosis as a disease (OR = 1.93), and if a patient’s partner supported MC (OR = 1.39). 58% (n = 122) had received information about the foreskin from another party: 18% (n = 37) from school, 8% (n = 17) from family, 17% (n = 36) from friends, 27% (n = 57) from health care providers. About 4% (n = 8) believed that their partners disliked their redundant prepuce/phimosis. 20% (n = 42) had received doctors’ advice to undergo circumcision.

Conclusion

Knowledge about the foreskin was low among Chinese males. Our study elucidates the factors associated with WTC and suggests that more education of the population about the foreskin can help improve the recognition of a correctible abnormality and help patients assess the potential role of MC in their health.

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