ResearchPad - research Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Development of a novel method for the quantification of tyrosine 39 phosphorylated α- and β-synuclein in human cerebrospinal fluid]]> Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the second most prevalent neurodegenerative disorder. Biomarkers that can help monitor the progression of PD or response to disease-modifying agents will be invaluable in making appropriate therapeutic decisions. Further, biomarkers that could be used to distinguish PD from other related disorders with PD-like symptoms will be useful for accurate diagnosis and treatment. C-Abl tyrosine kinase is activated in PD resulting in increased phosphorylation of the tyrosine residue at position 39 (Y39) of α-synuclein (α-syn) (pY39 α-syn), which contributes to the death of dopaminergic neurons. Because pY39 α-syn may be pathogenic, monitoring pY39 α-syn could allow us to diagnose presymptomatic PD and help monitor disease progression and response to treatment. We sought to investigate if increased phosphorylation of pY39 α-syn can be detected in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of PD patients by targeted mass spectrometry.MethodsHere, we report a two-step enrichment method in which phosphotyrosine peptides were first enriched with an anti-phosphotyrosine antibody followed by a second round of enrichment by titanium dioxide (TiO2) beads to detect EGVLpYVGSK sequence derived from tyrosine 39 region of α- and β-synuclein (αβ-syn). Accurate quantification was achieved by adding a synthetic heavy version of pY39 αβ-syn peptide before enzymatic digestion.ResultsUsing the developed enrichment methods and optimized parallel reaction monitoring (PRM) assays, we detected pY39 αβ-syn peptide in human CSF and demonstrated that the ratio of pY39 αβ-syn to Y39 αβ-syn was significantly increased in the CSF of patients with PD.ConclusionsWe anticipate that this optimized two-step enrichment-based PRM detection method will help monitor c-Abl activation in PD patients and can also be used to quantify other phosphotyrosine peptides of low abundance in biological samples. ]]> <![CDATA[TinderMIX: Time-dose integrated modelling of toxicogenomics data]]> Omics technologies have been widely applied in toxicology studies to investigate the effects of different substances on exposed biological systems. A classical toxicogenomic study consists in testing the effects of a compound at different dose levels and different time points. The main challenge consists in identifying the gene alteration patterns that are correlated to doses and time points. The majority of existing methods for toxicogenomics data analysis allow the study of the molecular alteration after the exposure (or treatment) at each time point individually. However, this kind of analysis cannot identify dynamic (time-dependent) events of dose responsiveness.ResultsWe propose TinderMIX, an approach that simultaneously models the effects of time and dose on the transcriptome to investigate the course of molecular alterations exerted in response to the exposure. Starting from gene log fold-change, TinderMIX fits different integrated time and dose models to each gene, selects the optimal one, and computes its time and dose effect map; then a user-selected threshold is applied to identify the responsive area on each map and verify whether the gene shows a dynamic (time-dependent) and dose-dependent response; eventually, responsive genes are labelled according to the integrated time and dose point of departure.ConclusionsTo showcase the TinderMIX method, we analysed 2 drugs from the Open TG-GATEs dataset, namely, cyclosporin A and thioacetamide. We first identified the dynamic dose-dependent mechanism of action of each drug and compared them. Our analysis highlights that different time- and dose-integrated point of departure recapitulates the toxicity potential of the compounds as well as their dynamic dose-dependent mechanism of action. ]]> <![CDATA[Fecal microbiota composition is linked to the postoperative disease course in patients with Crohn’s disease]]> The role of the fecal microbiota composition for the postoperative disease course of patients with Crohn’s disease (CD) who have undergone ileocecal resection remains to be established. In this study, we investigated if the fecal microbiota composition, determined by a high throughput test quantifying a pre-selected set of bacteria, is associated with the postoperative disease course of CD patients.MethodsFecal samples were obtained from healthy subjects as well as from CD patients, 3–10 weeks and 1 year after ileocaecal resection. The fecal microbial composition was analyzed by Genetic Analysis GA-map Dysbiosis test, targeting ≥300 bacteria on different taxonomic levels. Postoperative disease status was assessed endoscopically according to Rutgeerts scoring system 1 year after surgery. Differences in fecal microbiota composition between groups were analyzed by multivariate factor analyses and cluster analysis. Microbial stability over time was determined using Bray-Curtis dissimilarity.ResultsOne year after surgery, the fecal microbiota composition differed between CD patients (n = 21) and healthy subjects (n = 7). At this time point, the microbiota composition of CD patients was associated with disease course, clearly separating patients with disease relapse (n = 8) and patients in remission (n = 13). Further, the microbial within-patient stability was high during the first year after surgery, irrespective of disease course.ConclusionThe fecal microbiota composition of CD patients, analyzed by GA-map Dysbiosis test, is subject to little variation over time, and may potentially be used as a non-invasive diagnostic tool for the postoperative disease course. ]]> <![CDATA[Space use and habitat selection of an invasive mesopredator and sympatric, native apex predator]]> Where mesopredators co-exist with dominant apex predators, an understanding of the factors that influence their habitat and space use can provide insights that help guide wildlife conservation and pest management actions. A predator’s habitat use is defined by its home range, which is influenced by its selection or avoidance of habitat features and intra- and inter-specific interactions within the landscape. These are driven by both innate and learned behaviour, operating at different spatial scales. We examined the seasonal home ranges and habitat selection of actively-managed populations of a native apex predator (dingo Canis dingo) and invasive mesopredator (feral cat Felis catus) in semi-arid Western Australia to better understanding their sympatric landscape use, potential interactions, and to help guide their management.MethodsWe used kernel density estimates to characterise the seasonal space use of dingoes and feral cats, investigate inter- and intra-species variation in their home range extent and composition, and examine second-order habitat selection for each predator. Further, we used discrete choice modelling and step selection functions to examine the difference in third-order habitat selection across several habitat features.ResultsThe seasonal home ranges of dingoes were on average 19.5 times larger than feral cats. Feral cat seasonal home ranges typically included a larger proportion of grasslands than expected relative to availability in the study site, indicating second-order habitat selection for grasslands. In their fine-scale movements (third-order habitat selection), both predators selected for roads, hydrological features (seasonal intermittent streams, seasonal lakes and wetlands), and high vegetation cover. Dingoes also selected strongly for open woodlands, whereas feral cats used open woodlands and grasslands in proportion to availability.Management recommendationsBased on these results, and in order to avoid unintended negative ecological consequences (e.g. mesopredator release) that may stem from non-selective predator management, we recommend that feral cat control focuses on techniques such as trapping and shooting that are specific to feral cats in areas where they overlap with apex predators (dingoes), and more general techniques such as poison baiting where they are segregated. ]]> <![CDATA[Patient experience with subcutaneous immunoglobulin 20%, Ig20Gly, for primary immunodeficiency diseases: a prespecified post hoc analysis of combined data from 2 pivotal trials]]> Often, patients with primary immunodeficiency diseases (PID), which are marked by the absence or loss of functional antibodies, require lifelong treatment with immunoglobulin (IG) replacement therapy administered either intravenously (intravenous immunoglobulin [IVIG]) or subcutaneously (subcutaneous immunoglobulin [SCIG]). In patients with PID, the 20% SCIG product, Ig20Gly, was shown to be efficacious and well tolerated in 2 phase 2/3 trials conducted in North America and Europe. This analysis evaluated patient satisfaction with Ig20Gly therapy and treatment preferences.MethodsThis prespecified post hoc analysis showed combined data from 2 Ig20Gly pivotal trials. Treatment satisfaction was assessed in the pre-Ig20Gly period and after ≥11 months of Ig20Gly treatment using the Life Quality Index (LQI; both studies) and the Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication-9 (TSQM-9; North American study only). Treatment preference was assessed using a survey at the end of the European study. Median within-patient differences in LQI and TSQM-9 scores between the pre-Ig20Gly period and the end of the Ig20Gly treatment period were assessed using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test.ResultsA total of 113 patients (n = 68 [North American]; n = 45 [Europe]) with PID were included in the analysis. In the combined LQI analysis (n = 110), significant improvements were observed in the treatment interference (median ∆: + 2.8; P = 0.006) and therapy setting (median ∆: + 5.6; P < 0.0001) domains, and in the item-level scores for convenience (median ∆: + 1.0; P < 0.0001) and interference with work/school (median ∆: + 1.0; P = 0.0001) categories. In the subgroup analyses, significant improvements in the treatment interference and therapy setting domains and the convenience and interference with work/school items were observed for those who had previously received treatment outside the home, those who had previously received IVIG, and those in the North American study. Significant improvements were observed in the TSQM-9 treatment convenience domain (median ∆: + 11.1; P < 0.0001) and selected item-level scores in the North American study. In the European study, most (88.9%) patients preferred to continue Ig20Gly versus other IG treatments.ConclusionsAfter ≥11 months of taking Ig20Gly, patients reported high levels of treatment satisfaction, convenience, and preference for Ig20Gly, with consistent results across studies and use of multiple patient-reported outcome measures. ]]> <![CDATA[How Attentional Guidance and Response Selection Boost Contextual Learning: Evidence from Eye Movement]]> The contextual cueing effect (CCE) refers to the learned association between predictive configuration and target location, speeding up response times for targets. Previous studies have examined the underlying processes (initial perceptual process, attentional guidance, and response selection) of CCE but have not reached a general consensus on their contributions to CCE. In the present study, we used eye tracking to address this question by analyzing the oculomotor correlates of context-guided learning in visual search and eliminating indefinite response factors during response priming. The results show that both attentional guidance and response selection contribute to contextual learning.

<![CDATA[Day centres for older people - attender characteristics, access routes and outcomes of regular attendance: findings of exploratory mixed methods case study research]]> Social prescribing is encouraged to promote well-being, reduce isolation and loneliness. Traditional, generalist day centres for older people could be suggested by social prescribing, but little is known about their clientele or their outcomes. As part of a larger study of the role, outcomes and commissioning of generalist English day centres for older people, the characteristics of attenders at 4 day centres, their reasons for attendance and outcomes were explored.MethodsThis mixed-methods study used qualitative interviews and standardised tools within an embedded multiple-case study design. Semi-structured interviews with older day centre attenders (n = 23, 62% of eligible attenders) of 4 day centres in south-east England, recruited purposively to reflect organisational differences, were analysed.ResultsParticipants reported non-elective withdrawal from socialisation following health or mobility decline, or losses. Apart from living arrangements and marital status, attenders’ profiles differed between centres. Access had been mostly facilitated by others. Day centre attendance enhanced quality of life for this group of socially isolated people with mobility restrictions and at risk of declining independence and wellbeing. The positive impact on attenders’ social participation and involvement and on meaningful occupation was significant (p-value < 0.001, 99% CI), with an average ASCOT gain score of 0.18. Ten outcome themes were identified.ConclusionOutcomes of day centre attendance are those targeted by social care and health policy. Centres were communities that ‘enabled’ and offset loss or isolation, thus supporting ageing in place through wellbeing and contributed something unique to their attenders’ lives. By monitoring attenders’ health and wellbeing and providing practical support, information and facilitating access to other services, centres offered added value. Attendance needs to be set in the context of other social engagement and care provision which may not overlap or duplicate centre support. Professionals may wish to explore the benefits of social prescriptions to day centres but should map local centres’ provision, engage with their organisers, and seek information on attenders, who may differ from those in this study. ]]> <![CDATA[miR-185-5p response to usnic acid suppresses proliferation and regulating apoptosis in breast cancer cell by targeting Bcl2]]> Breast cancer is the most common cancer types among women. Recent researches have focused on determining the efficiency of alternative molecules and miRNAs in breast cancer treatment. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of usnic acid response-miR-185-5p on proliferation in the breast cancer cell and to determine its relationship with apoptosis pathway.MethodsThe cell proliferation and cell apoptosis rate were significantly increased following the ectopic expression of miR-185-5p in BT-474 cells. Furthermore, the results of cell cycle assay performed by flow cytometry revealed that the transfection with miR-185-5p induced G1/S phase arrest. The apoptosis-related genes expression analysis was performed by qRT-PCR and the direct target of miR-185-5p in BT-474 cells was identified by western blot and luciferase reporter assay.ResultsOur data showed that miR-185-5p can cause significant changes in apoptosis-related genes expression levels, suggesting that cell proliferation was suppressed by miR-185-5p via inducing apoptosis in breast cancer cells. According to western blot results, miR-185-5p lead to decrease BCL2 protein level in BT-474 cells and direct target of miR-185-5p was identified as BCL by luciferase reporter assay.ConclusionThis study revealed that miR-185-5p may be an effective agent in the treatment of breast cancer. ]]> <![CDATA[Crowdfunding abortion: an exploratory thematic analysis of fundraising for a stigmatized medical procedure]]> Medical crowdfunding is the process of using a crowdfunding platform to raise funds for medical treatment and associated expenses, such as missing work or transportation costs to access care. This type of crowdfunding has become increasingly popular, and is an effective tool to raise financing for medical treatment in the absence of insurance. However, it is accompanied by questions of which diseases or treatments are viewed as worthy to fund and which do not fit the criteria of worthiness. In the context of an abortion, a legitimate and important medical procedure, there is a lack of research that determines if campaigners can successfully utilize GoFundMe to pay for abortions and abortion related services and costs given the social stigma around this procedure. Here, we explore the outcomes of crowdfunding campaigns for stigmatized needs and conditions by examining campaigns related to abortion.MethodsA total of 211 campaigns that utilized the term “abortion” were retrieved on the medical-section of the GoFundMe crowdfunding platform. These results were thematically analyzed by each author and two distinctive categories were identified to group the campaigns.ResultsThe categories of campaigns using the term “abortion” were: campaigns seeking funds to access abortion related services (n = 84) and campaigns using the choice not to terminate pregnancy or the harms of abortion as a reason to give (n = 127). The number of donors, number of Facebook shares, campaign location, funding requested, funding pledged, campaign creation date, relation between the recipient and campaigner, and proposed use for the funds were recorded for each included campaign.ConclusionsThis study suggests that certain conditions or diseases may be less successful in medical crowdfunding based on perceived features of worthiness, such as in the case of abortion. In the categories we identified, campaigns seeking funds to access abortion-related services were less successful than campaigns using choosing not to terminate a pregnancy or the harms of abortion as a reason to give. This is an area of concern in medical crowdfunding – that certain medical needs will not be funded equitably. ]]> <![CDATA[A systematic review regarding women’s emotional and psychological experiences of high-risk pregnancies]]> High-risk pregnancy refers to a pregnancy that negatively affects the health of the mother, the baby, or both. High-risk pregnancy evokes a range of emotional and psychological experiences for the expectant mother, and can adversely affect both the mother and the baby’s health. Medical research on high-risk pregnancy abounds, while women’s emotional/psychological experiences are not sufficiently documented, and hence much less attention and/or programming is directed to support women with high risk pregnancies.MethodsThe aim of this review is to present published evidence of how studies reported on the emotional and psychological experiences of a woman’s high-risk pregnancy journey. The systematic review examined qualitative studies over a 10 year period that were published between January 2006 and June 2017. These studies were identified on 10 databases. The study utilised three stages of review (i.e. abstract reading, title reading, and full-text reading) and for a successful conduction of the meta-synthesis, this study applied one of the phases provided by Noblit and Hare.ResultsThe findings provide empirical evidence that women’s emotional and psychological experiences (i.e. shock, fear, frustration, grief, isolation and loneliness, anger, sadness, guilt, and mental health disorder) are evident throughout their high-risk pregnancies experience. ]]> <![CDATA[Lack of sexual behavior disclosure may distort STI testing outcomes]]> Men who have sex with men (MSM) globally have a high burden of curable sexually transmitted infections (STIs). MSM do not frequently receive rectal STI testing because of several barriers, such as not being out (disclosure of sexual behavior). We evaluate whether Chinese MSM select an STI test (rectal vs urethral) appropriate for their sexual behavior (insertive and/or receptive), and the interactions with being out.MethodsThis was a secondary analysis of data from a cross sectional MSM survey conducted at a multisite randomized controlled trial (RCT) (December 2018 to January 2019) around uptake of gonorrhea and chlamydia testing among Chinese MSM (N = 431). We collected socio demographics, relevant medical and sexual history, and disclosure of sexual behavior (outness). We estimated the decision to test and test choice, and the extent to which disclosure plays a role in decision making.ResultsAmong 431 MSM, mean age was 28 years (SD = 7.10) and 65% were out to someone. MSM who indicated versatile sexual behavior and were out to someone had a 26.8% (95%CI = 6.1, 47.5) increased likelihood for selecting the rectal test vs the ure thral test, compared to those versatile and not out. Versatile MSM out to their health provider outside of the study context had a 29.4% (95%CI = 6.3, 52.6) greater likelihood for selecting the rectal STI test vs the urethral test, compared to versatile MSM not out to their health provider.ConclusionsSexual behavior and outness may affect gonorrhea and chlamydia testing provision. Apart from clinicians, community based efforts may reduce stigma based barriers to testing. ]]> <![CDATA[Hospitalization burden and comorbidities of patients with rheumatoid arthritis in Spain during the period 2002–2017]]> Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune rheumatic disease that is associated with multiple comorbidities and has a significant economic impact on the Spanish health system. The objective of this study was to estimate the rates of hospitalization of rheumatoid arthritis in Spain, and describing hospitalization rates and their changing by age, region, RA variant, and when RA as a main cause of hospitalization or a comorbidity.MethodsObservational descriptive study that reviewed hospital records from the CMBD. We included all hospitalizations of patients in Spain whose main diagnosis or comorbidity in the ICD-9-CM was rheumatoid arthritis during the period of 2002–2017.ResultsA total of 315,190 hospitalizations with the RA code were recorded; 67.3% were in women. The mean age of the patients was 68.5 ± 13.9 years. The median length of hospital stay was 7 days (IQR 3–11 days). In 29,809 of the admissions, RA was coded as the main diagnosis (9.4%). When RA was not coded as the main diagnosis, the most frequent main diagnoses were diseases of the circulatory system (18.9%) and diseases of the respiratory system (17.4%). The hospitalization rate during the period of 2002–2017 was 43.8 (95% CI: 43.7–44.0) per 100,000 inhabitants and constantly increased during the period. The total cost for the healthcare system was 1.476 million euros, with a median of 3542 euros per hospitalization (IQR 2646–5222 euros).ConclusionsIn Spain, the hospitalization rate of patients with RA increased during the study period, despite the decrease in the hospitalization rate when RA was the main diagnosis. ]]> <![CDATA[Why do graduates choose to work in a less attractive specialty? A cross-sectional study on the role of personal values and expectations]]> Primary health care (PHC), of which preventive medicine (PM) is a subspecialty, will have to cope with a deficiency of staff in the future, which makes the retention of graduates urgent. This study was conducted in Vietnam, where PM is an undergraduate degree in parallel to medical training. It aims to identify facilitating and hindering factors that impact recruitment and retention of PM graduates in the specialty.MethodsA cross-sectional study enrolled 167 graduates who qualified as PM doctors from a Vietnamese medical school, between 2012 and 2018. Data were collected via an online questionnaire that asked participants about their motivation and continuation in PM, the major life roles that they were playing, and their satisfaction with their job. Multiple regression analyses were used to identify which life roles and motivational factors were related to the decision to take a PM position and to stay in the specialty, as well as how these factors held for subgroups of graduates (men, women, graduates who studied PM as their first or second study choice).ResultsHalf of the PM graduates actually worked in PM, and only one fourth of them expressed the intention to stay in the field. Three years after qualification, many graduates had not yet decided whether to pursue a career in PM. Satisfaction with opportunities for continuous education was rated as highly motivating for graduates to choose and to stay in PM. Responsibility for taking care of parents motivated male graduates to choose PM, while good citizenship and serving the community was associated with the retention of graduates for whom PM was their first choice.ConclusionsThe findings demonstrate the importance of social context and personal factors in developing primary care workforce policy. Providing opportunities for continued education and enhancing the attractiveness of PM as an appropriate specialty to doctors who are more attached to family and the community could be solutions to maintaining the workforce in PM. The implications could be useful for other less popular specialties that also struggle with recruiting and retaining staff. ]]> <![CDATA[Differential time-course tear film quantitative changes following limbal relaxing incisions]]> The study aims at evaluating the time-course changes of pre-corneal tear film after simultaneous phacoemulsification and limbal relaxing incisions (LRIs) performed in 2 groups of patients; group-A had vertical and group-B had horizontal LRIs.MethodsFourty-two eyes of 28 patients with co-existing cataract and corneal astigmatism were studied before and after simultaneous cataract surgery and LRIs (at weeks 1, 4 and 12), patients were classified into 2 groups according to the orientation of LRIs; vertical (A) and horizontal (B) groups. Pre-corneal tear film stability was assessed by measuring the tear break-up time (TBUT) and the tear volume was determined using Schirmer’s I test (Basic Schirmer’s test; BST), both preoperatively and postoperatively.ResultsTBUT was significantly reduced in both the study groups (P = 0.001) without significant reduction regarding basic Schirmer’s test values except for the first postoperative week in the horizontal LRI group-B (P = 0.04).ConclusionsPrecorneal tear film stability is altered in the early postoperative period after simultaneous cataract and LRI incisions shown by TBUT measurement values. These changes do not appear to differ significantly depending on the orientation of LRI incisions. ]]> <![CDATA[A population-based survey to assess the association between cannabis and quality of life among colorectal cancer survivors]]> As more states legalize cannabis for medical and recreational use, people increasingly use cannabis to treat medical conditions and associated symptoms. The prevalence and utility of cannabis for cancer-related symptoms may be clarified by examining cannabis use among patients with a common cancer diagnosis. We aimed to determine the prevalence of cannabis use among colorectal cancer (CRC) survivors and its associations with quality of life (QoL) and cancer-related symptomatology.MethodsA cross-sectional survey of patient-reported QoL outcomes and behaviors, including cannabis use, was conducted within the Patient Outcomes To Advance Learning network’s (PORTAL) CRC Cohort. The cohort included a population-based sample of healthcare system members ≥18 years old diagnosed with adenocarcinoma of the colon or rectum from 2010 through 2016. We assessed the association between cannabis use and QoL using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-C30 summary score.ResultsOf the 1784 respondents, 293 (16.4%) reported cannabis use following CRC diagnosis. Current tobacco smokers were more likely to use cannabis compared to former or never tobacco smokers (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.71, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.56 to 4.70). Greater alcohol use (> 4 drinks per month versus ≤4 drinks per month) was associated with cannabis use (aOR 2.17, 95% CI 1.65 to 2.85). There was an association between cannabis use and cancer stage at diagnosis, with stage 3 or 4 CRC patients more likely to use cannabis than stage 1 or 2 CRC patients (aOR 1.68, 95% CI 1.25 to 2.25). After adjusting for demographics, medical comorbidities, stage and site of CRC diagnosis, and prescription opioid use, people who used cannabis had significantly lower QoL than people who did not use cannabis (difference of − 6.14, 95% CI − 8.07 to − 4.20).ConclusionAmong CRC survivors, cannabis use was relatively common, associated with more advanced stages of disease, associated with tobacco and alcohol use, and not associated with better QoL. Clinicians should inquire about cannabis use among their patients and provide evidence-based recommendations for cancer-related symptoms. ]]> <![CDATA[Expression profiling and analysis of some miRNAs in subcutaneous white adipose tissue during development of obesity]]> MicroRNAs are emerging as new mediators in the regulation of adipocyte physiology and have been approved to play a role in obesity. Despite several studies have focused on microRNA expression profiles and functions in different metabolic tissues, little is known about their response to nutritional interventions in white adipose tissue during obesity stages, and whether they differ in this response to weight-reduction strategy is poorly understood. Our objectives were to study the dysregulation of some miRNAs in subcutaneous inguinal white adipose tissue during weight change, expansion/reduction; in response to both a high-fat diet and switching to a normal diet feeding, and to evaluate them as potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets for early obesity managementMethodA hundred 6-week-old male Wister rats were randomly divided into a normal diet group (N.D), a high-fat diet group (H.F.D), and a switched to a normal diet group (H.F.D/N.D). At the beginning and at intervals 2 weeks, serum lipid, hormone levels, total body fat mass, and inguinal subcutaneous white adipose tissue mass (WAT) measurements were recorded using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). The expression levels of microRNAs were evaluated using real-time PCR.ResultsSignificant alterations were observed in serum glucose, lipid profile, and adipokine hormones during the early stages of obesity development. Alteration in rno-mir 30a-5p, rno-mir 133a-5p, and rno-mir 107-5p expression levels were observed at more than one time point. While rno-let-7a-5p, rno-mir 193a-5p, and rno-mir125a-5p were downregulated and rno-mir130a-5p was upregulated at all time points within 2 to 4 weeks in response to H.F.D feeding for 10 weeks. The impact of switching to normal diet has a reversed effect on lipid profile, adipokine hormone levels, and some miRNAs. The bioinformatics results have identified a novel and important pathway related to inflammatory signalling.ConclusionOur research demonstrated significant alterations in some adipocyte-expressed miRNAs after a short time of high caloric diet consumption. This provides further evidence of the significant role of nutrition as an epigenetic factor in regulation of lipid and glucose metabolism genes by modulating of related key miRNAs. Therefore, we suggest that miRNAs could be used as biomarkers for adiposity during diet-induced obesity. Perhaps limitation in calories intake is a way to manipulate obesity and associated metabolic disorders. Further studies are needed to fully elucidate the role of microRNAs in the development of obesity ]]> <![CDATA[Inequalities in health care utilization for common illnesses among under five children in Bangladesh]]> Reducing child mortality and morbidity is a public health concern globally. Like many other developing countries, Bangladesh is struggling to improve child health status as the use of medical treatment is still not at a satisfactory level. Hence, the objective of this study is to identify the contributing factors for inequalities in the use of medical treatment for common childhood illnesses in Bangladesh.MethodsThe study used data from the latest Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS)-2014. Children who had diarrhea, fever and cough in the 2 weeks preceding the survey were included in this study. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to unearth the influential factors for medical treatment use among under-five children with childhood illnesses. In the multivariate logistic regression, adjusted odds ratios with p values less than 0.05 were considered for determining significant predictors.ResultsThis study found that only 37% of children suffering from fever/cough sought medical treatment while this figure was approximately 36% for diarrhea. Age of children, household wealth status, father’s education level, region of residence, number of children in the household, access to electronic media were identified as factors contributing to inequality in health care utilization for common childhood illnesses in Bangladesh.ConclusionsVarious socio-economic factors substantially influence the utilization of medical treatment for childhood illnesses. Therefore, to enhance equitable access to health care for children, interventions should be designed targeting children from households with low socio-economic status. Various awareness-raising health education programs, poverty alleviation programs especially for rural areas can contribute in this regard. ]]> <![CDATA[Quality of life and influencing factors of patients with rheumatoid arthritis in Northeast China]]> Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a disease with a high disability rate, resulting in severe family and social burden. The aim of treatment is to improve the health-related quality of life (QoL) of patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the QoL of patients with RA in Northeast China and analyze its influencing factors.MethodsThe study group consisted of 200 patients diagnosed with RA. The control group consisted of 200 healthy subjects. All subjects were residents in Northeast China. The investigation was conducted by questionnaire survey and electronic medical record. The WHOQOL-BREF, The Short-Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36) and Quality of Life Instruments for Chronic Diseases-RA (QLICD-RA) were used as questionnaires.ResultsThe QoL scores acquired by SF-36, WHOQOL-BREF and QLICD-RA scales showed significant differences between RA and control groups (P < 0.001). Multiple regression analysis showed that sleep duration (P = 0.001), psychological counseling (P < 0.001) and C4 level (P = 0.001) influenced the SF-36 scale evaluation model. IgA levels (P < 0.001) and being overweight (P = 0.030) were included in the WHOQOL-BREF evaluation model. Adequate sleep (P = 0.001) and psychological counseling(P = 0.050) entered the QLICD-RA scale evaluation model (P = 0.050), in which psychological counseling, normal C4 levels and being overweight were protective factors for RA, insufficient sleep and IgA levels were risk factors for RA.ConclusionsThe QoL of RA patients is generally lower than those of healthy subjects in the Northeast China, Northeast China. Sleep duration, BMI (Body mass index), psychological counseling, C4 and IgA levels are factors that influence the QoL scores of RA patients. ]]> <![CDATA[IgG4-related aortitis/periaortitis and periarteritis: a distinct spectrum of IgG4-related disease]]> Large vessels could be involved in immunoglobulin (Ig)-G4-related disease (IgG4-RD). This study aimed to clarify the clinical features and evaluate the treatment efficacy for IgG4-RD with aortitis/periaortitis and periarteritis (PAO/PA).MethodsThis study prospectively enrolled 587 patients with IgG4-RD with a follow-up time of more than 6 months. The distribution of IgG4-related PAO/PA was classified into four types: type 1, thoracic aorta; type 2a, abdominal aorta; type 2b, abdominal aorta and iliac artery; type 2c, iliac artery; type 3, thoracic and abdominal aorta; and type 4, other arteries. Patient’s demographic data, clinical characteristics, laboratory parameters, and treatment efficacy were analyzed.ResultsOf 587 IgG4-RD patients, 89 (15.2%) had PAO/PA. The average age was 58.3 ± 11.1 years, with male predominance (85.4%). Vessels affected were as follows: abdominal aorta (83.1%), iliac artery (70.8%), thoracic aorta (13.5%), and other vessels (13.5%). The most prevalent distribution type of IgG4-related PAO/PA was type 2b, with 74 (83.1%) patients, followed by type 2a, type 2c, type 3, and type 1. Fifty-five (61.8%) PAO/PA patients had hydronephrosis, with renal insufficiency occurring in 43 (48.3%), and 31 (34.8%) PAO/PA patients had D-J stent drainage due to severe ureteral obstruction. After treatment with a glucocorticoid and immunosuppressants, 82% patients achieved remission with shrinking of the perivascular mass by more than 30%.ConclusionsIgG4-RD with PAO/PA was distinct from non-PAO/PA in demographic features, organ involvement distribution, inflammatory markers, and serum IgG4 and IgE. The most common affected vessel was the abdominal aorta, and most patients responded well with treatment. ]]> <![CDATA[Novel enterocin E20c purified from <i>Enterococcus hirae</i> 20c synergised with ß-lactams and ciprofloxacin against <i>Salmonella enterica</i>]]> An increasing rate of antibiotic resistance among Gram-negative bacterial pathogens has created an urgent need to discover novel therapeutic agents to combat infectious diseases. Use of bacteriocins as therapeutic agents has immense potential due to their high potency and mode of action different from that of conventional antibiotics.ResultsIn this study, a novel bacteriocin E20c of molecular weight 6.5 kDa was purified and characterized from the probiotic strain of Enterococcus hirae. E20c had bactericidal activities against several multidrug resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacterial pathogens. Flow cytometry and scanning electron microscopy studies showed that it killed the Salmonella enterica cells by forming ion-permeable channels in the cell membrane leading to enhanced cell membrane permeability. Further, checkerboard titrations showed that E20c had synergistic interaction with antibiotics such as ampicillin, penicillin, ceftriaxone, and ciprofloxacin against a ciprofloxacin- and penicillin-resistant strain of S. enterica.ConclusionThus, this study shows the broad spectrum antimicrobial activity of novel enterocin E20c against various MDR pathogens. Further, it highlights the importance of bacteriocins in lowering the minimum inhibitory concentrations of conventional antibiotics when used in combination. ]]>